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1. Pournaras JA, Chamot L, Uffer S, Zografos L: Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia in a patient treated with tacrolimus after liver transplantation. Cornea; 2007 Dec;26(10):1261-2
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  • [Title] Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia in a patient treated with tacrolimus after liver transplantation.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia in a patient treated with tacrolimus after liver transplantation for hepatic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A 70-year-old man presented with a conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia that developed on the site of a preexisting pterygium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe a case of intraepithelial conjunctival neoplasia in a patient treated with systemic tacrolimus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / etiology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Transplantation. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Mitomycin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18043187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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2. Prabhasawat P, Tarinvorakup P, Tesavibul N, Uiprasertkul M, Kosrirukvongs P, Booranapong W, Srivannaboon S: Topical 0.002% mitomycin C for the treatment of conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. Cornea; 2005 May;24(4):443-8
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  • [Title] Topical 0.002% mitomycin C for the treatment of conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To demonstrate the efficacy of topical 0.002% mitomycin C (MMC) as an adjunctive and alternative treatment in primary and recurrent conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CCIN) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • All cases were treated with topical 0.002% MMC 4 times daily.
  • The tumor size pre- and post-treatment, clinical response, and ocular complications were evaluated.
  • Before MMC treatment, 6 eyes (85.7%) had recurrences after surgical excision.
  • MMC 0.002% 4 times daily was applied for a period of 5.4 +/- 4.4 weeks (range, 2-14).
  • Side effects of MMC therapy included ocular irritation, mild conjunctival hyperemia, and punctate keratopathy.
  • The mean follow-up time was 30.7 +/- 15 months (range, 2-52) with no evidence of clinical recurrence in any case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical 0.002% MMC showed a favorable outcome as an adjunctive and alternative treatment of CCIN and SCC with regression of primary and recurrent tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


3. Huerva V, Mateo AJ, Mangues I, Jurjo C: Short-term mitomycin C followed by long-term interferon alpha2beta for conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia. Cornea; 2006 Dec;25(10):1220-3
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  • [Title] Short-term mitomycin C followed by long-term interferon alpha2beta for conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of extensive conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) treated topically with mitomycin C (MMC) and interferon (INF)-alpha2beta without surgical resection.
  • RESULTS: : An 82-year-old woman showed an extensive gelatinous red mass in the bulbar conjunctiva with invasion into the caruncle, inferior fornix, and tarsal conjunctiva and extending for 270 degrees of the corneal surface.
  • A diagnosis of CIN was made by surgical biopsy.
  • A conservative treatment strategy was used with 2 cycles of topical MMC (0.02%), followed by INF-alpha2beta eye drops at a dose of 1 million IU/mL, 4 times a day until tumor disappearance.
  • Total resolution was noted after 75 days of treatment with INF, with no clinical evidence of limbal stem cell deficiency.
  • After 1 year of monitoring, no signs of CIN recurrences were observed.
  • CONCLUSION: MMC (0.02%), followed by INF-alpha2beta (1 million IU/mL) 4 times a day, is an effective treatment against highly extensive CIN, in cases where surgical resection with safety margins is unfeasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17172902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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4. Zaki AA, Farid SF: Management of intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia of the cornea and conjunctiva: a long-term follow up. Cornea; 2009 Oct;28(9):986-8
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  • [Title] Management of intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia of the cornea and conjunctiva: a long-term follow up.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to report the long-term results of using immunotherapy for the management of cornea and conjunctiva intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma after surgical excision of the neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Ten eyes of 10 patients with cornea and conjunctiva intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell carcinoma had wide surgical excisions of the neoplasm after evaluation of the level of corneal involvement using ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • All eyes received topical cyclosporine A (0.05%) and topical mitomycin C (0.01%) 4 times daily for 12 weeks after surgery.
  • Epithelial toxicity (punctate keratopathy) occurred in 3 eyes, ocular irritation and mild conjunctival hyperemia in 5 eyes, and lid toxicity in 2 cases during the treatment with mitomycin C.
  • There were no serious complications that necessitated stopping the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: During a 2-year follow-up period, the use of topical cyclosporine A (0.05%) combined with mitomycin C (0.01%) as an adjunctive treatment after surgical excision in cornea and conjunctiva intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma was found to prevent tumor recurrence, especially in extensive lesions, when surgical excision cannot ensure a tumor-free margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / therapy. Corneal Diseases / therapy. Eye Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Cornea. 2012 Apr;31(4):465 [22314824.001]
  • [CommentIn] Cornea. 2011 Apr;30(4):486; author reply 486-7 [21107255.001]
  • (PMID = 19724215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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5. Singh AD, Jacques R, Rundle PA, Rennie IG, Mudhar HS, Slater D: Neoadjuvant topical mitomycin C chemotherapy for conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia. Eye (Lond); 2006 Sep;20(9):1092-4
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant topical mitomycin C chemotherapy for conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cornea / pathology. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16244642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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6. Karp CL, Moore JK, Rosa RH Jr: Treatment of conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia with topical interferon alpha-2b. Ophthalmology; 2001 Jun;108(6):1093-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia with topical interferon alpha-2b.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of topical interferon alfa-2b (IFNalpha2b) in the treatment of conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • PARTICIPANTS: Five patients with histologically proven CIN or recurrences of proven CIN were studied prospectively.
  • INTERVENTION: After histologic confirmation, patients were given topical recombinant IFNalpha2b (INTRON A, Schering Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) 1 million IU/ml four times a day.
  • RESULTS: All patients had complete resolution of the CIN lesion on IFNalpha2b.
  • The mean time to clinical resolution was 11.6 weeks (range, 4-22 weeks).
  • One patient had a clinical recurrence of his corneal CIN 1 year after tumor resolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ophthalmic Solutions. Recombinant Proteins. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11382635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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7. Rozenman Y, Frucht-Pery J: Treatment of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia with topical drops of mitomycin C. Cornea; 2000 Jan;19(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia with topical drops of mitomycin C.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and risks of complications of topical mitomycin C (MMC) for small-size conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • METHODS: Eight patients with clinically diagnosed CIN <8 mm were included in the study.
  • Patients received topical drops of MMC, 0.02-0.04%, 4 times daily for 14 days.
  • Retreatment was done when lesions were not eliminated or recurred after the first treatment.
  • After retreatment, the lesions were eradicated in four patients, whereas in one patient, the treatment failed, and the lesion was surgically excised.
  • The complications of MMC use included mild conjunctival hyperemia in two patients and mild allergy in one patient, which resolved after discontinuation of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Application of topical MMC is an effective treatment for most but not all cases of small-size CIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leukoplakia / drug therapy. Leukoplakia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage. Ophthalmic Solutions / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10631999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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8. Dudney BW, Malecha MA: Limbal stem cell deficiency following topical mitomycin C treatment of conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Ophthalmol; 2004 May;137(5):950-1
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  • [Title] Limbal stem cell deficiency following topical mitomycin C treatment of conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CCIN) in an elderly African American patient treated with topical mitomycin C and the subsequent complication of limbal stem cell deficiency.
  • RESULTS: The CCIN regressed completely following mitomycin C therapy.
  • Three months later, the patient developed recurrent nonhealing epithelial defects in the right cornea.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia may occur in the African American population.
  • Although MMC is effective in eradicating CCIN, a limbal stem cell deficiency may complicate the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / chemically induced. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Epithelium, Corneal / drug effects. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Stem Cells / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Limbus Corneae / drug effects. Limbus Corneae / pathology. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 15126170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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9. Huerva V, Sánchez MC, Mangues I: Tumor-volume increase at beginning of primary treatment with topical interferon alpha 2-beta in a case of conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2007 Apr;23(2):143-5
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  • [Title] Tumor-volume increase at beginning of primary treatment with topical interferon alpha 2-beta in a case of conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • AIMS: The aim of this study was to report on the effectiveness and tumor side effects of topical interferon (INF) alpha 2-beta in a case of conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of a patient that rejected any surgical procedure.
  • RESULTS: An 81-year-old man with a history of neoplasies of the colon and prostate and anticoagulant treatment was referred for treatment of an ocular surface neoplasia on his left eye.
  • Pathognomonic signs of CIN were present.
  • A regimen of topical INF alpha 2-beta 4 times daily was administered.
  • An increase in tumor volume of 25% was observable 15 days after the beginning of therapy.
  • The treatment continued with follow-ups every 15 days.
  • Complete regression of the CIN was observable after 60 days of therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical INF alpha 2-beta is a valid choice for the treatment of CIN in patients for whom surgery is not possible.
  • The increase of tumor volume at the beginning of therapy does not require the suspension of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged, 80 and over. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Ophthalmic Solutions. Recombinant Proteins. Remission Induction. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17444802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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10. Al-Barrag A, Al-Shaer M, Al-Matary N, Al-Hamdani M: 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and cornea. Clin Ophthalmol; 2010;4:801-8
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  • [Title] 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and cornea.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and risks of complications of pulse dosing of topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen patients with histological evidence CIN or SCC of the conjunctiva and cornea were identified by tumor biopsy.
  • METHODS: All patients clinically evident of CIN, or SCC were evaluated, with maximum 30 months of follow-up were treated with pulsed dosing of 1% 5-FU.
  • Treatment cycles were defined as four times per day for 4 days using the medication followed by 30 days without medication.
  • The number of initial treatment was six cycles.
  • Excision biopsy proved seven cases as CIN, and eight cases as locally invasive SCC.
  • Additional chemotherapy was given after the initial treatment cycles, only for one case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant 1% topical 5-FU appears to be effective in the prevention of recurrence of conjunctival or corneal CIN and SCC after excision biopsy.
  • It is well-tolerated and an effective method of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20689797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5483
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2915867
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; chemotherapy / fluorouracil / neoplasia / treatment cycles
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11. Khong JJ, Muecke J: Complications of mitomycin C therapy in 100 eyes with ocular surface neoplasia. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Jul;90(7):819-22
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  • [Title] Complications of mitomycin C therapy in 100 eyes with ocular surface neoplasia.
  • AIM: To determine the complications associated with mitomycin C (MMC) in the treatment of ocular surface neoplasia.
  • METHODS: A retrospective and consecutive study of 100 eyes in 91 patients with ocular surface neoplasia treated with MMC in a single centre between November 1998 and January 2005.
  • Outcome measures included complications of MMC and the treatment required for these complications.
  • RESULTS: One to three 7 day cycles of topical MMC 0.04% four times a day were given to 59 eyes with localised corneal-conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 19 eyes with diffuse CIN, six eyes with recurrent CIN, one eye with ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma, three eyes with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia, nine eyes with conjunctival malignant melanoma (MM), two eyes with sebaceous carcinoma with pagetoid spread, and one eye with recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Nine patients had bilateral CIN.
  • 31 (34%) cases developed an allergic reaction to MMC and 14 (14%) eyes had epiphora secondary to punctal stenosis at a mean follow up period of 26.5 months.
  • CONCLUSION: In the largest study looking at complications of topical MMC in the treatment of ocular surface neoplasia, allergic reaction and punctal stenosis are relatively common.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / drug therapy. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / chemically induced. Lacrimal Duct Obstruction / chemically induced. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16672325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857172
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