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1. Ishikawa M, Miyauchi T, Kashiwagi Y: Clinical implications of thymidylate synthetase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activity levels in colorectal carcinoma following radical resection and administration of adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:188
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical implications of thymidylate synthetase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase activity levels in colorectal carcinoma following radical resection and administration of adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: A number of studies have investigated whether the activity levels of enzymes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism are prognostic factors for survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma.
  • Most reports have examined thymidylate synthetase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) in unresectable or metastatic cases, therefore it is unclear whether the activity of these enzymes is of prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients treated with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU.
  • METHODS: This study examined fresh frozen specimens of colorectal carcinoma from 40 patients who had undergone curative operation and were orally administered adjuvant tegafur/uracil (UFT) chemotherapy.
  • TS, DPD and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) activities were assayed in cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue and their association with clinicopathological variables was investigated.
  • CONCLUSION: TS and OPRT activity levels in tumor tissue may be important prognostic factors for survival in Dukes' B and C colorectal carcinoma with radical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / enzymology. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) / metabolism. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / enzymology. Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase / metabolism. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Therapy. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18597678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.10 / Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2491633
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2. Petersen VC, Baxter KJ, Love SB, Shepherd NA: Identification of objective pathological prognostic determinants and models of prognosis in Dukes' B colon cancer. Gut; 2002 Jul;51(1):65-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of objective pathological prognostic determinants and models of prognosis in Dukes' B colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a need for objective easily determined pathological prognostic parameters in Dukes' B colon carcinoma to allow selection of such patients for further treatment as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for these patients remains unclear.
  • This study was initiated to assess the influence of pathological factors on prognosis in an unselected prospective series of Dukes' B colonic cancer.
  • METHODS: The Gloucester Colorectal Cancer study, established in 1988, recruited more than 1000 cases.
  • Meticulous pathological assessment of the 268 Dukes' B colonic cancer resections in this series included evaluation of all pathological factors that could influence staging and prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative prognostic index allows apportionment of patients with Dukes' B colon cancer into defined prognostic groups, which in turn could allow more objective selection of patients for adjuvant therapy, especially as part of clinical trials.

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  • [CommentIn] Gut. 2002 Jul;51(1):6-7 [12077080.001]
  • (PMID = 12077094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1773289
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3. Rupa JD, de Bruïne AP, Gerbers AJ, Leers MP, Nap M, Kessels AG, Schutte B, Arends JW: Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and proliferation in colorectal carcinoma by multiparameter flow cytometry allows separation of high and low-turnover tumors with distinct clinical outcome. Cancer; 2003 May 15;97(10):2404-11
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  • [Title] Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and proliferation in colorectal carcinoma by multiparameter flow cytometry allows separation of high and low-turnover tumors with distinct clinical outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Dukes C colorectal carcinoma is treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Adjuvant treatment is not standard for patients with Dukes B tumors, even though about 20% of patients within this tumor stage die of recurrent disease.
  • The authors investigated whether a novel method of simultaneous detection of apoptosis and proliferation would improve the assessment of prognosis in colorectal carcinoma patients, with the ultimate goal of accurately identifying patients eligible for adjuvant therapy.
  • METHODS: A multiparameter flow cytometric assay with heat pretreatment was performed on 278 paraffin-embedded colorectal adenocarcinomas.
  • The AF and SPF values were correlated positively (P = 0.01) and both increased with advancing tumor stage (P = 0.02).
  • Moreover, within Dukes B and C stages, patients with high-turnover tumors had a poorer survival than patients with low-turnover tumors (P < 0.001 for both stages).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous detection of apoptosis and proliferation in archival material allows separation of high and low-turnover colorectal adenocarcinomas and improves the assessment of prognosis.
  • This technique could be used to stratify patients for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Cell Division. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Netherlands. Paraffin Embedding. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11366
  • (PMID = 12733138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Staib L, Birebent B, Somasundaram R, Purev E, Braumüller H, Leeser C, Küttner N, Li W, Zhu D, Diao J, Wunner W, Speicher D, Beger HG, Song H, Herlyn D: Immunogenicity of recombinant GA733-2E antigen (CO17-1A, EGP, KS1-4, KSA, Ep-CAM) in gastro-intestinal carcinoma patients. Int J Cancer; 2001 Apr 1;92(1):79-87
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  • [Title] Immunogenicity of recombinant GA733-2E antigen (CO17-1A, EGP, KS1-4, KSA, Ep-CAM) in gastro-intestinal carcinoma patients.
  • Targeting the GA733 antigen (also known as CO17-1A, EGP, KS1-4, KSA, Ep-CAM) by monoclonal antibody CO17-1A or anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking the CO17-1A or GA733 epitope has induced prolonged survival and specific immune responses to the antigen, respectively, in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the immunogenicity and potential toxicity of alum-precipitated GA733-2E in a phase I trial in patients with resected CRC or pancreatic cancer.
  • Six patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma and 6 with CRC Dukes' stage A, B or C received between 4 and 7 doses of alum-precipitated GA733-2E at 50, 200 or 800 microg/dose at monthly intervals.
  • Antibody binding to GA733-2E or antigen-positive CRC cells was determined, as were antigen-specific proliferative, cytolytic T-lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses.
  • Six of the 12 patients developed antigen-specific humoral immune responses after immunotherapy, and 8 developed cellular immune responses.
  • Median overall survival of the CRC and pancreatic cancer patients was 39.8 and 11.2 months, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / immunology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / immunology. Immunotherapy. Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibody Formation. Colorectal Neoplasms / immunology. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Cytokines / analysis. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity, Delayed. Immunity, Cellular. Lymphocyte Activation. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Recombinant Proteins / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11279610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA10815; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA43735; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA53411; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA74294
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic; 0 / tumor-associated antigen GA733
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5. Molnar B, Ladanyi A, Tanko L, Sréter L, Tulassay Z: Circulating tumor cell clusters in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Dec;7(12):4080-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Circulating tumor cell clusters in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: Recently several reverse transcription-PCR techniques have been proven to be useful for the detection of circulating micrometastases.
  • In this study, evaluation and modification of a commercial, cytokeratin-based, immunomagnetic cell separation method was performed for the detection of intact cell clusters in colorectal carcinoma patients.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-two colon cancer patients (6 were in Dukes stage B, 13 in stage C, and 13 in stage D) and 20 healthy donor samples were evaluated.
  • Immunomagnetic cell separation was performed from the buffy coat of peripheral blood samples (20 ml) using the Carcinoma Cell Enrichment Kit (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany), avoiding any filtering steps.
  • Follow-up data indicate that chemotherapy cannot destroy all of the circulating tumor cell clusters.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using the methods presented, we could detect circulating colon cancer cells and cell clusters in colon carcinoma patients.
  • Present data prove that such structures are present in human colorectal cancer, too.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Jun;8(6):2015; author reply 2016-7 [12060648.001]
  • (PMID = 11751505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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6. Gruber R, van Haarlem LJ, Warnaar SO, Holz E, Riethmüller G: The human antimouse immunoglobulin response and the anti-idiotypic network have no influence on clinical outcome in patients with minimal residual colorectal cancer treated with monoclonal antibody CO17-1A. Cancer Res; 2000 Apr 1;60(7):1921-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The human antimouse immunoglobulin response and the anti-idiotypic network have no influence on clinical outcome in patients with minimal residual colorectal cancer treated with monoclonal antibody CO17-1A.
  • Murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), when administered to patients, induce a human antimouse immunoglobulin immune response, especially when multiple infusions are required to obtain therapeutic efficacy.
  • In a randomized Phase II clinical study, 83 patients with colorectal carcinoma of stage Dukes C were treated with the murine IgG2a mAb 17-1A (ab1) after curative surgery.
  • The regimen consisted of a single infusion of 500mg of 17-1A within 2 weeks after surgery, followed by 100mg of mAbs four times every 4 weeks.
  • An analysis that differentiated between patients who developed recurrences and those who remained tumor-free did not show any difference in antibody titers between the two groups, neither for total HAMA nor for IgG, IgM, or ab2.
  • HAMA remained detectable up to 2 years after the last treatment.
  • In patients who experienced adverse events associated with therapy, HAMA titers tended to rise earlier; this difference, however, was not statistically significant.
  • Thus, neither a beneficial nor a detrimental effect of HAMA formation could be determined for the clinical response to antibody therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic / blood. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibody Formation. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anaphylaxis. Animals. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Immunoglobulin M / blood. Mice. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10766181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / carcinoma-associated antigen 17-1A
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7. Machado NO, Chopra PJ, Al Hamdani A: Pancreatic metastasis from colon carcinoma nine years after a hemicolectomy managed by distal pancreatectomy. A review of the literature regarding the role and outcome of pancreatic resection for colorectal metastasis. JOP; 2010;11(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis from colon carcinoma nine years after a hemicolectomy managed by distal pancreatectomy. A review of the literature regarding the role and outcome of pancreatic resection for colorectal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: Pancreatic metastasis from colorectal malignancy is rare and accounts for less than 2% of all pancreatic metastases.
  • A case of colonic metastasis to the pancreas is reported and the literature is reviewed to assess the role and outcome of pancreatic resection for metastatic tumors from colorectal malignancy.
  • CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old female underwent an emergency left hemicolectomy for an obstructing descending colon growth.
  • The lesion was reported to be adenocarcinoma, Dukes C, with involvement of the serosa and 3 lymph nodes.
  • A postoperative staging CT scan showed no other metastases and she received 6 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy (folinic acid, 5-flurouracil and oxaliplatin).
  • She underwent a distal pancreatectomy, and histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed a metastatic tumor from colon cancer.
  • She then received 5 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Pancreatic metastasis from colorectal malignancy is rare.
  • The time-interval between the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and the detection of pancreatic metastasis varies widely but is approximately 24 months.
  • The median survival time for post-pancreatic resection is 16 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] JOP. 2010;11(6):644-5; author reply 650 [21068505.001]
  • (PMID = 20601814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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8. Uetake H, Higuchi T, Enomoto M, Sugihara K: [Chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Nov;30(12):1889-94
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma].
  • 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus leucovorin (LV) therapy is the most widely used regimen with a high evidence as the first-line treatment for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as CPT-11 as the second-line.
  • Intrahepatic arterial infusion (IHA) therapy shows high response rate in the treatment of liver metastasis.
  • Prospective studies showed that 6 months' administration of 5-FU and LV after curative resection of Dukes' C CRC contributes to a patients' better survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Prospective Studies. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14650955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / UFT(R) drug; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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9. Berglund A, Edler D, Molin D, Nordlinder H, Graf W, Glimelius B: Thymidylate synthase and p53 expression in primary tumor do not predict chemotherapy outcome in metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2002 Nov-Dec;22(6B):3653-9
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  • [Title] Thymidylate synthase and p53 expression in primary tumor do not predict chemotherapy outcome in metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Thymidylate synthase (TS) and p53 expression have been reported to predict the results of palliative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal carcinoma (ACRC), but the knowledge is still limited and partly conflicting.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two patients with ACRC were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based therapy at the University Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, in four different randomised phase III studies between 1989 and 1997.
  • None of the markers predicted the outcome of the later palliative treatment, either in terms of an objective response or survival.
  • However, for the subgroup who initially had curative resection (Dukes' A-C), TS expression had prognostic information and significantly predicted time to recurrence (median for low TS tumours 30 months and for high TS tumours 11 months, p = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical investigation of TS and p53 of the primary tumour is not useful to predict the outcome of palliative chemotherapy in ACRC.
  • Instead, TS can be regarded as a marker for prediction of time to recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Thymidylate Synthase / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12552972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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10. Elsaleh H, Joseph D, Grieu F, Zeps N, Spry N, Iacopetta B: Association of tumour site and sex with survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Lancet; 2000 May 20;355(9217):1745-50
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  • [Title] Association of tumour site and sex with survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy can improve 5-year survival in Dukes' C colorectal carcinoma.
  • Improved selection of patients who will respond to adjuvant treatments is required.
  • We investigated whether site of tumour origin, sex, and presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype were associated with a survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We analysed data for 656 consecutive patients with Dukes' C colorectal carcinoma, with median follow-up of 54 months (range 7-104) and mean age 66.7 years (SD 12.9).
  • Details of chemotherapy and survival were obtained by review of hospital and health-department records.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil and levamisole) was given with curative intent to 272 (42%) patients.
  • FINDINGS: Striking survival benefits were seen for patients who had right-sided tumours and who received adjuvant chemotherapy compared with those who did not (48 vs 27% alive at end of study [95% CI 0.25-0.56], p<0.0001), for women (53 vs 33% [0.25-0.56], p<0.0001), and for patients with MSI tumours (90 vs 35% [0.01-0.53], p=0.0007).
  • Men with right-sided tumours benefited from chemotherapy (37 vs 12% [0.24-0.69], p=0.0007) but men with left-sided tumours did not.
  • INTERPRETATION: The survival benefits seen in patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy suggest that data from previous trials of adjuvant chemotherapy should be reassessed and the predictive value of MSI status confirmed.
  • Validation of our results will allow better selection of patients for chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Sex Factors. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2000 Sep 2;356(9232):857; author reply 858 [11022958.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2000 Sep 2;356(9232):857; author reply 858 [11022957.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2000 Sep 2;356(9232):858 [11022959.001]
  • (PMID = 10832824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
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11. Sakamoto J, Kodaira S, Hamada C, Ito K, Maehara Y, Takagi H, Sugimachi K, Nakazato H, Ohashi Y, Meta-Analysis Group of the Japanese Society of Strategies for Cancer Research and Therapy: An individual patient data meta-analysis of long supported adjuvant chemotherapy with oral carmofur in patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep; 2001 May-Jun;8(3):697-703
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An individual patient data meta-analysis of long supported adjuvant chemotherapy with oral carmofur in patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer.
  • To reappraise the benefits of the long supported chemotherapy with carmofur, a meta-analysis based on individual patient data from the three clinical trials was performed by pooling 614 patients from three trials, there is a statistically significant survival benefit (2p=0.032) and disease-free survival (DFS) benefit (2p=0.021) for carmofur; and a highly significant advantage for carmofur in DFS (2p=0.0004) and in survival (2p=0.004) in Dukes' C patients.
  • This IPD meta-analysis strongly suggested an effect of oral carmofur in a long supported chemotherapy for curatively resected colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11295105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; HA82M3RAB2 / 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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12. Brivio F, Fumagalli L, Chiarelli M, Denova M, Bertolini A, Cetta M, Nespoli A: [Immunotherapy in radical surgery of colorectal carcinoma]. Chir Ital; 2007 Sep-Oct;59(5):635-40
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  • [Title] [Immunotherapy in radical surgery of colorectal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Immuno-modulazione nella chirurgia radicale del carcinoma del colon-retto.
  • Cancer-associated immunodeficiency is seriously worsened by surgical trauma.
  • Growth factors play an important role in oncological practice in treating neutropenia (G-CSF) or associated anaemia during chemotherapy (erythropoietin).
  • The aim of this study was to report on our experience with IL-2 preoperative immunoactivation in colorectal cancer and the long-term outcome of patients treated in comparison with a control group operated on without immunotherapy.
  • In order to obtain activated lymphocytosis at the time of operation administration of IL-2 (6 million I.U. twice daily subcutaneously) for 3 preoperative days is sufficient, starting 4 days before surgery.
  • The inclusion/exclusion criteria were histologically documented colorectal cancer, elective surgery, laparotomic surgery, no second tumour, age 20-80 years, no cardiovascular, hepatic or renal failure.
  • From June 1992 to December 2005, 67 patients were treated (Dukes B/C: 46/21) with IL-2 immunotherapy.
  • The clinical and biological results were compared with those of a control group of 173 patients (Dukes B/C 114/59) operated on in the same period and recruited with the same criteria.
  • Dukes stage-C patients in both groups underwent adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for rectal cancer.
  • Data were statistically analysed using Fisher's exact test, Student's T-test and analysis of variance, as appropriate.
  • Important results were obtained in Dukes-B patients: progression rate 7/46 (15%) vs 37/114 (32,4%) in controls (p = 0.03).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / immunology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / drug therapy. Immunotherapy / methods. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / immunology. Neoplasm, Residual / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18019635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2
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13. Lechpammer M, Lukac J, Lechpammer S, Kovacević D, Loda M, Kusić Z: Humoral immune response to p53 correlates with clinical course in colorectal cancer patients during adjuvant chemotherapy. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2004 Mar;19(2):114-20
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  • [Title] Humoral immune response to p53 correlates with clinical course in colorectal cancer patients during adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Overexpression of p53 protein in malignancies induces an immune response in some cancer patients.
  • We investigated whether production of serum antibodies against p53 (p53-Ab) is associated with pathohistological parameters of colorectal carcinoma and whether p53-Ab can serve as a tumor marker during cancer treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum samples from 220 colorectal cancer patients during surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and 42 healthy controls were tested for the presence of p53-Ab by ELISA.
  • There was also a significant predominance of p53-Ab positive cases in Dukes' stages B and C over stage A.
  • Although surgery alone reduced p53-Ab levels, decreases in p53-Ab titer became significant midterm through chemotherapy compared to both pre- and postoperative values and remained decreased until the completion of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of p53-Ab in sera of patients with colorectal cancer indicates tumors in more advanced histopathologic stages (Dukes' B, C).
  • Due to low sensitivity (18%) p53-Ab are not recommendable as a preoperative marker for colorectal cancer.
  • However, due to high specificity (100%), their monitoring after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy has potential for early diagnosis of tumor relapse in p53-Ab positive cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Autoantibodies / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Colorectal Neoplasms / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibody Formation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 14634775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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14. Soong R, Powell B, Elsaleh H, Gnanasampanthan G, Smith DR, Goh HS, Joseph D, Iacopetta B: Prognostic significance of TP53 gene mutation in 995 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Influence of tumour site, stage, adjuvant chemotherapy and type of mutation. Eur J Cancer; 2000 Oct;36(16):2053-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of TP53 gene mutation in 995 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Influence of tumour site, stage, adjuvant chemotherapy and type of mutation.
  • Previous studies on the prognostic significance of TP53 gene alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) have led to conflicting results.
  • The present study investigated the prognostic significance of TP53 gene mutation in a very large series of 995 Dukes' B and C CRC patients, the majority of whom did not receive chemotherapy.
  • Mutations were found in 385 (39%) cases and were not associated with tumour stage, histological grade, patient age or sex.
  • Significantly more mutations were found in tumours from the left-sided colon compared with those from the right side (43% versus 34%, P=0.006).
  • TP53 gene mutation had no prognostic value in the overall series or in different site or stage subgroups.
  • None of the different types of TP53 gene mutation showed prognostic value.
  • A trend for association with worse survival was observed in the patient subgroup that received adjuvant chemotherapy (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-2.21, P=0.15).
  • These results indicate that mutation of the TP53 gene is not a useful prognostic marker for CRC patients who do not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Further study is required to determine whether different types of TP53 mutation might be of value in predicting the response of CRC patients to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11044641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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15. Yip D, Strickland AH, Karapetis CS, Hawkins CA, Harper PG: Immunomodulation therapy in colorectal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Jun;26(3):169-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunomodulation therapy in colorectal carcinoma.
  • There has been much progress in the understanding of the relationship between the immune system and colorectal cancer.
  • This has led to the use of immunomodulatory therapy in the adjuvant and palliative treatment of the condition.
  • Although attempts at the use of non-specific immunomodulation with agents such as levamisole, cimetidine, alpha interferon and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) have not produced significant clinical benefits when tested in randomized trials in both the adjuvant setting and for metastatic disease, promising results are being obtained with more specific therapy.
  • Edrecolomab [corrected], a murine monoclonal antibody targeting the 17-1A antigen on malignant colorectal cells has produced a reduction in relapse and mortality rates when used as adjuvant treatment following surgery for Dukes' C colon cancer.
  • Active specific therapy with autologous tumour vaccine administered with BCG has produced similar benefits in Dukes' B cancer.
  • Immune therapy offers the potential of low toxicity therapy in colorectal cancer and may have a role as an adjunct to conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Immunotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Treat Rev 2000 Aug;26(4):313
  • (PMID = 10814560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • [Number-of-references] 238
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16. Sasaki K, Takasaka H, Kiriyama K, Inafuku Y, Yabana T, Furuhata T, Hata F, Katsuramaki T, Hirata K: Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy for Dukes C colorectal cancer; weekly low-dose Irinotecan (CPT-11) plus oral 5-FU versus oral 5-FU only. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):3735

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy for Dukes C colorectal cancer; weekly low-dose Irinotecan (CPT-11) plus oral 5-FU versus oral 5-FU only.
  • : 3735 Background: We have already reported that the weekly low dose CPT-11 + oral 5-FU is effective in the treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with the minimal toxities (Sasaki, ASCO 2002).
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate a CPT-11 + oral 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy and an oral 5-FU.
  • METHODS: 86 patients (pts) with Dukes C CRC were enrolled last 2 years.
  • We randomly divided the curative operated Dukes C CRC pts following two treatment groups; low dose weekly CPT-11 plus oral 5-FU (Group A, n=39) and oral 5-FU (Group B, n=47).
  • All patients received these treatment on an out-patient clinic.
  • RESULTS: There were no grade 3/4 toxicities in both treatment groups.
  • But, the regimen of weekly low dose CPT-11 plus oral 5-FU in the adjuvant treatment of curative Dukes C CRC may show anti-cancer activity, and an acceptable toxicities on an out-patient treatment.

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  • (PMID = 28013723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Catalano V, Loupakis F, Bisonni R, Torresi U, Santini D, Silva RR, Giustini L, Falcone A, D'Emidio S, Rocchi M, Graziano F: Impact of mucinous histology on prognosis for patients with radically resected stage Dukes B2 and C colon cancer: Preliminary results. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4126

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of mucinous histology on prognosis for patients with radically resected stage Dukes B2 and C colon cancer: Preliminary results.
  • : 4126 Background: Previous reports have suggested that mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas have a poorer prognosis than nonmucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas.
  • This retrospective analysis was conducted to explore whether mucinous carcinoma (MC) is associated with a worse prognosis than nonmucinous carcinoma (NMC) for patients with Dukes B2 and C radically resected colon cancer.
  • METHODS: We investigated 1,006 unselected patients who underwent curative surgery for sporadic colon cancer and followed up at six Oncology Department between 1998 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: MC accounted for 17.9% (n=180) of all colon carcinomas.
  • MC: M/F 104/76; median age, 68 (range, 28-97); pT1/2/3/4, 1/4/153/22; Dukes B2/C 98/82; invasion 26 (14%); ≥12 examined lymph nodes, 115 (64%); adjuvant chemotherapy, 110 (61%).
  • NMC: M/F 445/381; median age, 68 (range, 29-95); pT1/2/3/4, 9/51/715/51; Dukes B2/C 384/442; invasion 199 (24%); ≥12 examined lymph nodes, 499 (60%); adjuvant chemotherapy, 545 (66%).
  • MC were more frequently located in the proximal colon (54.4% versus 34.6% for NMC; p<0.001).
  • After stratification by stage of disease, MC and NMC had no statistically significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival (Dukes B2: 79.1% and 78.1%, respectively, p=0.86; Dukes C: 53.8% and 56.2%, respectively, p=0.58) and overall survival (Dukes B2: 84.2% and 85.5%, respectively, p=0.80; Dukes C: 68.0% and 67.3% p=0.52).
  • Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that the clinically significant prognostic factors were stage at diagnosis (p<0.0001), grading (p<0.0001), and number of lymph node examined (p=0.0002) in the specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary analysis, patients with mucinous histology who underwent surgery with curative intent for stage Dukes B2 and C colon cancer had similar prognosis compared to NMC.

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  • (PMID = 27961242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kim R, Yamaguchi Y, Toge T: Adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2002 Jul-Aug;22(4):2413-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma.
  • Adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma has been developed over the last two decades.
  • We have reviewed the history of adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma in the United States, Europe and Japan with regard to the rationale of the chemotherapy regimen and the survival benefit for the establishment of a standard regimen.
  • Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy had an overall survival benefit, compared with surgery alone, in randomized controlled trials in the United States and Europe for Dukes' C colon carcinoma.
  • In contrast, the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for Dukes' B colon carcinoma and for rectal carcinoma has not yet been established.
  • In Japan, randomized controlled trials have examined combination treatment with mitomycin (MMC) and oral fluoropyrimidines for colorectal carcinoma compared with surgery alone.
  • A meta-analysis indicated that combination treatment with MMC and oral fluoropyrimidines had a survival benefit for colorectal carcinoma.
  • The survival benefit of combination treatment with irinotecan (CPT-11) + 5-FU + LV or uracil + tegaful (UFT) + LV (Orzel) for adjuvant chemotherapy are currently being compared with 5-FU + LV.
  • The survival benefit of preoperative radiotherapy was superior to postoperative radiotherapy for advanced rectal carcinoma in association with the prevention of local recurrence.
  • Clinical trial data suggest that the current standard regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy is a combination of 5-FU and LV for Dukes' C colon carcinoma and that radiotherapy for local control of rectal carcinoma has a survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12174936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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19. Cazacu M, Oniu T, Lungoci C, Mihailov A, Cipak A, Klinger R, Weiss T, Zarkovic N: The influence of isorel on the advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2003 Feb;18(1):27-34
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  • [Title] The influence of isorel on the advanced colorectal cancer.
  • There is still no therapy method in the colorectal cancers that is good enough for such a complex disease.
  • Combined surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy improved survival, but the side effects and the poor performance status of the patients seriously affect the use of these methods.
  • We used a therapeutical approach of surgery and chemotherapy combined with biotherapy by Viscum album extract Isorel, aiming to improve the patients' resistance to the disease and to render the treatment's side effects more tolerable.
  • Isorel is aqueous extract well known for its anticancer effects obtained by various in vitro and in vivo experimental models and which was validated by an in vitro bioassay on murine melanoma B16F10 and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.
  • Isorel strongly reduced human colon cancer HT 29 cell line growth in vitro in the MTT bioassay.
  • Hence, it was further used in a prospective, randomized, and controlled study which compared the postoperative results for patients with colorectal cancer stages Dukes C (40 patients) and D (24 patients) who, beside surgery, received either only chemotherapy (5-FU), 6 cycles (either the Mayo or the De Gramont protocol) or chemotherapy combined with Isorel biotherapy.
  • These 64 patients were randomly allocated into three groups "only chemotherapy" for 21 cases, chemo + biotherapy for 29 cases and 14 patients underwent only surgery as the control group.
  • The patients operated on and treated with chemo and biotherapy had median survival significantly better and a cumulative proportion survival (Kaplan-Maier) superior to those of the patients receiving only postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Thus, colorectal cancer patients seem to benefit in terms of survival from combined postoperative chemotherapy and Isorel biotherapy, either adjuvant or palliative.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12667306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-9785
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isorel M; 0 / Plant Extracts
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20. Grothey A, Kellermann L, Schmoll HJ: [Deficits in management of patients with colorectal carcinoma in Germany. Results of multicenter documentation of therapy algorithms]. Med Klin (Munich); 2002 May 15;97(5):270-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Deficits in management of patients with colorectal carcinoma in Germany. Results of multicenter documentation of therapy algorithms].
  • [Transliterated title] Defizite in der Behandlung von Patienten mit kolorektalem Karzinom in Deutschland. Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Dokumentation von Therapiealgorithmen.
  • BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with UICC III (Dukes C) colorectal cancer (consensus statements NIH 1990, German Cancer Society 1994) and palliative chemotherapy for metastatic disease have long been recognized to provide a survival benefit in colorectal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we asked 74 institutions treating colorectal cancer patients in Germany to document the treatment algorithms of all patients with colorectal cancer seen in the third quarter of 1998.
  • Clinical careers of 1,001 patients (m/f 465/536; median age 62.9 years [28-93]; colon 596, rectum 405; UICC I 117, II 206, III 407, IV 218) were documented.
  • RESULTS: Only 63.4% of patients with UICC III colorectal cancer received adjuvant therapy with a significant difference between hospitals with (67.1%) and without (42.6%) oncological departments (p < 0.01).
  • Higher age appeared to be the most important factor for withholding treatment since 196 of 286 (68.5%) patients < 70 years, but only 57 of 121 (47.1%) > 70 years underwent adjuvant therapy.
  • 78.4% of patients with UICC IV colorectal cancer (91.8% university hospitals, 76.8% hospital with, 50% without oncological departments, 66.7% rehabilitation clinics, 82.4% private practices) received palliative chemotherapy (first line: 5-FU/FA bolus 57%, 5-FU/FA infusion 20%, 5-FU mono 15%).
  • CONCLUSION: Considering an annual incidence of colorectal cancer in Germany of 52,000 with 30% UICC III, discounting patients > 80 years or ECOG status > 2, and estimating a survival benefit of 10% after adjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 530 lifes are lost annually in Germany due to insufficient treatment of UICC III colorectal cancer based on our survey.
  • In addition, substantial financial demand is generated by the subsequent palliative treatment of potentially curable patients.
  • --In conclusion, survey-based analysis of treatment algorithms can provide valuable insights into clinical practice in oncology and can disclose deficits in patient care as demonstrated here in colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Critical Pathways. Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Germany. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 12078387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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21. Yu ZG, Sun JZ, Zhang Q, Jia HY, Wang JX: [Relationship between expression of thymidylate synthase and colorectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2004 Sep 2;84(17):1432-5
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  • [Title] [Relationship between expression of thymidylate synthase and colorectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) gene and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma and between the TS expression and the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) on advanced colorectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: 134 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of colorectal carcinoma obtained during operation from 134 patients, 65 males and 69 females, aged 34 approximately 76 with an average age of 51 +/- 11, 16 with differentiated carcinoma and 118 with undifferentiated carcinoma, 4 with infiltration into mucous layer, 21 into submucous layer, 100 into muscular layer, and 5 into serous layer, 25 without lymphatic metastasis and 109 with lymphatic metastasis, 4 in stage IB, 15 in stage II, 90 in stage IIIA, and 27 in stage IIIB by Dukes staging, underwent immunohistochemistry (ABC methods) to determine the expression of TS.
  • After operation all patients received chemotherapy with leucovorin and 5-Fu for 4 approximately 6 periods and were followed up for 9 approximately 72 months.
  • The grade of TS expression was significantly correlated with four clinicopathologic variables: histological type, depth of invasion, lymphatic metastasis, and Dukes' stage (all P < 0.001).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that three variables (histological type, depth of infiltration, and TS grade) independently contributed to the survival rate (all P < 0.05), especially the TS grade (all P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of TS is one of the important prognosis indicators of colorectal carcinoma.
  • It is also a relatively reliable indicator of whether 5-Fu should be used in the treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / enzymology. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / enzymology. Thymidylate Synthase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15500737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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22. Lin JT, Wang WS, Yen CC, Liu JH, Yang MH, Chao TC, Chen PM, Chiou TJ: Outcome of colorectal carcinoma in patients under 40 years of age. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Jun;20(6):900-5
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  • [Title] Outcome of colorectal carcinoma in patients under 40 years of age.
  • AIMS: Colorectal carcinoma in patients under 40 years of age usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Controversies still exist regarding the features and the prognosis of colorectal cancer in young patients.
  • METHODS: The records of 45 patients with histologically confirmed colorectal carcinoma treated between 1992 and 2002 at the Division of Oncology at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were reviewed.
  • The relevance of sex, duration of symptoms, tumor site, histological type, lymph node involvement, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at the diagnosis and tumor stage to overall survival (OS) were determined by univariate analysis, and their independent significance were tested by multivariate analysis.
  • RESULTS: Most patients presented with an advanced tumor stage (24% Dukes' C and 66% Dukes' D).
  • Colon carcinoma constituted 76% of the colorectal tumors.
  • Two patients were found to have colon carcinoma during pregnancy.
  • The 5-year survival rate in patients with Stage B, C, and D were 25, 16 and 0%, respectively.
  • With aggressive treatment, patients with early stage carcinoma achieved longer survival.
  • Eleven patients received resection of metastatic carcinoma of the liver, lung and ovary.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy seemed to improve the OS in such patients, though the OS was still poorer than in patients with early stage tumors.
  • In univariate analysis, KPS (P = 0.0001), lymph node involvement (P = 0.0024), CEA (P = 0.0423) and LDH levels (P = 0.0126) at the diagnosis and tumor stage (P = 0.0122) proved to be significant predictors of overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that performance status and preoperative LDH levels were the major determinants for survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma under 40 years of age and the present series also suggests that surgical resection of metastatic colorectal carcinoma followed by adjuvant chemotherapy might be beneficial in certain patients.
  • The data also suggests that current treatment modalities for young patients with advanced colorectal cancer might not be effective and more effective therapeutic regimens might be needed.
  • Thus, it is important for surgeons to recognize the potential for colorectal cancer in young patients and to take an aggressive approach to the diagnosis and early treatment of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15946138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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23. Vastyan AM, Walker J, Pintér AB, Gerrard M, Kajtar P: Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents--a report of seven cases. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Oct;11(5):338-41
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  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents--a report of seven cases.
  • Between 1981 and 1997 seven children and adolescents (5 boys and 2 girls) were treated for colorectal carcinomas in two paediatric centres.
  • The case notes of the patients were studied to determine the presentation, clinical findings, prognosis and the differences of colorectal carcinomas in the young patients compared to adults.
  • Carcinoma of the colon and rectum is uncommon in this age group and has a poor prognosis.
  • Five patients had Dukes' stage C and two had Dukes' stage D tumour.
  • Post-operative chemotherapy was given to six patients and two had post-operative radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Colorectal Neoplasms / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Aug;13(4):287 [13680503.001]
  • (PMID = 11719875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Ikeguchi M, Makino M, Kaibara N: Thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in colorectal carcinoma and patients prognosis. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2002 Oct;387(5-6):240-5
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  • [Title] Thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in colorectal carcinoma and patients prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used for colorectal carcinoma.
  • However, the therapeutic effect of 5-FU differs among patients.
  • This difference may be based on the difference in sensitivity of carcinoma cells to 5-FU.
  • The activities of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) are reported to be correlated with cancer cell sensitivity against 5-FU in vitro.
  • We evaluated whether TP and DPD are useful markers of tumor sensitivity for 5-FU in colorectal carcinomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the TP and DPD in 189 patients with colorectal carcinoma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in relation to patients prognosis.
  • RESULTS: The tumors' mean TP activity was significantly higher than that of noncancerous tissues (100 vs. 47 U/mg protein), but the tumors' mean DPD activity was significantly lower than that of noncancerous tissues (58 vs. 84 U/mg protein).
  • Tumor TP, DPD, and TP/DPD values were not correlated with tumor location or histological types of tumors.
  • Even tumor TP and TP/DPD values in Dukes' stage A tumors were lower than those of other stages; DPD values were not correlated with tumor stages.
  • In 100 patients who underwent intravenous adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy, prognosis was not correlated with tumor-TP, DPD, or TP/DPD values.
  • Moreover, in 20 patients with synchronous liver metastasis who underwent postoperative 5-FU therapy through the hepatic artery, the survival times of patients was not correlated with tumor-TP, DPD, or TP/DPD values.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that it is questionable to decide the indication of 5-FU chemotherapy according to tumor TP or DPD status in patients with colorectal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 12410361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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25. Wong NA, Morris RG, McCondochie A, Bader S, Jodrell DI, Harrison DJ: Cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal carcinoma in vivo is dependent on beta-catenin protein dysregulation, but not k-ras mutation. J Pathol; 2002 May;197(1):128-35
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  • [Title] Cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal carcinoma in vivo is dependent on beta-catenin protein dysregulation, but not k-ras mutation.
  • Cyclin D1 protein overexpression is commonly found in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and is associated with a poorer prognosis, but the mechanism underlying overexpression remains uncertain.
  • The study also addressed whether cyclin Dl overexpression might associate with poorer prognosis because of a relationship with poorer response to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) chemotherapy.
  • Cyclin D1 overexpression was demonstrated in 34/53 (64%) CRCs, was significantly associated with higher Dukes' stage, and was particularly prominent at the invasive edges of carcinomas.
  • In conclusion, beta-catenin protein dysregulation, but not k-ras mutation, appears to be required for cyclin D1 overexpression in colorectal carcinoma in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Genes, ras. Mutation. Trans-Activators
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cell Division. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 12081197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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26. Adlard JW, Richman SD, Seymour MT, Quirke P: Prediction of the response of colorectal cancer to systemic therapy. Lancet Oncol; 2002 Feb;3(2):75-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prediction of the response of colorectal cancer to systemic therapy.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil and folinic acid improves overall survival for resected carcinoma of the colon of Dukes' stage C by 10-12%.
  • New treatments with novel molecular targets will soon be entering clinical use.
  • Despite these improvements, many patients undergo chemotherapy for resistant cancer, thus incurring side-effects without benefit.
  • Expression of particular genes can be tested at the protein or RNA level and can be correlated with response or resistance to particular systemic therapies.
  • Thus, predictive-factor testing of tumour biopsy samples may allow us to select chemotherapy or immunotherapy treatments with a high likelihood of benefit for the individual patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colectomy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11902527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 7673326042 / irinotecan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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27. Van Laethem JL: Adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2001 Jul-Sep;64(3):263-7
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  • [Title] Adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer.
  • Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer in Western countries.
  • Recent trials led to the general acceptance of adjuvant chemotherapy in Dukes C cancer by identifying bolus 5FU and leucovin during 6 months (5 days monthly) as the current standard.
  • The role of adjuvant chemotherapy remains questionable in Dukes B2 (stage II) colon cancer, in rectal cancer and after curative resection of liver metastases.
  • The development of total mesorectum excision (TME) technique has dramatically resulted in improving local recurrence control and will be the standard in rectal cancer surgery; preoperative irradiation is widely used in Europe for stage II and III rectal cancer but its definite place and its optimal regimen await further assessment as well as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer.
  • New chemotherapeutic combinations based on new effective agents in colorectal cancer such as CPT-11 and oxaliplatine have been currently used for downstaging liver metastases initially unresectable.
  • This new approach, combined with the development of local ablative therapies such as cryotherapy and radiofrequency allows curative strategies in a significant number of patients primarily unfit for surgical resection of liver mets.
  • The present paper aims to review the different aspect of (neo)adjuvant therapies in the multimodal curative management of colorectal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 11680045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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28. Molleví DG, Serrano T, Ginestà MM, Valls J, Torras J, Navarro M, Ramos E, Germà JR, Jaurrieta E, Moreno V, Figueras J, Capellà G, Villanueva A: Mutations in TP53 are a prognostic factor in colorectal hepatic metastases undergoing surgical resection. Carcinogenesis; 2007 Jun;28(6):1241-6
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  • [Title] Mutations in TP53 are a prognostic factor in colorectal hepatic metastases undergoing surgical resection.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic value of TP53 mutations in a consecutive series of patients with hepatic metastases (HMs) from colorectal cancer undergoing surgical resection.
  • Ninety-one patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma were included.
  • Multivariate Cox models were adjusted for gender, number of metastasis, resection margin, presence of TP53 mutations and chemotherapy treatment.
  • TP53 status associated with multiple (> or =3) metastases (65.6%, P = 0.033), advanced primary tumor Dukes' stage (P = 0.011) and younger age (<57 years old, P = 0.03).
  • Mutation associated with a worse outcome in chemotherapy-treated patients (HR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.12-5.75, P = 0.026).
  • TP53 mutational status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal cancer HMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mutation. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17259658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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29. Forslund A, Engarås B, Lönnroth C, Lundholm K: Prediction of postoperative survival by preoperative serum concentrations of anti-p53 compared to CEA, CA 50, CA 242 and conventional blood tests in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Oncol; 2002 May;20(5):1013-8
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  • [Title] Prediction of postoperative survival by preoperative serum concentrations of anti-p53 compared to CEA, CA 50, CA 242 and conventional blood tests in patients with colorectal carcinoma.
  • Blood samples were obtained preoperatively from 151 consecutive patients who were operated for colorectal carcinoma; of these 132 patients underwent curatively aimed operations.
  • Tumors were staged according to Dukes and tumor differentiation was classified as high, intermediate or low.
  • Serum anti-p53 was determined in all patients and compared to CEA, CA 50 and CA 242 in serum as well as to blood hemoglobin concentration (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum alkaline phosphatases (ALP), in the same preoperative blood samples for comparison of power to predict mortality in colorectal cancer.
  • Tumor differentiation and Dukes classification predicted survival and the risk to die of colorectal carcinoma as expected.
  • CA 242 and anti-p53 titers in serum were not significantly different among groups of patients with Dukes A-D tumors, while Hb, ESR, ALP, CEA and CA 50 were significantly different with increasing levels appearing in Dukes C-D, except for Hb which decreased.
  • Survivors among Dukes A-C patients had normal Hb, ESR, ALP and CA 242 before operation, while non-survivors had increased ESR, CEA and CA 50.
  • Levels of anti-p53 were unrelated to concentrations of all other blood and serum variables, and did not predict survival in Dukes A-D patients.
  • This altered distribution was independent of Dukes A-C tumor stage for CEA (p<0.05) but not for CA 50.
  • Based on these results, we conclude that patients with CEA levels above 15 ng/ml should be regarded as high risk patients even when their tumors are classified as Dukes B.
  • These patients may benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / blood

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  • (PMID = 11956598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / CA 242 antigen; 0 / CA-50 antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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30. Liska V, Treska V, Holubec L Jr, Skalický T, Sutnar A, Topolcan O, Fínek J: [A partial relaps of a colorectal carcinoma metastatic process following liver surgery--a multifactorical study]. Rozhl Chir; 2006 Feb;85(2):86-9
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  • [Title] [A partial relaps of a colorectal carcinoma metastatic process following liver surgery--a multifactorical study].
  • In the period of November 1999 - June 2003 78 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) were operated at Department of Surgery, University Hospital in Pilsen.
  • In multifactorial analysis there were evaluated these clinical parametres: age of patient, sex, localisation of primary tumor, Dukes classification, grading, staging and histology of primary tumor, histologicaly free resection margin, chemotherapy or actinotherapy after colorectal operation, type of liver resection, complications after liver surgery, radicality of liver surgery, lateralisation of liver metastatic process, number of metastases, blood transfusions, repeated liver surgery, volume of metastases.
  • The medium survival time after liver surgery for all the patients was 30 months (range 1-57 months), for patients after radical surgery it was 32 months, and for patients after palliative surgery the medium disease free interval was 29 months (range 5-30 months).
  • The factors statistically significant for a disease free interval after liver surgery were bilaterality of metastatic process, the microscopically free resection line, radical surgical treatment versus RFA and unilaterality of metastatic process.
  • The authors proved followed factors as statistically significant for survival rate: grading of colorectal cancer and age of patients.
  • The prediction of early recurrence enables us to choose adequate surgical therapy or its extension by oncological therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16626018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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31. Ciaparrone M, Quirino M, Schinzari G, Zannoni G, Corsi DC, Vecchio FM, Cassano A, La Torre G, Barone C: Predictive role of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase expression in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil. Oncology; 2006;70(5):366-77
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  • [Title] Predictive role of thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase expression in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil.
  • OBJECTIVE: The combined assessment of thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) gene expressions in metastatic colorectal cancer has been reported to be able to predict the efficacy of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy.
  • In order to evaluate the prognostic role in the adjuvant setting, we investigated the TS, DPD and TP expression in primary tumors of colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
  • METHODS: TS, DPD and TP expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissues from 62 patients with Dukes' stage B and C colorectal cancers who underwent surgery and received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with 5-FU.
  • RESULTS: Dukes' stage C cancer and high TS expression were independent markers of poor prognosis for disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.0009 and p = 0.007, respectively) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.0005 and p = 0.011, respectively).
  • The analysis of Dukes' stage C cancer patients confirmed a significant benefit in terms of DFS and OS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively) when all 3 markers had low expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective investigation suggests that the combined assessment of TS and DPD may be useful to evaluate the prognosis of patients with Dukes' B and C colon carcinoma receiving 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The role of TP as a predictor for 5-FU-based therapy needs further investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / enzymology. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) / metabolism. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Thymidine Phosphorylase / metabolism. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17179731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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32. Klump B, Nehls O, Okech T, Hsieh CJ, Gaco V, Gittinger FS, Sarbia M, Borchard F, Greschniok A, Gruenagel HH, Porschen R, Gregor M: Molecular lesions in colorectal cancer: impact on prognosis? Original data and review of the literature. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2004 Jan;19(1):23-42
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  • [Title] Molecular lesions in colorectal cancer: impact on prognosis? Original data and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: In the Dukes' B and C stages of colorectal carcinoma there are considerable variations in the observed courses of the disease.
  • Since post-operative chemotherapy in patients with Dukes' C (node-positive) colon carcinoma has been demonstrated to be effective in improving overall-survival, a more exact prognosis assessment gains additional significance and therapeutic relevance.
  • Because of its frequency and the accessibility and recognizability of its developmental stages colorectal carcinoma is among the best investigated of all solid tumors.
  • However, it is to be expected that some of the molecular alterations presently discussed will gain importance before long in the clinical treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 12827409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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33. Wang WS, Lin JK, Chiou TJ, Liu JH, Fan FS, Yen CC, Lin TC, Jiang JK, Yang SH, Wang HS, Chen PM: Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;30(1):12-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is considered as a factor predictive of survival in colorectal cancer patients.
  • This study was carried out in an effort to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative CEA levels of patients with colorectal cancer in Taiwan.
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 1994, 218 patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancers were evaluated retrospectively at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei.
  • 5-Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy was administered if the patients had Dukes' C disease.
  • Reference to the Dukes' classification was according to the classical criteria described in 1932 for carcinoma of the rectum and adapted for use in colonic tumors.
  • By multivariate Cox analysis, lymph node metastases (p = 0.003), penetration of the bowel wall (p = 0.0001) and preoperative CEA levels (p = 0.0001) were found to be independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data from our study indicate that in addition to lymph node metastases and penetration of the bowel wall, the preoperative CEA levels are also an independent prognostic factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients after curative surgery.
  • This could serve as an appropriate modification to the initial Dukes' scheme in colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Rectal Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colon / pathology. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Rectum / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Survival Rate. Taiwan

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  • [CommentIn] Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2000 Nov;30(11):522-3 [11155925.001]
  • (PMID = 10770562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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34. Wang WS, Chen PM, Chiou TJ, Liu JH, Fan FS, Lin TC, Jiang JK, Yang SH, Yen CC, Wang HS, Lin JK: Factors predictive of survival in patients with node-positive colorectal cancer in Taiwan. Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 Nov-Dec;47(36):1590-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors predictive of survival in patients with node-positive colorectal cancer in Taiwan.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preoperative CEA levels, depth of tumor penetration, and the number of positive lymph nodes were reported as independent factors prognostic of survival in colorectal cancer patients.
  • This study was carried out in an effort to evaluate the prognostic significance of these three factors in patients with Dukes' C colorectal cancer in Taiwan.
  • METHODOLOGY: Between 1992 and 1994, a total of 112 patients with node-positive colorectal cancer were evaluated retrospectively at the Veteran General Hospital-Taipei.
  • All patients underwent potentially curative surgery and received 5-fluorouracil based adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Reference to the Dukes' classification was according to the classical criteria described in 1932 for carcinoma of the rectum and adapted for use in colonic tumors.
  • Using multivariate Cox analysis the number of positive lymph nodes, penetration of the bowel wall, and preoperative CEA levels were still found as independent prognostic factors in node-positive colorectal cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from our study indicates that preoperative CEA levels, depth of tumor penetration, and the number of positive lymph nodes were independent prognostic factors in Dukes' C colorectal cancer patients.
  • They could serve as appropriate modifications of the initial Dukes scheme in node-positive diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 11149009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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35. Odin E, Wettergren Y, Carlsson G, Danenberg PV, Termini A, Willén R, Gustavsson B: Expression and clinical significance of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2006 Jan;5(5):344-9
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  • [Title] Expression and clinical significance of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in patients with colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene expression levels and MTHFR polymorphism C677T on the outcome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The frequency of MTHFR polymorphism C677T was determined (n = 147), and gene expression levels of MTHFR, TS, and FPGS were quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 157).
  • Reduced folates in tissue were measured with a binding assay (n = 40).
  • Twenty-six patients with Dukes A to C tumors who had not been subjected to chemotherapy relapsed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16512993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; EC 1.5.1.20 / Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
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36. Liska V, Treska V, Holubec L, Kormunda S, Skalicky T, Sutnar A, Topolcan O: Recurrence of colorectal liver metastases after surgical treatment: multifactorial study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Sep;54(78):1741-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrence of colorectal liver metastases after surgical treatment: multifactorial study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The authors evaluated the significance of various factors regarding the recurrence of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after liver resection or radiofrequency ablation.
  • The factors examined in the multifactorial analysis were: age and sex, localization of the primary carcinoma, Dukes classification, grading, histology, microscopically free resection line, chemotherapy and radiotherapy after colorectal or liver surgery, different types of liver resection, radical versus palliative liver surgery, complication after liver surgery, laterality of metastatic process, number of metastases, blood transfusion, staging, repeated liver surgery.
  • RESULTS: The factors statistically significant for disease-free interval after liver surgery were: unilaterality of metastatic process, microscopically free resection line, radical versus palliative surgical treatment.
  • The survival rates after liver surgery and after the primary operation were dependent on grading, age, radical versus palliative resection, Dukes classification and staging.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These factors could play an important role as predictors of colorectal cancer recurrence in patients' follow-up period after liver surgery for CLM.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Catheter Ablation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18019708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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37. Koo JH, Jalaludin B, Wong SK, Kneebone A, Connor SJ, Leong RW: Improved survival in young women with colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jun;103(6):1488-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improved survival in young women with colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Studies have reported the effect of gender in the context of assessing predictors of survival from colorectal cancer (CRC); however, few have specifically addressed the impact of gender on the clinical and pathological outcomes of CRC.
  • METHODS: The South Western Sydney Colorectal Tumour Group registry, which encompasses a population in excess of 800,000, prospectively collects data on new patients with CRC.
  • Data from 1997 to 2004 were collected, including demography, site, grade, histopathology, stage, treatment, and survival.
  • Compared to men, women were older (median 69 yr, range 27-95 yr vs 67, range 22-92 yr, P= 0.001), had more emergency surgery for CRC-related complications (18.8%vs 15.1%, P= 0.03), had more proximal cancers (42.2%vs 31.5%, P < 0.001), had more poorly differentiated cancers (16.9%vs 12.9%, P= 0.01), and had fewer radiotherapy treatments for Dukes B and C rectal cancers (36.4%vs 48.1%, P= 0.02).
  • Young women (aged 50 yr and below) had significantly better overall survival compared to young men; in this group, female gender predicted improved overall survival independent of age, emergency surgery, site, grade, and stage (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.86, P= 0.01).
  • Similarly, young women had significantly better cancer-specific survival (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.85, P= 0.01).
  • However, older women (aged over 50 yr) had worse survival independent of age, emergency surgery, site, grade, and stage (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.68, P= 0.001).
  • There were no gender differences in screening, histopathology, stage, or utilization of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an opposing effect of gender on overall and cancer-specific survival at either side of the age of 50 yr.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Catchment Area (Health). Combined Modality Therapy. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. New South Wales. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18510616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Hosie KB, Kerr DJ, Gilbert JA, Downes M, Lakin G, Pemberton G, Timms K, Young A, Stanley A: A pilot study of adjuvant intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil using 4% icodextrin as a novel carrier solution. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2003 Apr;29(3):254-60
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  • 5FU adjuvant chemotherapy following resective surgery for colorectal cancer.
  • METHODS: Twenty eligible patients (Dukes' stage B and C with potentially curative resection) underwent perioperative Tenckhoff catheter placement.
  • Ten (6 male, 4 female, aged 46-85; mean 67.5 years) received 5FU chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Nine of the 10 patients became proficient in self-treatment with 5FU and two completed 6 courses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Home-based i.p. adjuvant chemotherapy is a feasible treatment option in patients with surgically resected colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dialysis Solutions / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Glucans / administration & dosage. Glucose / administration & dosage. Home Care Services. Humans. Infusions, Parenteral. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12657236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Dialysis Solutions; 0 / Glucans; 0 / icodextrin; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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39. Cui J, Wang JP, Huang YH, Xiang J: [Evaluation of risk factors associated with local recurrence after radical resection of rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;11(4):322-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Evaluation of risk factors associated with local recurrence after radical resection of rectal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors of local recurrence after radical resection of rectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Clinical and follow-up data of 535 patients with rectal carcinoma, received radical resection between August 1994 and July 2004 in our department, were reviewed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: All the 535 rectal carcinoma patients underwent radical resections.
  • The time from the first operation to the recurrence was 4-54 months with a median of 12 months.
  • The Log-rank test showed that the primary tumor site (P<0.01), differentiation(P<0.01), histological type(P=0.038), lymph node metastasis(P=0.023), Dukes staging(P=0.045), blood transfusion(P=0.001), and total mesorectum excision (TME)(P<0.001) were associated with the recurrence, but the operative style(P=0.908), invasive depth of primary tumor(P=0.735), massive pathological type(P=0.562), degree of surgeon(P=0.171) and post-operative chemotherapy (P=0.772) were not associated with the recurrence.
  • Cox multiple variate analysis revealed that blood transfusion, primary tumor site, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and TME principle were independent prognostic factors affecting local recurrence after radical resection of rectal cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blood transfusion, low position of tumor, poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis are the risk factors associated with local recurrence in rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18636351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. George ML, Tutton MG, Abulafi AM, Eccles SA, Swift RI: Plasma basic fibroblast growth factor levels in colorectal cancer: a clinically useful assay? Clin Exp Metastasis; 2002;19(8):735-8
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  • [Title] Plasma basic fibroblast growth factor levels in colorectal cancer: a clinically useful assay?
  • Angiogenic cytokines in the plasma and serum of cancer patients may serve as 'surrogate' markers of tumour neoangiogenesis.
  • Serum VEGF correlates with disease stage in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of bFGF in CRC is uncertain.
  • This study aimed to assess plasma bFGF levels in CRC patients before treatment, during chemoradiotherapy and at one-year follow-up.
  • There were no detectable differences between plasma bFGF levels in polyp, Dukes' A or B patients (4.55, 5.77, 4.25 pg/ml, respectively), but there was a significant increase in metastatic CRC patients [Dukes' C and D (7.42 and 6.6 pg/ml; P = 0.004 and 0.048, respectively)], relative to median control levels of 4.14 pg/ml.
  • At follow-up, there was a significant fall in plasma bFGF levels in disease-free patients (pre-op 6.09 and follow-up 3.45 pg/ml, P = 0.0004), but a non-significant rise in 18 patients with progressive disease (pre-treatment 5.90 and follow-up 9.99 pg/ml, P = 0.33).
  • Pre-treatment plasma bFGF in patients receiving chemo-radiotherapy was similar in those with responsive and non-responsive tumours.
  • There were no detectable changes in plasma bFGF through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence or patient groups with non-metastatic cancers.
  • The significant fall in bFGF in disease-free patients following therapy suggests that bFGF may be useful in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonic Polyps / blood. Colonic Polyps / drug therapy. Colonic Polyps / radiotherapy. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 12553380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0262-0898
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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41. Salas-Valverde S, Lizano A, Gamboa Y, Vega S, Barrantes M, Santamaría S, Zamora JB: Colon carcinoma in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and outcome-a review of 11 cases. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Dec;25(12):1073-6
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  • [Title] Colon carcinoma in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and outcome-a review of 11 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the colon and rectum is rare in the pediatric age group, and usually presents with an advanced stage disease bearing a poor prognosis.
  • Colorectal carcinoma should be considered in children with signs of intestinal obstruction, alteration in bowel habits, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic abdominal pain.
  • METHODS: Between 1974 and 2007, 11 patients were identified and treated for colorectal carcinoma at the Oncology Unit.
  • The medical records were studied to analyze the age, sex, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, extent of disease (Dukes staging), treatment, histological types, and outcome.
  • Predisposing diseases and syndromes were encountered in three children, (1 with Turner's syndrome and two with adenomatous familial polyposis).
  • Abdominal pain, acute intestinal obstruction, rectal bleeding and weight loss were the commonest symptoms.
  • Surgical procedures were done in 11 patients (incomplete resection with segmental resection in 4 patients, complete resection in the other 4, and biopsy alone in 3 patients).The predominant histological type was mucinous carcinoma.
  • Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, all of whom did not survive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal carcinoma in children is very uncommon and could be easily misdiagnosed, resulting in advanced stage disease at diagnosis.
  • Because radical surgery which is the mainstay of treatment is possible only in patients with early stage disease, a high level of awareness and early diagnosis are critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Colonoscopy. Costa Rica / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends

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  • (PMID = 19816697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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42. Tokatli F, Koçak Z, Ozyilmaz F, Uygun K, Caloglu M, Uzal C: Small cell carcinoma of the rectum; report of a case. J BUON; 2002 Jan-Mar;7(1):75-7
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the rectum; report of a case.
  • Primary small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon and rectum is a relatively rare tumour with an overall incidence of less than 1% among all colorectal cancers.
  • Despite the mean survival being around 6 months, long-term survival may be achieved in patients with localized disease treated with curative resection and adjuvant therapy.
  • We report on a patient with Dukes' C small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum who underwent surgery followed by pelvic irradiation and chemotherapy and achieved long-term survival.

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  • (PMID = 17577266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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43. Scott RH, Mansour S, Pritchard-Jones K, Kumar D, MacSweeney F, Rahman N: Medulloblastoma, acute myelocytic leukemia and colonic carcinomas in a child with biallelic MSH6 mutations. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Feb;4(2):130-4
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  • Background A 13-year-old girl presented with rectal bleeding and was found to have two colonic carcinomas (stage Dukes' C) and multiple colonic polyps.
  • At the age of 7 years she had widespread hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions, and had developed medulloblastoma, which was treated with chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation.
  • At the age of 10 years she had developed acute myelocytic leukemia, M5.
  • She was treated with chemotherapy including sibling bone marrow transplant with busulfan/cyclophosphamide conditioning.
  • Management Cascade genetic testing and colonoscopic screening for colorectal carcinoma has been offered to relatives carrying one mutation.


44. Sakamoto J, Hamashima H, Suzuki H, Ito K, Mai M, Saji S, Fukushima M, Matsushita Y, Nakazato H: Thymidylate synthase expression as a predictor of the prognosis of curatively resected colon carcinoma in patients registered in an adjuvant immunochemotherapy clinical trial. Oncol Rep; 2003 Sep-Oct;10(5):1081-90

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  • [Title] Thymidylate synthase expression as a predictor of the prognosis of curatively resected colon carcinoma in patients registered in an adjuvant immunochemotherapy clinical trial.
  • The expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS) affect the sensitivity of tumor cells to fluorinated pyrimidine cytotoxic agents and determine the response of patients with colorectal cancer to fluorinated-pyrimidine-based chemotherapy.
  • The correlation between the expression of TS and the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer was examined in a prospective study.
  • Evaluation of biomarkers including TS expression was performed using tumor specimens from 229 colorectal cancer patients.
  • In a subset analysis of Dukes' stage C patients, the survival and DFS rates were 44.0% and 40.0% in the high TS expression group, and 73.5% and 67.4% in the low TS expression group, respectively.
  • Significantly poorer prognosis of curatively resected colon cancer in patients with high TS expression levels in tumor tissue was confirmed by a double-blind prospective study conducted on samples obtained from patients enrolled in an adjuvant immunochemotherapy randomized clinical trial.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Double-Blind Method. Epitopes. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Random Allocation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12883662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Pyrimidines; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
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45. Scheithauer W, McKendrick J, Begbie S, Borner M, Burns WI, Burris HA, Cassidy J, Jodrell D, Koralewski P, Levine EL, Marschner N, Maroun J, Garcia-Alfonso P, Tujakowski J, Van Hazel G, Wong A, Zaluski J, Twelves C, X-ACT Study Group: Oral capecitabine as an alternative to i.v. 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for colon cancer: safety results of a randomized, phase III trial. Ann Oncol; 2003 Dec;14(12):1735-43
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  • [Title] Oral capecitabine as an alternative to i.v. 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for colon cancer: safety results of a randomized, phase III trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Oral capecitabine achieves a superior response rate with an improved safety profile compared with bolus 5-fluorouracil-leucovorin (5-FU/LV) as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • We report here the results of a large phase III trial investigating adjuvant oral capecitabine compared with 5-FU/LV (Mayo Clinic regimen) in Dukes' C colon cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients aged 18-75 years with resected Dukes' C colon carcinoma were randomized to receive 24 weeks of treatment with either oral capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) twice daily, days 1-14 every 21 days (n = 993), or i.v. bolus 5-FU 425 mg/m(2) with i.v. leucovorin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, repeated every 28 days (n = 974).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on its improved safety profile, capecitabine has the potential to replace 5-FU/LV as standard adjuvant treatment for patients with colon cancer.
  • Efficacy results are expected to be available in Keywords: Adjuvant treatment, capecitabine, chemotherapy, colorectal cancer

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  • (PMID = 14630678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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46. Soran A, Harlak A, Wilson JW, Nesbitt L, Lembersky BC, Wienad HS, O'Connell MJ: Diverticular disease in patients with colon cancer: subgroup analysis of national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project protocol C-06. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2006 Jul;6(2):140-5
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  • [Title] Diverticular disease in patients with colon cancer: subgroup analysis of national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project protocol C-06.
  • BACKGROUND: Similar epidemiologic characteristics suggest a common etiology for colon cancer (CC) and diverticular disease of the colon (DD).
  • National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NASBP) protocol C-06 is a clinical trial comparing oral uracil/tegafur/leucovorin with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin in patients with resected stage II/III carcinoma of the colon.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The NASBP enrolled 1,608 patients who had undergone potentially curative resection for stage II/III colon cancer from 256 medical sites between February 14, 1997, and March 31, 1999.
  • Colon cancer was located in the rectosigmoid in 46.88% of patients with DD and in 31.92% of patients without DD (P < 0.05).
  • A baseline diagnosis of DD made no significant contribution to DFS or OS without adjustment for confoundin factors (P = 0.2 and P = 0.32, respectively) or adjusted for Dukes classification and age (P = 0.49 and P = 0.68, respectively).
  • There was no negative impact of having DD on DFS and OS in patients treated for stage II/III CC.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diverticulum, Colon / etiology

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUCOVORIN .
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  • (PMID = 16945170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-69651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-69974
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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