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1. Lee SH, Kim MJ, Lee HJ, Kim SJ, Park JS, Hur SY: A case of inguinal lymph node squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin, accompanied with carcinoma in situ of cervix. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jun;19(2):145-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of inguinal lymph node squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin, accompanied with carcinoma in situ of cervix.
  • Metastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUP) accounts for approximately 3-5% of all malignant neoplasms.
  • CUP represents a heterogeneous group of metastatic tumors for which no primary site can be detected following a thorough medical history, careful clinical examination, and extensive diagnostic work-up.
  • Several authors have reported poor prognosis of this malignancy, because there is no consensus on diagnostic guidelines and optimal therapy.
  • Historically, chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for patients with CUP.
  • We experienced a case of inguinal lymph node squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin, accompanied with carcinoma in situ of the cervix.

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  • (PMID = 19471557.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676454
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Inguinal lymph node / Metastatic cancer of unknown primary site
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2. Lu X, Hu C, Ji Q, Shen C, Feng Y: Squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site: the impact of radiotherapy. Tumori; 2009 Mar-Apr;95(2):185-90
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary site: the impact of radiotherapy.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary site constitute about 5% of the total head and neck cancer, cases.
  • The management of these patients is still a therapeutic challenge.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Data from 60 patients with cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary site were reviewed.
  • Fourteen patients (23.3%) also received chemotherapy.
  • Emergence of the occult primary was observed in 21.2% patients, and all of these occurred within the head and neck region.
  • The primary tumor emerged in 23.3% of patients treated with ipsilateral and bilateral neck irradiation and in 12.5% of patients irradiated by extensive field (P = 0.469).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary site have clinical features and a prognosis similar to those of other head and neck malignancies.
  • Extensive irradiation results in a lower trend of emergence of the primary tumor than when patients are treated with ipsilateral and bilateral irradiation, but there is no significant difference in overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiation effects. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neck. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19579864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Hainsworth JD, Spigel DR, Thompson DS, Murphy PB, Lane CM, Waterhouse DM, Naot Y, Greco FA: Paclitaxel/carboplatin plus bevacizumab/erlotinib in the first-line treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. Oncologist; 2009 Dec;14(12):1189-97
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel/carboplatin plus bevacizumab/erlotinib in the first-line treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • INTRODUCTION: This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of paclitaxel, carboplatin, bevacizumab, and erlotinib in the first-line treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • METHODS: Patients with previously untreated CUP (adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma) without clinical or pathologic characteristics of a well-defined treatable subset were eligible.
  • Treatment cycles were repeated at 21-day intervals.
  • After four cycles, paclitaxel and carboplatin were discontinued; bevacizumab-erlotinib treatment was continued until tumor progression.
  • Patients were initially evaluated for response after completion of two treatment cycles; re-evaluations occurred every 6 weeks thereafter.
  • RESULTS: Forty-nine of 60 patients (82%) completed four cycles of therapy, and 44 patients (73%) subsequently received maintenance bevacizumab and erlotinib.
  • Thirty-two patients (53%) had major responses to treatment; an additional 18 patients had stable disease.
  • After a median follow-up of 19 months, the median progression-free survival time was 8 months, with 38% of patients progression free at 1 year.
  • The median survival time and 2-year overall survival rate were 12.6 months and 27%, respectively.
  • Treatment was generally well tolerated, with a toxicity profile as predicted based on the known toxicities of each treatment component.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Empiric treatment with paclitaxel, carboplatin, bevacizumab, and erlotinib is effective and well tolerated as first-line treatment for patients with CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Quinazolines / adverse effects. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19965914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Quinazolines; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Yamashita S, Hirao M, Tsujinaka T, Sawamura T, Nakamori S, Mishima H, Fujitani K, Ikenaga M, Kashiwazaki M, Masuda N: [A case of unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma in the neck showing a high response with combined chemotherapy including nedaplatin, adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Aug;32(8):1149-51
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  • [Title] [A case of unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma in the neck showing a high response with combined chemotherapy including nedaplatin, adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil].
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old man with unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma in the bilateral neck.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, because his right common carotid artery was invaded by the right neck tumor, and a complete curative operation was not considered possible.
  • We chose instead combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin, adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil (NAF), because it was reported that NAF was available for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • After 3 cycles of NAF chemotherapy, the patient showed a partial response of approximately an 86% decrease in the right neck tumor for over three months.
  • In addition to NAF, radiation therapy was performed.
  • In the CT findings after chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the patient showed a complete response in the bilateral neck tumors.
  • Unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma in the neck has been treated by combination therapy consisting of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.
  • The regime of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin is said to be an effective treatment for unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma in the neck.
  • Based on our experience, NAF would be available as chemotherapy for unknown primary squamous cell carcinomas in the neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16121918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Watanabe S, Tanaka J, Tsuboi K, Tanaka H, Kagamu H, Yoshizawa H, Suzuki E, Gejyo F: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary site with involvement of cervico-mediastinal lymph nodes successfully treated by chemoradiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Oct;33(10):1493-5
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary site with involvement of cervico-mediastinal lymph nodes successfully treated by chemoradiotherapy].
  • A 70-year-old woman was admitted with cervicomediastinal lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary site (Sq-CUPS).
  • The patient was treated with 4 cycles of chemotherapy combining carboplatin and paclitaxel with subsequent radiation therapy.
  • After serial treatment, a partial response was obtained, and the disease has not recurred for over 2 years.
  • Chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by sequential radiation therapy was suggested to be potentially useful for Sq-CUPS with involvement of cervicomediastinal lymph nodes, although this group of patients is generally regarded to have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mediastinum. Neck. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17033245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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6. Lassman AB, Abrey LE, Shah GD, Panageas KS, Begemann M, Malkin MG, Raizer JJ: Systemic high-dose intravenous methotrexate for central nervous system metastases. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jul;78(3):255-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment options for patients with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) metastases are limited.
  • Twenty-nine patients had breast cancer, and one each had cancer of unknown primary (CUP), squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Prior treatment with low-dose MTX for systemic disease did not affect response (P = 0.8).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HD IV MTX is effective in the treatment of CNS metastases with disease control (response or stable) as a best response in 56% of assessable patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / mortality. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurooncol. 2006 Jul;78(3):261. Shah, Gaurav G [corrected to Shah, Gaurav D]
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  • (PMID = 16344918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009512
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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7. Karavasilis V, Malamou-Mitsi V, Briasoulis E, Tsanou E, Kitsou E, Kalofonos H, Fountzilas G, Fotsis T, Pavlidis N: Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1. BMC Cancer; 2005 Mar 3;5:25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary remains a mallignancy of elusive biology and grim prognosis that lacks effective therapeutic options.
  • We investigated angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary to expand our knowledge on the biology of these tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets.
  • METHODS: Paraffin embedded archival material from 81 patients diagnosed with CUP was used.
  • Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (77%), undifferentiated carcinoma (18%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%).
  • The tissue expression of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1 was assessed immunohistochemically by use of specific monoclonal antibodies and was analyzed against clinicopathological data.
  • CONCLUSION: Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary.
  • These findings support the clinical investigation of VEGF targeted therapy in this clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / chemistry. Thrombospondin 1 / analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / blood supply. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic

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  • (PMID = 15743540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC555600
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8. Pouessel D, Thezenas S, Culine S, Becht C, Senesse P, Ychou M: Hepatic metastases from carcinomas of unknown primary site. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1224-32
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  • [Title] Hepatic metastases from carcinomas of unknown primary site.
  • AIM: Hepatic metastases are often present at diagnosis of carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • The objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used.
  • METHODS: One hundred and eighteen patients were treated at the Cancer Center of Montpellier from 1993 to 2002 for CUP initially metastatic to the liver.
  • RESULTS: The most frequent histological types observed were adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated, neuroendocrine and squamous-cell carcinomas.
  • Pretreatment computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis evaluation were available for more than 80% of patients.
  • One hundred and seven patients had received at least a front-line of chemotherapy.
  • Seventy-four patients had received platin salt-based chemotherapy, 67 in front-line treatment and 10 in second line.
  • In first-line chemotherapy, overall response rates with or without platin were 19.4 and 20% respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, pretreatment evaluations, which were very extensive in some patients, were insufficient to identify the primary site of liver metastases.
  • Because of the poor prognostic, chemotherapy, in absence of clinically demonstrated benefit, has to be reserved for patients with better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16518276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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9. Werner JA, Dünne AA: Value of neck dissection in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary. Onkologie; 2001 Feb;24(1):16-20
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  • [Title] Value of neck dissection in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • Lymph node metastases of cancer of an unknown primary (CUP syndrome) are responsible for 3-5% of the malignant diseases in the head and neck area.
  • More than 70% of these patients show lymph node metastases of an unknown squamous cell carcinoma.
  • For a curative approach modified radical neck dissection combined with postoperative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy should be considered in N1-N3 lymph node status.
  • A radical neck dissection with postoperative radiation therapy should only be approved in cases of infiltration of the internal jugular vein, the accessory nerve and/or the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neck Dissection. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 11441275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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10. Pavlidis N, Pentheroudakis G, Plataniotis G: Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary site: a favourable prognosis subset of patients with CUP. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Jun;11(6):340-8
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  • [Title] Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary site: a favourable prognosis subset of patients with CUP.
  • Squamous cervical cancer of unknown primary site (SQCCUP) presents in patients as neck lymph nodes involved by squamous carcinoma in the absence of identifiable primary in the head, neck or lung.
  • This CUP subset affects male patients previously exposed to alcohol and tobacco, though a proportion of cases may be related to chronic infection of the oropharynx by human papilloma virus.
  • The cornerstones of management are excisional biopsy or surgical extirpation of the disease followed by bilateral neck external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The necessity for complete surgical resection of involved neck nodes, irradiation of all head/neck mucosal sites and administration of concurrent chemotherapy is currently being debated.
  • Aggressive multimodal therapy results in longterm disease control in 50-60% of patients, though data are mainly based on retrospective cohorts.
  • Recently introduced molecular profiling platforms may provide biological classification to a primary tissue of origin as well as insights into the pathophysiology of this clinical entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcoholism / epidemiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neck. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Risk Factors. Smoking / epidemiology. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 19531448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. Jereczek-Fossa BA, Jassem J, Orecchia R: Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary. Cancer Treat Rev; 2004 Apr;30(2):153-64
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  • [Title] Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary.
  • Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from occult primary constitute about 2-5% of all patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • Metastases in the upper and middle neck are generally attributed to head and neck cancers, whereas the lower neck (supraclavicular area) involvement is often associated with primary malignancies below the clavicles.
  • The diagnostic procedures include physical examination with thorough evaluation of the head and neck mucosa using fiber-optic endoscopy, biopsies from all suspicious sites or blindly from the sites of possible origin of the primary, computer tomography and/or magnetic resonance.
  • A systematic tonsillectomy in the absence of suspicious lesions is often recommended since up to 25% of primary tumors can be detected in this site.
  • The thoracic primary (tracheal, bronchial, lung, esophagus) has to be excluded, especially in the case of lower neck involvement.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose allows detection of primary tumor in about 25% of cases, but this procedure is still considered investigational.
  • Therapeutic approaches include surgery (lymph node excision or neck dissection), with or without postoperative radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy followed by surgery.
  • A potential benefit from extensive radiotherapy should be weighted against its acute and late morbidity and difficulties in re-irradiation in the case of subsequent primary emergence.
  • The role of other methods, such as chemotherapy and hyperthermia, remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck. Prognosis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15023433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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12. Shigehara K, Kitagawa Y, Nakashima T, Shimamura M, Katayanagi K, Kurumaya H: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with a new combined chemotherapy regimen, intraarterial nedaplatin and pirarubicin plus intravenous methotrexate and vincristine--second case report in Japan]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Aug;34(8):1319-21
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with a new combined chemotherapy regimen, intraarterial nedaplatin and pirarubicin plus intravenous methotrexate and vincristine--second case report in Japan].
  • We report our second patient treated successfully with a new combined chemotherapy regimen of intra-arterial pirarubicin and nedaplatin plus intravenous methotrexate and vincristine for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder.
  • A 57-year-old man consulted our hospital in September 2005 for treatment of bladder tumors diagnosed in another hospital.
  • Transurethral cold-cup biopsy was performed, and pathological examination revealed SCC.
  • After he received two courses of this new combined intra-arterial chemotherapy regimen using nedaplatin, tumors were detected in MRI and cystoscopy.
  • There were no severe adverse reactions by this chemotherapy regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystectomy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Routes. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17687223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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13. Pentheroudakis G, Briasoulis E, Kalofonos HP, Fountzilas G, Economopoulos T, Samelis G, Koutras A, Karina M, Xiros N, Samantas E, Bamias A, Pavlidis N, Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group: Docetaxel and carboplatin combination chemotherapy as outpatient palliative therapy in carcinoma of unknown primary: a multicentre Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group phase II study. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(6):1148-55
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  • [Title] Docetaxel and carboplatin combination chemotherapy as outpatient palliative therapy in carcinoma of unknown primary: a multicentre Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group phase II study.
  • We sought to optimise the regimen as a suitable outpatient palliative treatment for cancer of unknown primary (CUP).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible CUP patients with adenocarcinoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma, performance status of 0-2, adequate organ function and assessable disease were treated with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and carboplatin at an area under the concentration time-curve (AUC) of 5, both as 30-minute intravenous infusions, every three weeks.
  • Patients with isolated axillary adenopathy, squamous cell cervical or inguinal adenopathy and PSA or germ-cell serum tumour markers were excluded.
  • A median of 6 cycles of chemotherapy were administered, with relative dose intensities of both drugs >90%.
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor support was used in a third of treatment cycles.
  • Median time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 5.5 and 16.2 months respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: One-hour docetaxel/carboplatin is a convenient, safe and effective outpatient palliative treatment for CUP patients, providing meaningful survival prolongation only in favourable-risk patients.
  • Insights in the molecular biology of CUP are needed for the development of targeted therapeutic manipulations of malignant resistance and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Ambulatory Care. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Outpatients. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Greece. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18607872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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14. Kuemper C, Burges A, Hillemanns P, Mueller-Egloff S, Lenhard M, Ditsch N, Strauss A: Supraclavicular lymph node metastases of unknown origin: HPV-typing identifies the primary tumour. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl); 2009 Nov;18(6):606-11
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  • [Title] Supraclavicular lymph node metastases of unknown origin: HPV-typing identifies the primary tumour.
  • Cancers of unknown primary origin (CUP) account for 0.5-10% of all malignancies.
  • CUP patients with metastases have a median survival of approximately 6 months, despite therapy.
  • Identification of the primary tumour site may offer the opportunity of a specific and more efficient treatment.
  • The case of a 45-year-old woman with supraclavicular lymph node metastases of a squamous cell CUP is reported.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)-testing in the tissues revealed the tumour cells as metastases of an occult cervical cancer.
  • Primary platin-based chemotherapy combined with paclitaxel leads to a complete apparative remission.
  • Twelve months later, staging positron emission tomography with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination with computed tomography identified an isolated left renal lymph node metastasis.
  • The patient received targeted radiation therapy, combined with cisplatin.
  • The presented case report addresses the difficulties involving the identification of CUP.
  • As the presented case illustrates, testing for this virus DNA in human tissues can be a useful diagnostic tool in patients with CUP where cervical cancer is the possible primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19549285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2354
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cancer Care (Engl)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / DNA, Viral; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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15. Pavlidis N, Fizazi K: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2009 Mar;69(3):271-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide.
  • Patients with CUP present with metastases without an established primary site.
  • CUP manifests as an heterogeneous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinicopathological entities.
  • Nevertheless, the primary tumour remains undetected most of the time.
  • Certain clinicopathological CUP entities are considered as favourable sub-sets responding to systemic platinum-based chemotherapy or managed by locoregional treatment.
  • These sub-sets are: the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, isolated axillary node adenocarcinomas in females or cervical nodal involvement by a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18977667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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16. Kruk-Zagajewska A, Szmeja Z, Wierzbicka M: [Neck metastases from unknown primary neoplasms (CUP syndrome)]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2000;54 Suppl 31:262-6

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  • [Title] [Neck metastases from unknown primary neoplasms (CUP syndrome)].
  • [Transliterated title] Przerzuty w układzie chłonnym szyi z nieznanego ogniska nowotworowego (carcinoma of unknown primary--CUP syndrom).
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP-syndrome) is taken into consideration when the patient has histologically confirmed metastases but the primary focus remains unknown or it's diagnosis is delayed.
  • Metastases of unknown origin constitute from 5% to 31% of all neck metastases.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma metastases in the neck lymphatics suggest that location of primary focus can be found in head and neck region.
  • Diagnostic procedures applied in detection of primary foci have been described.
  • The knowledge of lymphatic metastases spreading routes is helpful in the primary focus detection.
  • In the material of 1348 patients treated oncologically in the years 1991-1997 in ENT Department of Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, 22 were diagnosed for CUP syndrome.
  • Primary foci were not found in 7 cases.
  • In the remaining 15 patients the primary was located in nasopharynx, palatinal tonsil, tongue, hypopharynx, testes or breast.
  • The treatment included the radical neck dissection with consecutive irradiation and/or chemotherapy, and in the case of diagnosing the primary one applied it's radical removal or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 10974902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] POLAND
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17. Ligey A, Gentil J, Créhange G, Montbarbon X, Pommier P, Peignaux K, Truc G, Maingon P: Impact of target volumes and radiation technique on loco-regional control and survival for patients with unilateral cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Dec;93(3):483-7
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  • [Title] Impact of target volumes and radiation technique on loco-regional control and survival for patients with unilateral cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary.
  • PURPOSE: To compare the impact of an unilateral post-operative irradiation or a bilateral irradiation in terms of loco-regional control and survival in patients with cervical lymph node of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary (CUP).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety five patients with epidermoid carcinoma involving unilateral cervical lymph nodes from an unknown primary were treated in two institutions from 1990 to 2007.
  • Post-operative radiation therapy was delivered to one side of the neck in 59 cases, to both sides of the neck in 36 cases.
  • The occult primary occurred in 12% after unilateral irradiation and 6% after bilateral radiotherapy.
  • There was no difference in loco-regional control (p=0.639) and no difference in survival (p=0.493) when chemotherapy was associated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neck. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19892420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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18. Pavlidis N, Fizazi K: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Jun;54(3):243-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of unknown primary (CUP).
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is one of the 10 most frequent cancers worldwide.
  • Patients with CUP present with metastases without an established primary site.
  • CUP manifests as an heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinicopathological entities.
  • Nevertheless, the primary tumour remains undetected most of the time.
  • Certain clinicopathological CUP entities are considered as favourable subsets responding to systemic platinum-based chemotherapy or managed by locoregional treatment.
  • These subsets are: the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, isolated axillary node adenocarcinomas in females or cervical nodal involvement by a squamous cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15890271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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19. Issing WJ, Taleban B, Tauber S: [Diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region with unknown primary. A survey of 167 patients]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2003 Sep;82(9):659-65
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region with unknown primary. A survey of 167 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnose und Management von Plattenepithelkarzinomen mit unbekanntem Primärtumor im Kopf-Hals-Bereich.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of unknown primary is defined as histological diagnosis of metastasis without diagnosis of a primary tumor.
  • The incidence of CUP is stated in the literature between 3 % and 15 % of all patients with an malignant disease.
  • Histological examination of CUP-metastasis of the neck most frequently shows a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 167 patients admitted and treated for cervical CUP at the department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Klinikum Grosshadern from 1979 to 1998.
  • In the studied collective squamous cell carcinoma had the highest incidence (n = 123).
  • During the 10 year follow-up a primary tumor was found in 36 of the 167 initially diagnosed CUP-patients.
  • The origin of the tumor was most frequently the tonsilla palatina (n = 7).
  • Primary radiotherapy was the treatment of choice in 28 patients, 8 patients received combined radio-chemotherapy as primary treatment and 7 patients were treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • No treatment was performed in 6 patients.
  • RESULTS: By comparing the treatment methods there was a significant difference of patient survival in regard to the treatment.
  • Patients treated according to treatment-plan II, which includes an additional "diagnostic" tonsillectomy, is significantly higher than that of patients simply undergoing neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy or primary radiotherapy alone.
  • Treatment of choice in patients with cervical CUP should be a surgical procedure including radical neck dissection and diagnostic bilateral tonsillectomy followed by postoperative radiation of the cervical lymph drainage.
  • DISCUSSION: Bilateral tonsillectomy is especially important and is correlated with a significant improvement of the survival rate in CUP patients.
  • Additional postoperative radiation of the pharynx from the base of the skull to the upper oesophagus should also be considered, in order to treat a possible--small--primary tumor in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 14517763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Sumi H, Itoh K, Onozawa Y, Shigeoka Y, Kodama K, Ishizawa K, Fujii H, Minami H, Igarashi T, Sasaki Y: Treatable subsets in cancer of unknown primary origin. Jpn J Cancer Res; 2001 Jun;92(6):704-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatable subsets in cancer of unknown primary origin.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatable subsets in cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP).
  • Fifty patients (27 males and 23 females; median age, 53 years) with CUP diagnosed between April 1992 and June 1999 were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Of the 50 patients, 39 received chemotherapy: platinum-based in 31, non-platinum-based in 4, and clinical trials of new agents in 4.
  • Patients with poorly differentiated carcinomas in whom beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) was elevated more than 10 mIU / ml and female patients with peritoneal adenocarcinomatosis achieved high response rates (83.3% and 80%, respectively) with platinum-based chemotherapy, as compared with only a 15.3% response rate in the remaining patients.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy provided promising results in patients with poorly differentiated carcinomas and in female patients with peritoneal adenocarcinomatosis.
  • Significantly elevated serum levels of beta-HCG in patients with poorly differentiated carcinoma might predict a better response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • However, the investigation of novel chemotherapeutic approaches is warranted for other groups of patients with CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sex Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11429061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0910-5050
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of cancer research : Gann
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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21. Shibata H: [Treatment of cancer of unknown primary, today and future]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Jun;36(6):918-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of cancer of unknown primary, today and future].
  • Cancer of unknown primary(CUP)is a malignant disease with metastases such as lymph nodes, lung or liver metastasis, and without an identified primary site.
  • CUP constitutes 5% of all human malignant diseases.
  • Chemotherapy based on the primary site is not applicable for the treatment of CUP.
  • It is very difficult to apply any regimens without information on the primary sites.
  • To resolve this problem, molecular diagnostic technologies using a gene expression profiling platform to identify the primary site of CUP are now applied.
  • Primary site-dependent chemotherapy could be conducted in accordance with the result of the molecular diagnosis of the primary site.
  • Identification of the underlying mechanism that is specific to the unfavorable CUP may be a clue to develop a novel treatment for CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19542712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Yakushiji S, Ando M, Yonemori K, Kohno T, Shimizu C, Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y: Cancer of unknown primary site: review of consecutive cases at the National Cancer Center Hospital of Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;11(6):421-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of unknown primary site: review of consecutive cases at the National Cancer Center Hospital of Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not a rare clinical entity, accounting for 3%-5% of all solid malignancies.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 86 (38 male/48 female) patients with a diagnosis of CUP (exclusive of female patients with adenocarcinoma involving the axillary lymph nodes alone and patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical lymph nodes) who were referred to the National Cancer Center Hospital between April 1996 and October 2002.
  • The histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 61 patients (71%), poorly differentiated carcinoma in 18 patients (21%), and squamous cell carcinoma in 4 patients (5%).
  • Seventy-eight patients (91%) received platinum-containing chemotherapy.
  • Sixty-one of the 86 patients (71%) were categorized as a subgroup of CUP without a specific therapy, and 55 of these 61 patients (90%) received platinum-containing regimens.
  • The median survivals of all 86 patients and the 61 patients in the subgroup without a specific therapy in this series were 13 months and 11 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: In this series, the survival of the patients in the CUP subgroup without a specific therapy did not seem worse than that in previous reports.
  • Empirical chemotherapy with platinum-containing regimens may benefit some CUP patients in a subgroup without a specific chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cancer Care Facilities. Female. Humans. Japan. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17180509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Pejcić I, Vrbić S, Filipović S, Sćekić M, Petković I, Pejcić L, Djenić N: [Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring metastases in carcinomas of unknown primary site]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2010 Sep;67(9):723-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring metastases in carcinomas of unknown primary site].
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Unknown primary tumors represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are indicative of ominous prognosis.
  • Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is defined as the lack of any detectable primary site after full evaluation, and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all newly diagnosed patients with malignancies.
  • On histological examination, all the patients were presented with metastatic tumors whose primary site (origin) could not be detected with noninvasive diagnostic techniques.
  • Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma--8 patients; adenocarcinoma--33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated) carcinoma--22 patients.
  • In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP), chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG), neuron specific enolase (NSE), marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125), prostate-specific antigene (PSA), marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3), marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) at the time of diagnosis.
  • The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present.
  • The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression.
  • Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males), aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria.
  • The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 (day 1), cisplatin 60 mg/m2 (day 1), and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3).
  • The period between two chemotherapy cycles was three weeks, and maximum five weeks in the case of prolonged hematological toxicity.
  • Average survival time was 17.89 months (95% CI 12.96; 22.83).
  • The group of 32 patients treated with chemotherapy had 12 (37.5%) fatal outcomes in the observed period (72 months).
  • Average survival time was 26.6 months (95% CI 19.5; 33.7).
  • Average tumor marker values before and after the chemotherapy were significantly lower for NSE and CA 125.
  • CONCLUSION: Increased values of serum tumor markers are very often in CUP.
  • The NSE and CA 125 levels show good correlation with response to the given chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology


24. Briasoulis E, Kalofonos H, Bafaloukos D, Samantas E, Fountzilas G, Xiros N, Skarlos D, Christodoulou C, Kosmidis P, Pavlidis N: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel in unknown primary carcinoma: a phase II Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Sep;18(17):3101-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carboplatin plus paclitaxel in unknown primary carcinoma: a phase II Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven consecutive CUP patients (45 women and 32 men; median age, 60 years) were treated with carboplatin at target area under the curve 6 mg/mL/min followed by paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) as a 3-hour infusion and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor from days 5 to 12.
  • Treatment courses were repeated every 3 weeks to a maximum of eight cycles.
  • Forty-seven patients had adenocarcinomas, 27 had undifferentiated carcinomas, and three had squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The response rates and median survival times in the three clinically defined subsets were 47.8% and 13 months, respectively, for patients with predominantly nodal/pleural disease, 68.4% and 15 months, respectively, in women with peritoneal carcinomatosis, and 15.1% and 10 months, respectively, in patients with visceral or disseminated metastases.
  • Chemotherapy was well-tolerated.
  • CONCLUSION: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel combination chemotherapy is effective in patients with predominantly nodal/pleural metastases of unknown primary carcinoma and in women with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • The investigation of novel treatment approaches is highly warranted for this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10963638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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25. Blaszyk H, Hartmann A, Bjornsson J: Cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathologic correlations. APMIS; 2003 Dec;111(12):1089-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathologic correlations.
  • Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) accounts for 5-10% of all malignant tumors at presentation and remains the death certificate diagnosis in 0.5-5% of patients.
  • We investigated CUP patients whose primary site remained unknown throughout the entire clinical course.
  • We reviewed 9,436 consecutive autopsies performed between 1984 and 1999 at the Mayo Clinic, matched with 177,167 cancer patients treated in the same time period.
  • Sixty-four patients who died of CUP underwent postmortem examination.
  • Antemortem pathologic diagnoses were obtained in 57 patients, agreed with postmortem diagnoses in 98%, and included adenocarcinoma (n=44), undifferentiated carcinoma (n=7), squamous cell carcinoma (n=3), and others (n=3).
  • Autopsy located the primary site in 35 patients (55%).
  • Common primary sites were lung (n=8), the pancreaticobiliary (n=13) and GI tracts (n=9).
  • Of 43 patients evaluated for tumor-specific therapy, only six received no further oncologic treatment and untreated patients survived a median of 57 (range 10-280) days, compared with 225 (range 19-1,129) days for patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (n=37).
  • Our findings show that (1) autopsy studies provide a valuable tool for quality control in the setting of CUP, and (2) treated patients have a small but significant survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14678017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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26. Christiansen H, Hermann RM, Martin A, Nitsche M, Schmidberger H, Pradier O: Neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor retrospective study and review of literature. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Jun;181(6):355-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor retrospective study and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Up to 10% of all neck lymph node metastases present without a known primary site.
  • The optimal treatment strategy for these patients is still undefined.
  • The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the outcome in patients with neck metastases from an unknown primary tumor (CUP).
  • Furthermore, prognostic factors and treatment modalities are discussed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1984 to 2003, 28 patients with squamous cell neck metastases from a CUP were treated at the authors' institution.
  • In that case, adjuvant radiotherapy was carried out with a mean of 56.7 Gy.
  • These patients received definitive radiotherapy with a mean of 66.8 Gy.
  • In summary, 25 patients received extended radiotherapy including both sides of the neck and potential mucosal primary sites.
  • Additional chemotherapy was administered to five patients.
  • After this period of time, ten patients (36%) remained alive.
  • No subsequent primary could be detected.
  • CONCLUSION: With radical surgery followed by radiotherapy good survival rates in patients with neck metastases from a CUP can be obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15925977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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27. Issing WJ, Taleban B, Tauber S: Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in the head and neck. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2003 Sep;260(8):436-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in the head and neck.
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary is defined as the histological diagnosis of metastasis without the detection of a primary tumor.
  • In the literature, the incidence of CUP in all patients with a malignant disease is said to be between 3% and 15%.
  • The most frequent histopathological results of CUP metastases are adenocarcinoma, followed by undifferentiated carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All patients had been admitted and treated for cervical CUP at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Grosshadern Clinic from 1979 to 1998.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (n=123) was the predominant histopathological finding of the cervical lymph nodes.
  • During the 10-year follow-up, a primary tumor was detected in 36 (21.5%) of the 167 initially diagnosed CUP patients.
  • The most frequent origin of the tumor was the tonsilla palatina (n=7).
  • Neck dissection and additional postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 118 (70.7%) of the 167 CUP patients.
  • Primary radiotherapy was the treatment of choice in 28 patients; eight patients received combined radio-chemotherapy as the primary treatment and seven patients were treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • Six patients had no treatment.
  • Comparison of different treatment protocols revealed a significant difference in patient survival: in comparison with primary radiotherapy alone or neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy, the survival rate improved significantly in patients that received a bilateral tonsillectomy in addition to neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy.
  • The treatment of choice in patients with cervical CUP should be a surgical procedure including (radical) neck dissection and diagnostic bilateral tonsillectomy followed by postoperative radiation of the cervical lymph drainage.
  • Bilateral tonsillectomy is especially important and is correlated with a significant improvement of the survival rate in CUP patients.
  • Additional postoperative radiation of the entire pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa should also be considered in order to treat a possible small primary tumor in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12684829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Pavlidis N, Briasoulis E, Hainsworth J, Greco FA: Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary. Eur J Cancer; 2003 Sep;39(14):1990-2005
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary.
  • Metastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignant neoplasms and is therefore one of the 10 most frequent cancer diagnoses in man.
  • Patients with CUP present with metastatic disease for which the site of origin cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis.
  • It is now accepted that CUP represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies that share a unique clinical behaviour and, presumably, unique biology.
  • The following clinicopathological entities have been recognised: (i) metastatic CUP primarily to the liver or to multiple sites, (ii) metastatic CUP to lymph nodes including the sub-sets involving primarily the mediastinal-retroperitoneal, the axillary, the cervical or the inguinal nodes, (iii) metastatic CUP of peritoneal cavity including the peritoneal papillary serous carcinomatosis in females and the peritoneal non-papillary carcinomatosis in males or females, (iv) metastatic CUP to the lungs with parenchymal metastases or isolated malignant pleural effusion, (v) metastatic CUP to the bones, (vi) metastatic CUP to the brain, (vii) metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas and (viii) metastatic melanoma of an unknown primary.
  • Extensive work-up with specific pathology investigations (immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular diagnosis) and modern imaging technology (computed tomography (CT), mammography, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan) have resulted in some improvements in diagnosis; however, the primary site remains unknown in most patients, even on autopsy.
  • Several favourable sub-sets of CUP have been identified, which are responsive to systemic chemotherapy and/or locoregional treatment.
  • Identification and treatment of these patients is of paramount importance.
  • The considered responsive sub-sets to platinum-based chemotherapy are the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, the peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females and the poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Other tumours successfully managed by locoregional treatment with surgery and/or irradiation are the metastatic adenocarcinoma of isolated axillary nodes, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of cervical nodes, or any other single metastatic site.
  • Empirical chemotherapy benefits some of the patients who do not fit into any favourable sub-set, and should be considered in patients with a good performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Cancer. 2004 Jun;40(9):1454-5 [15177507.001]
  • (PMID = 12957453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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29. Berglund A, Nygren P, Hagberg H, Påhlman L, Sundin A, Sundström C: [Limit investigation in cancer of unknown primary site]. Lakartidningen; 2005 Oct 10-16;102(41):2946-8, 2950-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Limit investigation in cancer of unknown primary site].
  • Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is relatively common, approximately 3-5% of all cancers.
  • If patients do not belong to any of these subgroups, diagnostic evaluation and treatment should be considered in relation to possible benefits.
  • CUP diagnosed patients should, if possible, be cared for by experienced hospital units with access to a multi-disciplinary network.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16294513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7205
  • [Journal-full-title] Läkartidningen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lakartidningen
  • [Language] swe
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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30. Kruk-Zagajewska A, Milecki P, Wierzbicka M: [Advances in the diagnosis of unknown primary carcinoma of the neck]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(1):77-83
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Head and Neck Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Advances in the diagnosis of unknown primary carcinoma of the neck].
  • The diagnosis of carcinoma of unknown primary is set, when histologically the neck metastases are confirmed but the primary focus is not possible to be found or occurs during the follow-up.
  • The CUP-nodes constitute 2-20% of all neck metastases in laryngological entities.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma or anaplastic carcinoma recognized in the neck nodes suggest, that the primary focus is localised in the head and neck region.
  • AIM: The schedule of diagnostic procedure aiming at finding the primary focus in CUP-syndrome is presented.
  • The knowledge of carcinoma cells spreading paths between particular neck regions is crucial for effective diagnostics of tumor localization in upper aerodigestive tract.
  • RESULTS: Among 3320 oncological patients treated between 1993-2003 in Department of Otolaryngology, Head Neck Oncological Surgery 32 were diagnosed as CUP syndrome.
  • In 17 patients the primary localisation was revealed during the follow-up period in: nasopharynx, palatine tonsil, hypopharynx, testis and breast.
  • In 15 patients the primary focus was never found.
  • The radical neck dissection followed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy was performed in patients with CUP.
  • In cases when primary tumor was found, the radical surgery or radiotherapy was additionally applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Poland / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Diagnosis Unknown.
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  • (PMID = 15915923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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