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1. Garwood ER, Kumar AS, Baehner FL, Moore DH, Au A, Hylton N, Flowers CI, Garber J, Lesnikoski BA, Hwang ES, Olopade O, Port ER, Campbell M, Esserman LJ: Fluvastatin reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis in women with high grade breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jan;119(1):137-44
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  • [Title] Fluvastatin reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis in women with high grade breast cancer.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the biologic impact of short-term lipophilic statin exposure on in situ and invasive breast cancer through paired tissue, blood and imaging-based biomarkers.
  • A perioperative window trial of fluvastatin was conducted in women with a diagnosis of DCIS or stage 1 breast cancer.
  • Tissue (diagnostic core biopsy/final surgical specimen), blood, and magnetic resonance images were obtained before/after treatment.
  • Planned subgroup analyses compared disease grade, statin dose, and estrogen receptor status.
  • Proliferation of high grade tumors decreased by a median of 7.2% (P = 0.008), which was statistically greater than the 0.3% decrease for low grade tumors.
  • More high grade tumors had an increase in apoptosis (60 vs. 13%; P = 0.015).
  • Fluvastatin showed measurable biologic changes by reducing tumor proliferation and increasing apoptotic activity in high-grade, stage 0/1 breast cancer.
  • Effects were only evident in high grade tumors.
  • These results support further evaluation of statins as chemoprevention for ER-negative high grade breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. C-Reactive Protein / biosynthesis. Caspase 3 / biosynthesis. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19728082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA125183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA125183-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116182
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4L066368AS / fluvastatin; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS594101; NLM/ PMC4087110
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2. Bundred NJ, Cramer A, Morris J, Renshaw L, Cheung KL, Flint P, Johnson R, Young O, Landberg G, Grassby S, Turner L, Baildam A, Barr L, Dixon JM: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition does not improve the reduction in ductal carcinoma in situ proliferation with aromatase inhibitor therapy: results of the ERISAC randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Mar 1;16(5):1605-12
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition does not improve the reduction in ductal carcinoma in situ proliferation with aromatase inhibitor therapy: results of the ERISAC randomized placebo-controlled trial.
  • PURPOSE: Tamoxifen reduces risk of recurrence after breast conservation surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but no data exists on the effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors for DCIS.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in DCIS, representing another potential therapeutic target.
  • The aim of the study was to determine the effect of aromatase and/or COX-2 inhibition on epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in a presurgical study of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive DCIS.
  • METHODS: Postmenopausal women with ER-positive DCIS diagnosed by core biopsy were randomized to a 2 x 2 design of either 14 days of exemestane or placebo and celecoxib, or placebo immediately before surgery.
  • RESULTS: Ninety women were randomized: all were ER positive, 49 (54%) had grade III tumors, and 29 (32%) were HER2 positive (3+).
  • The effect of exemestane on proliferation was seen regardless of grade, HER2, or PR expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exemestane reduces proliferation in ER-positive DCIS.
  • Aromatase inhibition is a potential alternative to tamoxifen in patients who have undergone breast conservation for ER-positive DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Androstadienes / administration & dosage. Apoptosis / drug effects. Celecoxib. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Placebos. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / drug effects. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / genetics. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20179229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Placebos; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Sulfonamides; 107868-30-4 / exemestane; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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3. Bundred NJ, Barnes NL: Potential use of COX-2-aromatase inhibitor combinations in breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2005 Aug;93 Suppl 1:S10-5
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  • [Title] Potential use of COX-2-aromatase inhibitor combinations in breast cancer.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in several epithelial tumours, including breast cancer.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2-positive tumours tend to be larger, higher grade, node-positive and HER-2/neu-positive.
  • Studies of COX-2 inhibitors in breast cancer are underway both alone and in combination with other agents.
  • Preliminary results from combination therapy with celecoxib and exemestane in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer showed that the combination increased the time to recurrence.
  • Up to 80% of ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs) express COX-2, therefore COX-2 inhibition may be of particular use in this situation.
  • As aromatase inhibitors appear particularly effective in patients with HER-2/neu-positive tumours, the combination of aromatase inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors may be particularly useful in both DCIS and invasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16100520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 61
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361689
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4. Sakorafas GH, Tsiotou AG: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast: evolving perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Apr;26(2):103-25
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  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast: evolving perspectives.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is an early, localized stage of carcinoma in the process of multistep breast carcinogenesis.
  • The incidence of DCIS is increasing, mainly due to screening mammography, which results in diagnosing the disease in an increasing proportion of asymptomatic patients.
  • Consequently, clinicians are being confronted with growing numbers of women who present with DCIS of the breast; thus, the concepts of managing such patients are assuming greater importance.
  • DCIS is a biologically and morphologically heterogeneous disease.
  • However, when appropriately treated, the prognosis of DCIS is excellent.
  • Optimal management of DCIS remains controversial.
  • The goal in the treatment of patients with DCIS is to control local disease and prevent subsequent development of invasive cancer.
  • For several decades, total mastectomy was the treatment of choice for DCIS and it should still be considered the standard of care, to which more conservative forms of treatment must be compared.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection is not routinely recommended in the management of DCIS.
  • Local excision alone has been suggested in carefully selected patients, whilst the rest of the patients undergoing breast-conservation surgery should be treated with breast irradiation.
  • There is evidence that breast-conservation therapy is an effective option in the management of selected patients with DCIS.
  • Nuclear grade, presence of comedo necrosis, and margin involvement are the most commonly used predictors of the likelihood of recurrence.
  • There is no role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the management of this disease.
  • The role of tamoxifen in the treatment of DCIS is not clearly defined; tamoxifen should be given only in patients enrolled in clinical trials.
  • Following breast-conservation therapy, about 50% of the tumours recur as invasive cancer.
  • Most patients with recurrent disease can be treated effectively, usually by salvage mastectomy, but also in selected cases by breast-conservation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10772968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 191
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5. Smith IE, A'Hern RP, Coombes GA, Howell A, Ebbs SR, Hickish TF, O'Brien ME, Mansi JL, Wilson CB, Robinson AC, Murray PA, Price CG, Perren TJ, Laing RW, Bliss JM, TOPIC Trial Group: A novel continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimen compared with conventional chemotherapy in the neo-adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer: 5 year results of the TOPIC trial. Ann Oncol; 2004 May;15(5):751-8
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  • [Title] A novel continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimen compared with conventional chemotherapy in the neo-adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer: 5 year results of the TOPIC trial.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy of continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy against conventional bolus chemotherapy in the preoperative treatment of patients with large operable early breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-six women with histologically proven 3 cm invasive early breast cancer were randomised to receive pre-operative infusional 5-FU 200 mg/m(2) by daily 24 h continuous infusion via a Hickman line for 18 weeks with epirubicin 60 mg/m(2) intravenous (i.v.) bolus on day 1 and cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) i.v. bolus on day 1, both repeating 3-weekly (infusional ECisF), or conventional bolus doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1 and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1, both repeating 3-weekly (AC), both schedules for six courses.
  • Patients subsequently had local therapy (surgery or radiotherapy or both) and tamoxifen 20 mg orally daily as appropriate.
  • RESULTS: The 5 year results for AC and infusional ECisF, respectively, were as follows: overall response, 75% and 77%; complete clinical remission, 31% and 34%; pathological complete remission (pathCR), 16% for both; and pathCR with residual ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 25% and 24%.
  • Both treatments were well tolerated.
  • Grade III/IV lethargy, vomiting, alopecia and plantar-palmar erythema were significantly greater for infusional ECisF; grade III/IV leucopenia was significantly greater for AC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative continuous infusional 5-FU-based chemotherapy is no more active than conventional AC for early breast cancer; with a median 5 year follow-up, the infusion-based schedule shows a non-significant trend towards improved survival.

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  • (PMID = 15111342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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6. Sauter ER, Ehya H, Mammen A, Klein G: Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy. Br J Cancer; 2001 Dec 14;85(12):1952-7
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  • [Title] Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy.
  • We previously demonstrated that abnormal nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) cytology predicted residual breast cancer (RC) and tumour size after excisional biopsy (EB), although normal NAF cytology did not exclude RC.
  • LN metastases provide prognostic information allowing medical and radiation oncologists to determine the need for adjuvant therapy.
  • NAF cytology and pathologic parameters: tumour distance from biopsy margins, multifocal and multicentric disease, sub-type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive cancer (IC), grade of DCIS or IC, tumour and specimen size, tumour and biopsy cavity location, presence or absence of extensive DCIS, and biopsy scar distance from the nipple were evaluated bivariately and then by logistic regression (LR) for their association with RC and involved LN (> or = 1 (+) LN, useful to determine chemotherapy need, and > or = 4 (+) LN, useful to determine radiation need to the chest and axilla).
  • We propose an algorithm which, if confirmed in a larger study, may allow clinicians to be more selective in their recommendations of re-excision breast biopsy or mastectomy.

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  • (PMID = 11747339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87391
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364009
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7. Krishnamurthy S, Sneige N, Thompson PA, Marcy SM, Singletary SE, Cristofanilli M, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM: Nipple aspirate fluid cytology in breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2003 Apr 25;99(2):97-104
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  • [Title] Nipple aspirate fluid cytology in breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) cytology is a simple noninvasive method to study cells exfoliated into the ductal system of the breast.
  • In the current study, the significance of cytologic findings in NAF was determined by correlating them with histopathologic findings from corresponding breast tissue.
  • METHODS: Nipple aspirate fluid was collected by breast massaging and by using a breast aspiration device from 74 women with biopsy confirmed intraductal or invasive carcinoma with or without a history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Finally, they were correlated with tissue findings.
  • RESULTS: Nipple aspirate fluid was obtained from 74 women, including 24 who had received preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Patients treated with chemotherapy had fewer epithelial cells in their NAF compared with patients who were not treated with chemotherapy.
  • Of the five cases with mildly atypical cytology, three were intraductal papilloma, one was low-grade papillary intraductal carcinoma, and one was low-grade intracystic papillary carcinoma with invasion in the corresponding tissue specimen.
  • The single case with markedly atypical NAF cytology had extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Of the four cases with malignant NAF cytology, two were extensive DCIS and two had invasive carcinoma with extensive DCIS in the breast specimen.
  • Overall, 3 (27%) of 11 cases of DCIS were detected in NAF and only 2 (4%) of 52 invasive carcinomas including the only two cases with extensive DCIS were detected in NAF.
  • CONCLUSION: The probability of detecting malignant cells in NAF is dependent on the extent of DCIS and nipple involvement by DCIS.
  • Nipple aspirate fluid is not a sensitive test for detecting invasive carcinoma of the breast.
  • Atypical cytology in NAF is associated with papillary lesions in the underlying breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / cytology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nipples

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12704689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Gilleard O, Goodman A, Cooper M, Davies M, Dunn J: The significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:61
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  • [Title] The significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Debate regarding the benefit of radiotherapy after local excision of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) continues.
  • Recently published interim data from the Sloane project has showed that the VNPI score did significantly affect the chances of getting planned radiotherapy in the UK, suggesting that British clinicians may already be using this scoring system to assist in decision making.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients (n = 215) who underwent breast conserving surgery for DCIS at a single institution between 1997-2006.
  • No patients included in the study received additional radiotherapy or hormonal treatment.
  • Ninety five tumours were high grade (44%) and 84 tumours exhibited comedo necrosis (39%).
  • CONCLUSION: This follow-up study of 215 patients with DCIS treated with local excision and observation alone is one of the largest series in which rates of recurrence are unaffected by radiation therapy, hormone manipulation or chemotherapy.
  • It has afforded us the opportunity to assess the prognostic impact of patient and tumour characteristics free of any potentially confounding treatment related influences.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18564426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2459183
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9. Zunzunegui RG, Chung MA, Oruwari J, Golding D, Marchant DJ, Cady B: Casting-type calcifications with invasion and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ: a more aggressive disease? Arch Surg; 2003 May;138(5):537-40
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  • [Title] Casting-type calcifications with invasion and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ: a more aggressive disease?
  • HYPOTHESIS: Women with breast cancer who have casting-type microcalcifications associated with multifocal invasion and extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) form a subset of patients with a poor prognosis.
  • DESIGN: Women with casting-type microcalcifications, multifocal invasion, and extensive DCIS were identified from our tumor board registry.
  • Mammographic features, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival rates were evaluated.
  • SETTING: University medical teaching hospital and breast cancer specialty clinic.
  • RESULTS: Of the 984 patients with breast cancer treated at our center, 15 patients were identified who had extensive casting-type calcifications and DCIS.
  • Twelve of these patients also had multifocal invasive breast cancer.
  • All had casting-type microcalcifications occupying more than 1 breast quadrant.
  • All but 1 patient had extensive grade 3 DCIS.
  • Positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 33% of patients, and 75% received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of the 3 patients who had DCIS without invasion, 1 experienced a recurrence with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In women with small multifocal breast cancers with extensive casting calcifications and DCIS, the incidence of positive lymph nodes was 33%, with a tendency for poor tumor markers.
  • These women appear to be at substantial risk for systemic disease; lymph node sampling and adjuvant systemic therapy are recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiography. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12742959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Rakha EA, Gill MS, El-Sayed ME, Khan MM, Hodi Z, Blamey RW, Evans AJ, Lee AH, Ellis IO: The biological and clinical characteristics of breast carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular morphology. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;114(2):243-50
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  • [Title] The biological and clinical characteristics of breast carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular morphology.
  • Although invasive ductal (IDC) and lobular (ILC) breast carcinomas are well characterised in the literature, the biological and clinical significance of mixed tumours with both ductal and lobular components has not been investigated.
  • In the current study, we have examined a well-characterised series of breast carcinoma with a long term follow-up that comprised 140 mixed tumours, 2170 IDC and 380 pure ILC.
  • The majority (59%) of the mixed tumours were grade 2 compared to 33% in IDC and 88% in ILC.
  • DCIS was detected in 123 (89%) and LCIS in 43 (31%) (both DCIS and LCIS were found in 39 cases).
  • The majority of tumours were predominantly (>50 of tumour area) of ductal type (57%).
  • When compared to pure IDC, mixed tumours showed an association with lower grade, ER positivity and lower frequency of development of distant metastases.
  • When compared to pure ILC, mixed tumours showed an association with higher grade, positive LN metastasis, VI and development of regional metastasis.
  • After adjustment for grade most of these differences were no longer apparent.
  • There was an association between histologic type of carcinoma in LN metastasis and the predominant histologic type of the primary tumour.
  • No clinically meaningful differences in survival were found between these mixed carcinomas and pure IDC or ILC of the breast or between mixed tumours with predominantly ductal or lobular phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18404368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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11. Peacock N, Saleh M, Bendell J, Rose AA, Dong Z, Siegel PM, Crowley E, Simantov R, Vahdat L: A phase I/II study of CR011-vcMMAE, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients (pts) with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1067

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  • [Title] A phase I/II study of CR011-vcMMAE, an antibody-drug conjugate, in patients (pts) with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
  • : 1067 Background: Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB), also known as osteoactivin, has been shown to regulate metastasis of breast cancer in vivo.
  • This is the first study of CR011-vcMMAE in breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Eligible pts with MBC had ≥ 2 prior chemotherapy regimens, including a taxane, an anthracycline, and capecitabine; and ECOG PS ≤ 2.
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with goat polyclonal antibody to GPNMB was performed on pt biopsy specimens and on tissue microarrays containing normal breast, DCIS, breast tumor and lymph node metastases.
  • Pts with baseline neuropathy worse than grade 1 were subsequently excluded.
  • Other adverse events (AEs) were grade 1/2 anorexia and pain in 4 pts; diarrhea, rash, fatigue, and neuropathy in 3 pts; and grade 3 rash in 1 pt.
  • Breast tumor samples were more likely to stain positive for GPNMB than normal breast tissues.

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  • (PMID = 27961164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Ismael G, Coradazzi AL, Beato CA, Milhomem P, Oliveira J, Manzoni C, Segalla G: Adjuvant systemic therapy in elderly patients with breast cancer: A Brazilian single center experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20711

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  • [Title] Adjuvant systemic therapy in elderly patients with breast cancer: A Brazilian single center experience.
  • : e20711 Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in women in Brazil and in the western world.
  • Despite the high incidence of breast cancer in elderly women, there is no solid information regarding the real impact of the adjuvant systemic therapy in this population, considering the underrepresentation of patients with 65 years of age or older in cancer-treatment trials.
  • Moreover, elderly patients may face some difficulties to receive adequate adjuvant systemic treatment in the routine clinical practice.
  • METHODS: Two hundred fifty eight patients with 65 years of age or older at the time of diagnosis of operable breast cancer and treated in our Institution from February 2000 to December 2005 were retrospectively studied.
  • Clinical and pathological data were recorded as well as the type of adjuvant systemic therapy: hormonal therapy (HT), chemotherapy (CT) or both.
  • RESULTS: Ninety five (37.5%) patients were stage I, 150 (58.1%) were stage II and 6 (2.3%) were stage III, while 5 (1.9%) patients were diagnosed with DCIS.
  • Ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (81%) and grade II were reported in the majority of patients (47.3%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the age, a considerable part of this elderly breast cancer patient's population has received adjuvant systemic treatment.

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  • (PMID = 27961971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Blakely L, Somer B, Keaton M, Hermann R, Schnell F, Cobb P, Johns A, Walker M, Schwartzberg L: Neoadjuvant dose-dense sequential biweekly epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab for HER2+ operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):595

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoadjuvant dose-dense sequential biweekly epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab for HER2+ operable breast cancer.
  • : 595 Background: Neoadjuvant (Neo) chemotherapy (CT) with trastuzumab (H) improves pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for HER2+ breast cancer.
  • Dose-dense regimens improve outcome in the adjuvant setting but have not been fully evaluated as preoperative therapy.
  • METHODS: Patients (pts) with biopsy proven, clinical stage IIA-IIIC, noninflammatory breast cancer were eligible.
  • EF was measured prior to CT, after EC, after TH and at 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery.
  • Additional adjuvant H to complete 1 year of therapy by conventional schedule was recommended after surgery.
  • The primary endpoint was pCR for invasive cancer in breast and lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: 30 pts were enrolled at 5 centers: median age was 50.1 (range, 31-72); ethnicity African-American 14, Caucasian 14, other 2; clinical stage IIA, 14, IIB, 4, IIIA, 7, IIIB/C, 5; ER+ 18, PR+ 14; grade 3, 21 and grade 2, 8.
  • Twenty eight pts were evaluable for pathologic response- 2 withdrew before completing treatment, 1 for toxicity.
  • Dose delivery on schedule was >95% for all drugs.
  • Pathologic response: pCR 16 (57%) including 4 with residual DCIS only; 9 pPR, and 2 stable.
  • Mean EF was 63.1 (range, 51-81) before treatment, 62.4 (49-75) after EC and 58.3 (35-74) after TH.
  • Two pts had EF <50% during Neo, one with clinical CHF and 1 additional pt developed CHF during adjuvant single agent H.
  • Adverse events were generally mild with 14 grade 3 AEs including 3 episodes of dyspnea and no grade 3 skin toxicity or any grade 4 toxicity noted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sequential Neo dose-dense Q 14 day EC followed by Q 14 day TH yields a high pCR rate in HER2+ breast cancer with acceptable toxicity profile and no new safety signals noted.

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  • (PMID = 27960705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Gupta S, Joshi K, Wig JD, Arora SK: High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor. Indian J Cancer; 2009 Oct-Dec;46(4):303-10
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  • [Title] High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: The product of Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1), a nuclear transcription factor, regulates the expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) systems, both of which are implicated in breast tumorigenesis and are known to facilitate angiogenesis.
  • In the present study, WT1 allelic integrity was examined by Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) studies in infiltrating breast carcinoma (n=60), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=10) and benign breast disease (n=5) patients, to determine its possible association with tumor progression.
  • TGF-beta1, IGF-II, IGF-1R and angiogenesis (VEGF and Intratumoral micro-vessel density) in breast carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Six of 22 (27.2%) genetically heterozygous of infiltrating breast carcinoma and 1 of 4 DCIS cases showed loss of one allele at WT1 locus.
  • Histologically, the tumors with LOH at WT1 were Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and were of grade II and III.
  • There was no correlation in the appearance of LOH at WT1 locus with age, tumor stage, menopausal status, chemotherapy status and lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression of factor IGF-II and its receptor, IGF-1R was significantly higher in carcinoma having LOH at WT1 locus.
  • A positive correlation was observed between the TGF-beta1, VEGF expression and IMD scores in infiltrating carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicates that the high frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in high-graded breast tumors is associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Genes, Wilms Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / biosynthesis. Loss of Heterozygosity. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / biosynthesis. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19749460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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15. Nahleh Z, Namakydoust A, Bakkar R, Bishop J: Trastuzumab not for ductal carcinoma in situ? Anticancer Drugs; 2007 Nov;18(10):1231-5
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  • [Title] Trastuzumab not for ductal carcinoma in situ?
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive breast lesion accounting for approximately 30% of all newly detected breast cancers in the US.
  • DCIS has been separated into two groups by architecture (comedo versus noncomedo) and nuclear grade.
  • The expression of biological markers in DCIS, however, would reflect the true biologic potential of the lesion.
  • Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2)-positive DCIS pose a treatment challenge.
  • They are not candidates for tamoxifen; trastuzumab has an undetermined role in DCIS.
  • In this report, we present a case of a 45-year-old woman diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and ER-negative/HER-2-positive DCIS who developed recurrence and progression of DCIS as manifested by a new palpable mass while receiving trastuzumab as part of adjuvant treatment for invasive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Trastuzumab. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17893526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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16. Gandhi A, Holland PA, Knox WF, Potten CS, Bundred NJ: Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer Res; 2000 Aug 1;60(15):4284-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Adjuvant antiestrogen (AE) therapy has been proposed for all women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • However, many cases of DCIS are of the high-grade, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtype that are unlikely to respond to AE treatment.
  • Hormonal agents work by increasing apoptosis and/or decreasing cell proliferation; therefore, we studied the effect of a pure AE on levels of apoptosis and proliferation in human DCIS xenografts using an in vivo model.
  • Women (n = 23) with mammographic microcalcification suggestive of DCIS were identified at the time of surgery (day 0), a sample of representative tissue was obtained, divided into multiple 2x2x1-mm xenografts, and implanted s.c. into female BALB/c nu/nu mice (eight xenografts/mouse).
  • Fourteen days after implantation, four xenografts were retrieved and mice were randomly divided into one of three treatment groups: (a) insertion of a slow release 2-mg 17beta-estradiol pellet;.
  • After 2 weeks of treatment, the remaining four xenografts were retrieved from each mouse.
  • Retrieved xenografts containing DCIS were assessed for morphological evidence of apoptotic cell death [apoptotic index (AI)] and cell proliferation (by immunohistochemical detection of the Ki67 proliferation antigen LI).
  • Both AI and LI were higher in the day 0 specimens of 16 ER- DCIS lesions compared with 7 ER+ DCIS lesions (mean values, 1.47% versus 0.32% and 20.6% versus 3.1%; both P<0.0001).
  • AI and LI values within ER- DCIS did not differ between xenografts exposed to 17beta-estradiol or AE treatment compared with the controls or pretreatment values (mean AI and LI in estradiol-treated, antiestrogen-treated, and control groups 1.04% versus 0.98% versus 1.29% and 17.2% versus 20.5% versus 17.7% respectively).
  • In contrast, treatment of mice bearing ER+ DCIS xenografts with 17beta-estradiol raised both the AI (1.03% versus 0.40%, P = 0.03) and LI (11.0% versus 5.1%, P = 0.007) compared with controls.
  • AE therapy of ER+ DCIS xenografts did not affect proliferation but resulted in higher apoptosis than in controls (0.9% versus 0.4% respectively, P = 0.04).
  • AE therapy should be reserved for patients with estrogen receptor positive DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, Estrogen / physiology. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 10945643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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17. Hird RB, Chang A, Cimmino V, Diehl K, Sabel M, Kleer C, Helvie M, Schott A, Young J, Hayes D, Newman L: Impact of estrogen receptor expression and other clinicopathologic features on tamoxifen use in ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer; 2006 May 15;106(10):2113-8
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  • [Title] Impact of estrogen receptor expression and other clinicopathologic features on tamoxifen use in ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent data have demonstrated that benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is limited to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive lesions.
  • The objective of the current study was to correlate clinicopathologic features of DCIS with ER expression and the impact of this information on tamoxifen counseling.
  • METHODS: Women with DCIS who were treated from 2001 to 2004 were evaluated.
  • The mean DCIS size was 0.98 cm.
  • All Grade 1 and 2 DCIS lesions were ER-positive, compared with 54% of high-grade lesions (P<.001); no other clinicopathologic feature significantly predicted ER status.
  • In the pre-ER staining period, surgical treatment and grade were associated with offering tamoxifen (75% of patients who underwent breast conservation vs. 40% of patients who underwent mastectomy; P = .03; 78% of patients with Grade 1 or 2 lesions vs. 45% of patients with Grade 3 lesions; P = .04).
  • Approximately 66% of patients who were offered tamoxifen agreed to treatment (approximately 33% of the total DCIS study sample).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Seventy-five percent of DCIS lesions were ER-positive.
  • ER staining significantly influenced the likelihood that clinicians would offer tamoxifen to patients with DCIS, but it had no impact on whether patients accepted treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Compliance. Probability. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16596655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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18. Kleer CG, Griffith KA, Sabel MS, Gallagher G, van Golen KL, Wu ZF, Merajver SD: RhoC-GTPase is a novel tissue biomarker associated with biologically aggressive carcinomas of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Sep;93(2):101-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] RhoC-GTPase is a novel tissue biomarker associated with biologically aggressive carcinomas of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a need for reliable predictors of breast cancer aggressiveness that will further refine the staging classification and help guide the implementation of novel therapies.
  • We have identified RhoC as being nearly always overexpressed in the most aggressive form of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC); in subsequent work we identified RhoC to be a promising marker of aggressive behavior in breast cancers less than 1 cm in diameter.
  • We hypothesized that RhoC expression would identify aggressive, non-IBC tumors breast cancer patients at any stage with worse outcomes defined as recurrence and/or metastasis.
  • METHODS: We constructed four high-density tissue microarrays (TMAs) using 801 tissue cores from 280 patients.
  • These tissues represent a wide range of normal breast and breast disease, including intraductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive carcinomas, and distant metastases.
  • The TMAs were immunostained using a polyclonal anti-RhoC antibody developed in our laboratory.
  • RESULTS: RhoC expression increases with breast cancer progression.
  • All samples of normal breast epithelium had negative to weak staining, whereas staining intensity increased in hyperplasia, DCIS, invasive carcinoma, and metastases (Kruskal-Wallis p < 0.001).
  • In patients with invasive carcinoma, high RhoC expression was associated with features of aggressive behavior including high histologic grade, positive lymph nodes, and negative hormonal receptor status.
  • High RhoC expression was a predictor of overall survival in patients with breast cancer (log rank test, p = 0.002) and was associated with 100% increase in the risk of death as compared to patients with low RhoC expression.
  • Importantly, high RhoC was an independent predictor of poor response to doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with a hazard ratio of 3.1 and a 95% CI of 1.2-7.7 (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: RhoC expression increases with breast cancer progression and RhoC protein level in tumor tissue is strongly associated with biologically aggressive invasive carcinomas of the breast.
  • RhoC expression, if validated, may identify patients who are less likely benefit from doxorubicin therapy and suggests RhoC overexpression as a new target for intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16187229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P50-CADE97258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA 090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA10746; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA77612
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RHOC protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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19. Neave L, Harvey V, Benjamin C, Thompson P, Pellett O, Whitlock J, Jones W, Poole G, Auckland Breast Cancer Register Auckland Breast Cancer Study Group: The Auckland Breast Cancer Register: a special project of the Auckland Breast Cancer Study Group. N Z Med J; 2003 Oct 24;116(1184):U648
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Auckland Breast Cancer Register: a special project of the Auckland Breast Cancer Study Group.
  • AIMS: The Auckland Breast Cancer Register (ABCR) has been established in response to the need for a comprehensive database of breast cancer cases from the Auckland area.
  • METHODS: The database records patient demographics, diagnosis, treatment options, prognosis and long-term outcome (annual follow up).
  • RESULTS: The major findings are that 34% of women had breast cancer detected by screening only (47% in the group eligible for free screening within the Breast Screen Aotearoa screening programme); 84% of patients had invasive carcinoma; 13% had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); and 3% fine needle aspiration only.
  • Grade 3 tumours were found in 53% of patients under 40 years old compared with 26.8% 40 years or older.
  • Mastectomy was performed in 56% of patients with invasive cancer and 33% of those with DCIS.
  • Radiotherapy was given to 77% of these patients, chemotherapy to 33%, and hormone therapy to 57%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ABCR will provide essential healthcare information that will lead to better understanding of breast cancer in Auckland and more effective delivery of the clinical resources available in the Auckland region.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Registries
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. New Zealand / epidemiology. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen. Receptors, Progesterone

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  • (PMID = 14583806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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