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1. Okano A, Shimazaki C, Ochiai N, Hatsuse M, Takahashi R, Ashihara E, Inaba T, Fujita N, Noda Y, Nakagawa M: Subcutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2001 Oct;28(7):709-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a 30-year-old female with a cutaneous infection of Mycobacterium fortuitum 30 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Mycobacterial infections should be considered in SCT patients with undiagnosed refractory chronic cutaneous infection, and surgical debridement is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of such infections.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / etiology. Mycobacterium fortuitum / isolation & purification. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Skin Ulcer / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclosporine / adverse effects. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Debridement. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Minocycline / therapeutic use. Prednisolone / adverse effects. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Tacrolimus / adverse effects. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use. Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 11704796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; FYY3R43WGO / Minocycline; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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2. Garcia-Manero G, Yang H, Bueso-Ramos C, Ferrajoli A, Cortes J, Wierda WG, Faderl S, Koller C, Morris G, Rosner G, Loboda A, Fantin VR, Randolph SS, Hardwick JS, Reilly JF, Chen C, Ricker JL, Secrist JP, Richon VM, Frankel SR, Kantarjian HM: Phase 1 study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) in patients with advanced leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood; 2008 Feb 1;111(3):1060-6
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  • Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor active clinically in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and preclinically in leukemia.
  • Patients with relapsed or refractory leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and untreated patients who were not candidates for chemotherapy were eligible.
  • Of 41 patients, 31 had acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 3 MDS, 2 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 1 chronic myelocytic leukemia.
  • Common drug-related adverse experiences were diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia and were mild/moderate in severity.
  • Grade 3/4 drug-related adverse experiences included fatigue (27%), thrombocytopenia (12%), and diarrhea (10%).
  • There were no drug-related deaths; 7 patients had hematologic improvement response, including 2 complete responses and 2 complete responses with incomplete blood count recovery (all with AML treated at/below MTD).
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Hydroxamic Acids / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Tolerance. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Histone Deacetylases / metabolism. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


3. Kahwash SB, Qualman SJ: Cutaneous lymphoblastic lymphoma in children: report of six cases with precursor B-cell lineage. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2002 Jan-Feb;5(1):45-53
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  • [Title] Cutaneous lymphoblastic lymphoma in children: report of six cases with precursor B-cell lineage.
  • Precursor B lymphoblastic lymphomas (B-LBL) are generally rare, but appear to have a higher incidence in children than in adults.
  • In this report, we describe in detail six cases of B-LBL presenting with cutaneous lesions.
  • Three occurred in the scalp, one in the skin of the thigh, one in the skin of the face and breast, and one in the subcutaneous tissue of the orbit.
  • None of the cases had bone marrow involvement, while two had bone involvement (maxilla, distal tibia, and distal humerus in one case, and distal tibia and orbital bone in another case); only one case had lymphadenopathy (retroperitoneal).
  • The five patients who received multiagent chemotherapy are alive with follow-up intervals of 2 to 18 years.
  • Two patients had local recurrences and were given radiation therapy (one with repeating multiagent chemotherapy).
  • One patient (diagnosed in 1962) died of disseminated disease; she had been treated with radiation therapy and 6MP only.
  • Cutaneous B-LBL must be included in the differential diagnosis of small blue cell tumors, especially in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 11815868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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4. Larson RA: Three new drugs for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: nelarabine, clofarabine, and forodesine. Semin Oncol; 2007 Dec;34(6 Suppl 5):S13-20
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  • [Title] Three new drugs for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: nelarabine, clofarabine, and forodesine.
  • The search for more effective and safer anti-leukemia therapies has led to the identification of several new agents that show activity against specific types of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Forodesine is the most recent novel agent, with a unique mechanism that has shown single-agent activity in relapsed and refractory T- and B-cell leukemias and cutaneous lymphomas.
  • Although clinical experience is limited, treatment-related toxicities appear to be mild.
  • The rationale, pharmacology, and clinical experience to date with these agents in the treatment of patients with refractory acute leukemia are reviewed, with a highlight on ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenine Nucleotides / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Arabinonucleosides / pharmacology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Purine Nucleosides / pharmacology. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / drug effects. Pyrimidinones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18086342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 426X066ELK / forodesine; 60158CV180 / nelarabine; 762RDY0Y2H / clofarabine; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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5. Yamada O, Ichikawa M, Okamoto T, Park C, Motoji T, Mizoguchi H, Shibuya A: Killer T-cell induction in patients with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukaemia: implications for successful treatment and possible therapeutic strategies. Br J Haematol; 2001 Apr;113(1):153-60
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  • [Title] Killer T-cell induction in patients with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukaemia: implications for successful treatment and possible therapeutic strategies.
  • A rare form of putative natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma called blastic NK cell lymphoma appears to be clinicopathologically distinctive in showing a homogenous lymphoblast, variable expression of CD2, CD4, CD56 and TdT, negative for surface CD3, T-cell receptor antigen, CD16, CD34 and lack of association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • We report two patients with blastic NK cell lymphoma and describe the interesting clinical studies.
  • The patients presented with cutaneous plaques.
  • In spite of the advanced clinical stage, complete remission was achieved by conventional chemotherapy.
  • They showed specific killing activity against autologous tumour cells in an MHC-restricted fashion, with possible implications for treatment.
  • In addition, upon cessation of maintenance chemotherapy, one patient developed overt leukaemia with blasts expressing CD33 antigens, suggesting a continuous spectrum of blastic NK cell lymphoma to myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD2. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blotting, Southern. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11328295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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6. Takahashi K, Goi K, Satou H, Nemoto A, Uno K, Inukai T, Sugita K, Nakazawa S: [NSE-positive lymphoblastic lymphoma in a boy with cutaneous involvement, giant splenomegaly, and hyper-gamma globulinemia]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2004 Dec;45(12):1247-51
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  • [Title] [NSE-positive lymphoblastic lymphoma in a boy with cutaneous involvement, giant splenomegaly, and hyper-gamma globulinemia].
  • We report a 6-year-old boy who was diagnosed as having neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-positive pro-T cell type lymphoblastic lymphoma preceded with a variety of symptoms such as skin rash, giant splenomegaly, and hyper-gamma globulinemia.
  • However, no specific treatments were started at this point because a cervical lymph node biopsy failed to show malignancy and the patient's signs and symptoms resolved spontaneously.
  • Two months later, oral prednisolone therapy was started due to recurrence of the fever and erythema, but resulted in exacerbation of the skin lesions and generalized lymphadenopathy.
  • A biopsy of the right inguinal lymph node performed in January 2000 revealed proliferation of lymphoblastic cells positive for CD3, CD5 and NSE with a rearrangement of T cell receptor gene Jdelta, leading to the diagnosis of lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • After intensified chemotherapy, he received an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and has been in complete remission for 4 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15678916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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7. Jaing TH, Hsueh C, Chiu CH, Shih IH, Chan CK, Hung IJ: Cutaneous lymphocytic vasculitis as the presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Oct;24(7):555-7
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  • [Title] Cutaneous lymphocytic vasculitis as the presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • The authors describe a patient with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with a 3-week history of indurated or ulcerative, purpuric lesions distributed mainly on her legs.
  • After the patient started chemotherapy, the skin lesions abated but she became febrile and a blood culture revealed cryptococci.
  • The relationship between lymphocytic vasculitis and acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be an example of paraneoplastic association because both conditions seem to have appeared at about the same time, and both followed a parallel course.
  • Lymphocytic vasculitis may also reflect a new manifestation of host-leukemia interaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Skin / pathology. Vasculitis / complications. Vasculitis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Child. Humans. Prednisolone / therapeutic use


8. Sundararajan T, Kumar CP, Menon T, Rekha K, Venkatadesikalu M: Cutaneous zygomycosis due to Rhizopus oryzae in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Mycoses; 2004 Dec;47(11-12):521-3
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  • [Title] Cutaneous zygomycosis due to Rhizopus oryzae in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • We report herein a case of primary cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a 7-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving intensive chemotherapy.
  • The diagnosis was based on observation of hyphal elements in cutaneous biopsy and isolation of the fungus in culture.
  • The patient responded to surgical intervention and treatment with amphotericin B.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatomycoses / microbiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Rhizopus / isolation & purification. Zygomycosis / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amphotericin B / pharmacology. Amphotericin B / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / pharmacology. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Female. Humans. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15601461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0933-7407
  • [Journal-full-title] Mycoses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mycoses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B
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9. Hsi ED: Pathology of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and classification. Clin Lymphoma; 2004 Sep;5(2):89-97
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  • [Title] Pathology of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and classification.
  • Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas are less common than T-cell lymphomas but have received much attention in the past few years.
  • However, there is still some disagreement in terminology and characteristics of these lymphomas between the World Heath Organization (WHO) classification and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) proposal for primary cutaneous lymphomas.
  • This review will focus on the features of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, compare and contrast areas of discordance between the WHO and EORTC systems, and outline areas for further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Sensitivity and Specificity. Terminology as Topic. Translocation, Genetic


10. Rossi JG, Felice MS, Bernasconi AR, Ribas AE, Gallego MS, Somardzic AE, Alfaro EM, Alonso CN: Acute leukemia of dendritic cell lineage in childhood: incidence, biological characteristics and outcome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Apr;47(4):715-25

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute leukemia of dendritic cell lineage in childhood: incidence, biological characteristics and outcome.
  • The few cases described, mostly adults and elderly, typically present with cutaneous lesions, followed by disseminated tumor localizations within a few months, with a generally very aggressive course and fatal outcome, despite the different therapeutic approaches employing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Considering that leukemias in childhood and in adults are different diseases, we describe three pediatric cases to help compare the biological characteristics, immunophenotype, clinical features, treatment response and incidence of this disease in both age groups.
  • From a total 1363 new patients with acute leukemia (AL), we report three cases with blasts of French - American - British L2 morphology, an absence of the most specific markers for myeloid, T or B lineage and lacking CD34, which led us to evaluate the blasts with an extensive panel of antibodies, including those related to the other putative pathways of lymphoid differentation: natural killer and DC.
  • All three children showed good response to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) protocols, achieving complete remission even when one of the patients relapsed and received an allogeneic transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / cytology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Cell Lineage. Child. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16690531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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11. Kajiume T, Yoshimi S, Nagita A, Kobayashi K, Kataoka N: Application of nitric oxide for a case of veno-occlusive disease after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Oct-Nov;17(7):601-4
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  • A 5-year-old girl at high risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).
  • For treatment of VOD, transdermal isosorbide tape was applied as a nitric oxide (NO) donor.
  • The signs of VOD improved immediately after NO treatment was initiated, and the patient showed no side effects from the transdermal isosorbide tape.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease / drug therapy. Nitric Oxide / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Isosorbide / administration & dosage. Nitric Oxide Donors / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11033737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitric Oxide Donors; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; WXR179L51S / Isosorbide
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12. Imatinib: new indication. New indications, but not robust evidence. Prescrire Int; 2008 Jun;17(95):91-4
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  • (1) Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was first marketed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia and some gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
  • Its indications have gradually expanded over the years. (2) There is no consensus treatment for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • In a trial comparing imatinib versus chemotherapy as initial treatment for 55 patients, the haematological response rate was higher with imatinib.
  • In three non-comparative trials including patients with relapsed or refractory disease after chemotherapy, 50% of patients showed a survival time of at least 7 months.
  • Some myelodysplastic syndromes are associated with myeloproliferation and PDGFR gene rearrangements; imatinib is the first drug available for these patients.
  • Treatment is based on surgical excision but relapses are frequent.
  • In one series, 9 out of 12 patients treated with imatinib had at least a partial tumour response, making surgical excision possible in 3 cases. (6) Imatinib has diverse and frequent adverse effects; nausea and vomiting, oedema, fluid retention, cutaneous disorders and heart failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / drug therapy. Hypereosinophilic Syndrome / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Approval. France. Humans. Orphan Drug Production. Philadelphia Chromosome. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18623899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines
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13. O'Connor OA, Toner LE, Vrhovac R, Budak-Alpdogan T, Smith EA, Bergman P: Comparative animal models for the study of lymphohematopoietic tumors: strengths and limitations of present approaches. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Jul;46(7):973-92
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  • Underneath the single term lymphoma exist some of the fastest growing cancers known to science (i.e Burkitt's and lymphoblastic lymphoma), as well as some of the slowest growing (i.e. small lymphocytic lymphoma [SLL] and follicular lymphoma).
  • It is this very biology that can dictate the selection of drugs and treatment approaches for managing these patients, strategies that can range from very aggressive combination chemotherapy administered in an intensive care unit (for example, patients with Burkitt's lymphoma), to watch and wait approaches that may go on for years in patients with SLL.
  • It is precisely this molecular understanding that is beginning to form the basis for a new approach to thinking about lymphoma, and novel approaches to its management.
  • Unfortunately, while our understanding of human lymphoma has blossomed, our ability to generate appropriate animal models reflective of this biology has not.
  • Most preclinical models of these diseases still rely upon sub-cutaneous xenograft models of only the most aggressive lymphomas like Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • While these models clearly serve an important role in understanding biology, and perhaps more importantly, in identifying promising new drugs for these diseases, they fall short in truly representing the broader, more heterogenous biology found in patients.
  • Clearly, depending upon the questions being posed, or the types of drugs being studied, the best model to employ may vary from situation to situation.
  • In this article, we will review the numerous complexities associated with various animal models of lymphoma, and will try to explore several alternative models which might serve as better in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Hematologic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16019548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 246
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14. Smith KJ, Welsh M, Skelton H: Trichophyton rubrum showing deep dermal invasion directly from the epidermis in immunosuppressed patients. Br J Dermatol; 2001 Aug;145(2):344-8
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  • Trichophyton rubrum is the most widely encountered dermatophyte infection, and is usually regarded as exclusively keratinophilic often leading to chronic cutaneous and nail infections, even in healthy individuals.
  • We present three patients with acute leukaemias, with ill-defined pre-existent cutaneous eruptions that were treated with a potent topical corticosteroid.
  • All three patients received aggressive marrow toxic chemotherapy.
  • These patients had progression of their cutaneous disease, which showed deep dermal invasion of T. rubrum, invading directly from the epidermis with no evidence of systemic spread.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amphotericin B / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Fluconazole / therapeutic use. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Steroids. Treatment Outcome. Trichophyton / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11531807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Steroids; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole; G7RIW8S0XP / terbinafine
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15. Furman RR, Hoelzer D: Purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Semin Oncol; 2007 Dec;34(6 Suppl 5):S29-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for B-cell lymphoid malignancies.
  • Endogenous PNP deficiency leads to specific T-cell immunodeficiency, a genetic disease that has prompted the development of PNP inhibitors as potential therapies for T-cell-mediated diseases.
  • Forodesine is a highly potent, orally active, rationally designed PNP inhibitor that has shown activity in preclinical studies with malignant cells and clinical utility against T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, B-Cell / drug therapy. Purine Nucleosides / pharmacology. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidinones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Deoxyguanine Nucleotides / metabolism. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18086344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Deoxyguanine Nucleotides; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 2564-35-4 / deoxyguanosine triphosphate; 426X066ELK / forodesine; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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16. Kreitman RJ: Recombinant immunotoxins for the treatment of chemoresistant hematologic malignancies. Curr Pharm Des; 2009;15(23):2652-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recombinant immunotoxins for the treatment of chemoresistant hematologic malignancies.
  • No agents of this class are approved yet for medical use, although a related molecule, denileukin diftitox, composed of interleukin-2 fused to truncated diphtheria toxin, is approved for relapsed/refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Recombinant immunotoxins which have been tested in patients with chemotherapy-pretreated hematologic malignancies include LMB-2 (anti-CD25), BL22 (CAT-3888, anti-CD22) and HA22 (CAT-8015, anti-CD22), each containing an Fv fragment fused to truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin.
  • Major responses were observed with LMB-2 in adult T-cell leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and hairy cell leukemia (HCL).
  • HA22, an improved version of BL22 with higher affinity to CD22, is now undergoing phase I testing in HCL, CLL, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Discovery / methods. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunotoxins / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19689336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphtheria Toxin; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Leukocidins; 0 / Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytotoxins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Toxins, Biological
  • [Number-of-references] 190
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17. Korycka A, Lech-Marańda E, Robak T: Novel purine nucleoside analogues for hematological malignancies. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov; 2008 Jun;3(2):123-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Three of them: clofarabine (CAFdA), nelarabine, and forodesine (immucillin H, BCX-1777), despite belonging to the same group of drugs such as PNA, have shown some differences concerning their active forms, metabolic properties and mechanism of action.
  • However, all these drugs have demonstrated promising activity in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • CAFdA was approved for the therapy of relapsed or refractory ALL in the third line of treatment.
  • Moreover, the drug exhibits an efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BP) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • Nelarabine is recommended for T-ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) with the overall response rates ranging from 11 to 60%.
  • However, the use of the drug is limited by potentially severe neurotoxicity.
  • Forodesine is a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor and it has shown activity in relapsed and refractory T- and B-cells leukemias as well as in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).
  • Great hopes are currently set on the use of these drugs in the treatment of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in adult and in pediatric patients, however ongoing studies will help to define their role in the standard therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenine Nucleotides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arabinonucleosides / therapeutic use. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Purine Nucleosides / therapeutic use. Pyrimidinones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18537755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8928
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 426X066ELK / forodesine; 60158CV180 / nelarabine; 762RDY0Y2H / clofarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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18. van den Bos C, Bierings MB, Bruin MC, Rademaker CM, van Haselen CW, Révész T: Cutaneous side effects of medium dose methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2000 Apr;34(4):278-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous side effects of medium dose methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Exanthema / chemically induced. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10742071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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19. Saruwatari H, Yoshifuku A, Kawai K, Kanekura T: Cutaneous Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a bone marrow transplantation recipient. J Dermatol; 2010 Feb;37(2):185-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a bone marrow transplantation recipient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Mycobacterium avium Complex / isolation & purification. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / diagnosis. Prednisolone / adverse effects. Tuberculosis, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Vasculitis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Neutrophils / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20175857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin
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20. Kantarjian HM: Purine Nucleosidase Phosphorylase (PNP): A novel target in leukemias and lymphomas. Semin Oncol; 2007 Dec;34(6 Suppl 5):S1-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Deoxyguanine Nucleotides / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / antagonists & inhibitors. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18086341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Deoxyguanine Nucleotides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 2564-35-4 / deoxyguanosine triphosphate; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase
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