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1. Al-Barrag A, Al-Shaer M, Al-Matary N, Al-Hamdani M: 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and cornea. Clin Ophthalmol; 2010;4:801-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 5-Fluorouracil for the treatment of intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and cornea.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and risks of complications of pulse dosing of topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen patients with histological evidence CIN or SCC of the conjunctiva and cornea were identified by tumor biopsy.
  • Treatment cycles were defined as four times per day for 4 days using the medication followed by 30 days without medication.
  • The number of initial treatment was six cycles.
  • Additional chemotherapy was given after the initial treatment cycles, only for one case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant 1% topical 5-FU appears to be effective in the prevention of recurrence of conjunctival or corneal CIN and SCC after excision biopsy.
  • It is well-tolerated and an effective method of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20689797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5483
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2915867
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; chemotherapy / fluorouracil / neoplasia / treatment cycles
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2. Midena E, Angeli CD, Valenti M, de Belvis V, Boccato P: Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with topical 5-fluorouracil. Br J Ophthalmol; 2000 Mar;84(3):268-72
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  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with topical 5-fluorouracil.
  • AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) alone, without concurrent surgery or radiotherapy, for the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eight patients affected by conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (three recurrent cases, three incompletely excised, and two untreated cases) were treated with 1% 5-FU eye drops.
  • Topical 1% 5-FU was administered four times daily for 4 weeks (one course).
  • Clinical examination (biomicroscopy and photography) and morphological evaluation of conjunctival cytological specimens were used to monitor the efficacy of local chemotherapy, side effects, and recurrences.
  • RESULTS: All patients showed clinical regression of conjunctival carcinoma after topical 1% 5-FU treatment.
  • Neoplastic conjunctiva was completely replaced by normal epithelium within 3 months.
  • One patient needed two courses of local chemotherapy for recurrent disease.
  • An acute transient toxic keratoconjunctivitis was observed in all treated cases; it was easily controlled with topical therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical 1% 5-FU is effective in the treatment of recurrent, incompletely excised, and selected untreated conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas.
  • This study suggests that topical conjunctival chemotherapy with 1% 5-FU may be useful, at least as adjunctive therapy, in the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 1976 Feb;81(2):198-206 [766640.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1995 Sep;102(9):1338-44 [9097771.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1986 Feb;93(2):176-83 [3951824.001]
  • [Cites] Doc Ophthalmol. 1986 Dec 30;64(1):31-42 [3582100.001]
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  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Oct;114(10):1261-4 [8859090.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1997 Mar;104(3):485-92 [9082277.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1997 Jun;115(6):808-15 [9194740.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1997 Dec;104(12):2085-93 [9400769.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1997 Dec;115(12):1600-1 [9400803.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Sep;124(3):303-11 [9439356.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Sep;124(3):381-3 [9439364.001]
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  • (PMID = 10684836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1723406
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3. Lin HF, Lui CC, Hsu HC, Lin SA: Orbital exenteration for secondary orbital tumors: a series of seven cases. Chang Gung Med J; 2002 Sep;25(9):599-605

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It entails the removal of the eyeball together with its extraocular muscles and other soft tissues.
  • Primary lesions, histopathological examination results, treatments, and recurrences are discussed.
  • RESULTS: Classification of the 7 patients showed that 2 had basal cell carcinoma of the skin, 2 had squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, 1 had squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus, 1 had rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinus, and 1 had intracranial meningioma.
  • Radiotherapy was performed in 6 of the patients and chemotherapy in 2.
  • CONCLUSION: Secondary orbital tumors involved the orbit from adjacent tissues: paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, lacrimal sac, conjunctiva, eyelid, intraocular tissue, and intracranial tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 12479621.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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4. Huerva V, Mangues I: Treatment of conjunctival squamous neoplasias with interferon alpha 2ab. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2008 Mar;31(3):317-25
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  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival squamous neoplasias with interferon alpha 2ab.
  • The classical approach to the treatment of squamous neoplasias of the ocular surface is based on surgical resection and cryotherapy.
  • Primary or adjuvant chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC) or 5-fluorouracil has been employed to treat these neoplasias, but severe side effects on the ocular surface have been described.
  • The experience in the treatment of conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with topical or intralesional INF alpha 2b is based on isolated cases or very short series.
  • The safety and effectiveness of INF alpha 2b in the treatment of primary and recurrent cases of CIN are described.
  • The absence of serious side effects after topical administration of INF alpha 2b leads to the recommendation of this modality of therapy for primary and recurrent cases of CIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 18404128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Cartsburg O, Kallen C, Hillenkamp J, Sundmacher R, Pomjanski N, Böcking A: Topical mitomycin C and radiation induce conjunctival DNA-polyploidy. Anal Cell Pathol; 2001;23(2):65-74
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  • [Title] Topical mitomycin C and radiation induce conjunctival DNA-polyploidy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Atypical cell changes often occur following treatment of premalignant or malignant conjunctival neoplasias with topical mitomycin C (MMC) and/or radiation.
  • These reactive, non-neoplastic alterations of the conjunctival epithelium can be a differential diagnostic problem.
  • Our aim was to investigate changes in the nuclear DNA-distribution of conjunctival epithelial cells after MMC- and radiation therapy by DNA-image-cytometry.
  • METHODS: Conjunctival brush smears were obtained from 13 patients (13 eyes) with squamous cell carcinomas and six patients (6 eyes) with conjunctival malignant melanomas in situ before, during and after treatment.
  • The patients were treated with MMC-drops (0.02% or 0.04%) alone (n=12), with radiation therapy (n=3) or both (n=4).
  • We considered these alterations as reactive to treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurements of DNA-content revealed euploid polyploidisation of morphological suspicious but benign squamous cells which is the biologic correlate of well known secondary morphologic changes following topical chemotherapy and/or radiation.
  • DNA-image-cytometry is a useful tool in the differention of euploid polyploidization as a sign of reactive cell changes following treatment and tumor recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polyploidy

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  • (PMID = 11904462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0921-8912
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical cellular pathology : the journal of the European Society for Analytical Cellular Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Cell Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4617513
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6. Caujolle JP, Maschi C, Chauvel P, Herault J, Gastaud P: [Surgery and additional protontherapy for treatment of invasive and recurrent squamous cell carcinomas: technique and preliminary results]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2009 Dec;32(10):707-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgery and additional protontherapy for treatment of invasive and recurrent squamous cell carcinomas: technique and preliminary results].
  • [Transliterated title] Association chirurgie-protonthérapie dans le traitement des carcinomes invasifs et récidivants de la conjonctive: technique et résultats préliminaires.
  • INTRODUCTION: Invasive squamous cell carcinomas are uncommon neoplasias with high recurrence and mortality rates.
  • The improvement of tumoral control requires additional treatments such as cryotherapy, topical chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • We present the technique and preliminary results of associating treatment with surgery and proton beam therapy for recurrent and invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2001 to September 2008, 15 patients were treated in our ocular oncologic center for squamous cell carcinomas either with recurrences or with invaded resection margins.
  • The treatment combined new surgical resection with protontherapy.
  • Specific improvements in proton beam therapy have been made at the Nice Cyclotron to adapt the treatment to conjunctival tumors.
  • Proton beam carving consists in using a specific device to treat the thickness of the whole lesion site and the adjacent conjunctiva and to spare the surrounding healthy structures.
  • In 13 cases (86.8%), the bulbar and limbic conjunctiva was involved, in five of these cases the cornea was invaded, and the anterior chamber was involved in one case.
  • In one case, the tumor was located on bulbar conjunctiva near the caruncle (6.6%) and in one case in the fornix (6.6%).
  • Moreover, proton beam therapy was performed more than 6 months after the initial treatment.
  • Exenteration and enucleation had to be performed to treat these recurrences 6 and 24 months after proton beam therapy.
  • No patients developed recurrences with additional proton beam therapy performed within 6 months after initial surgical resection.
  • As for side effects, seven patients suffered from sicca syndrome, six needed cataract surgeries, three unesthetic dilatations of episclera vessels, two conjunctival postradiation dysplasias, two experienced eyelash loss, one stenosis of the lacrimal duct, and one glaucoma controlled by monotherapy.
  • Conjunctiva and amniotic grafts had to be performed on one of the patients presenting with dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Traditional adjuvant treatments often failed to control recurring and invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The preliminary results of the present study suggest that proton beam therapy may be considered as a good alternative to traditional treatments with acceptable side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Conjunctival Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Protons / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19942315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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7. Sherman MD, Feldman KA, Farahmand SM, Margolis TP: Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with topical cidofovir. Am J Ophthalmol; 2002 Sep;134(3):432-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with topical cidofovir.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a case of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in situ that was successfully treated with adjunctive topical cidofovir.
  • METHODS: A 52-year-old woman presented with a diagnosis of diffuse conjunctival papillomatosis in the right eye.
  • She underwent conjunctival biopsy followed by a 6-week course of cidofovir eyedrops (2.5 mg/ml).
  • RESULTS: The biopsy specimen demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • After this biopsy and treatment with cidofovir, the mass regressed into a small vascular tuft, which was excised and treated with cryotherapy.
  • Six months after cidofovir treatment, the patient developed cicatricial changes of the inferior punctum.
  • No recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma has occurred in 24 months of follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Cidofovir has shown effectiveness in the treatment of neoplastic lesions involving various mucus membrane sites.
  • This antiviral drug may be a valuable addition to our treatment armamentarium for patients with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytosine / therapeutic use. Organophosphonates. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12208255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; JIL713Q00N / cidofovir
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8. Barbazetto IA, Lee TC, Abramson DH: Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with photodynamic therapy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2004 Aug;138(2):183-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with photodynamic therapy.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and angiographic response of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the conjunctiva to treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT).
  • METHODS: In a prospective study, three patients (62 to 86 years old) with SCC of the conjunctiva were treated with PDT.
  • Patients received one to three treatments of verteporfin (6 mg/m(2) body surface area, intravenously).
  • The mean follow-up time was 8.6 months (7 to 12 months).
  • Main outcome measurements were clinical and angiographic response and treatment-related side effects.
  • RESULTS: One week after treatment, angiographic occlusion of tumor vasculature and normal conjunctival vessels was observed in all patients.
  • Tumor regression was noted in all patients 1 month after treatment.
  • Two patients had complete regression (clinical and angiographic observation) after one or two treatments for the entire follow-up time.
  • One tumor involved large aspects of the conjunctiva and cornea.
  • PDT caused minimal temporary local irritation in two patients, and small conjunctival hemorrhages and mild transient chemosis in the three eyes directly after treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this study suggest that PDT may be a valuable addition to the treatment of patients with SCC of the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;139(4):759-60; author reply 760 [15808212.001]
  • (PMID = 15289124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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9. Cartsburg O, Kersten A, Sundmacher R, Nadjari B, Pomjanski N, Böcking A: [Treatment of 9 squamous epithelial carcinoma in situ lesions of the conjunctiva (CIN) with mitomycin C eyedrops in cytological and DNA image cytometric control]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2001 Jun;218(6):429-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of 9 squamous epithelial carcinoma in situ lesions of the conjunctiva (CIN) with mitomycin C eyedrops in cytological and DNA image cytometric control].
  • [Transliterated title] Behandlung von 9 plattenepithelialen Carcinomata in situ der Bindehaut (CIN) mit Mitomycin-C-Augentropfen unter zytologischer und DNA-bildzytometrischer Kontrolle.
  • BACKGROUND: Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a frequent conjunctival tumor.
  • In this study we aimed to evaluate the effectivity of postsurgical chemotherapy of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIN) with mitomycin C eyedrops.
  • We introduced the otherwise established diagnostic tools of cytology and DNA-image-cytometry to the diagnosis and therapy-monitoring of CIN.
  • For diagnosis the results of cytology and cytometry of presurgically obtained brush smears were compared with the histologic evaluation of the excised tissue.
  • After surgery, we administered topical chemotherapy with mitomycin C eye drops 0.02% (MMC).
  • Conjunctival brush smears were again evaluated by cytology and DNA-image-cytometry for postsurgical therapy monitoring.
  • RESULTS: The clinical diagnosis of CIN was fully confirmed by cytology, DNA-image-cytometry and histology respectively in 7 patients.
  • In one patient, the results of the applied diagnostic methods differed in results: Histologic evaluation indicated a moderate dysplasia but DNA-image-cytometry showed significant DNA-aneuploidy unequivocally indicating neoplasia like squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In another patient the preoperatively obtained conjunctival brush smears could not properly analyzed by cytometry but clinical diagnosis was confirmed by histology.
  • MMC-therapy was well tolerated except for a self-limited conjunctivitis.
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant topical mitomycin C appears to be effective in the prevention of recurrences of conjunctival CIN after surgical removal.
  • Cytology and DNA-image cytometry are highly sensitive and specific methods for diagnosis and therapy monitoring of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIN).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Image Cytometry. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Conjunctiva / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Ploidies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11488009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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10. Frucht-Pery J, Rozenman Y, Pe'er J: Topical mitomycin-C for partially excised conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Ophthalmology; 2002 Mar;109(3):548-52
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  • [Title] Topical mitomycin-C for partially excised conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical mitomycin-C (MMC) for treatment of postoperative residual conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • PARTICIPANTS: Five patients, two males and three females, with conjunctival and histologically proven incompletely excised conjunctival SCC.
  • Two to three courses of topical MMC, 0.02% or 0.04%, were applied four times daily for 14 days per course.
  • One month after the final treatment, the scar area with surrounding normal conjunctiva was excised, and histologic evaluation was done.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: No evidence of malignant cells in excised tissues.
  • Conjunctival scarring with inflammatory response was observed.
  • The complications of MMC use included mild to moderate conjunctival hyperemia in three patients.
  • All signs and symptoms were resolved after discontinuation of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Application of topical MMC is an efficient treatment for residual conjunctival SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / surgery. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11874760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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11. Ogun GO, Ogun OA, Bekibele CO, Akang EE: Intraepithelial and invasive squamous neoplasms of the conjunctiva in Ibadan, Nigeria: a clinicopathological study of 46 cases. Int Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;29(5):401-9
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  • [Title] Intraepithelial and invasive squamous neoplasms of the conjunctiva in Ibadan, Nigeria: a clinicopathological study of 46 cases.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To retrospectively evaluate the clinicopathological features, treatment modalities and factors affecting prognosis in patients with both conjunctival intraepithelial and invasive squamous neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: There were a total of 46 cases in 45 patients (eight intraepithelial carcinomas, 37 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and a single case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a 71-year-old man).
  • Twenty-two (60%) of the patients with invasive SCC had enucleation or exenteration as the primary modality of treatment with or without radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Altogether for intraepithelial and invasive squamous neoplasms, the duration of presenting complaints ranged from 1 month to 5 years with an average of 2 years.
  • Low socioeconomic status and inability to afford treatment was common among our patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with invasive SCC in Nigeria present late and have significant delay before having any form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / complications. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nigeria / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Vision Disorders / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18784902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2630
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Zaki AA, Farid SF: Management of intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia of the cornea and conjunctiva: a long-term follow up. Cornea; 2009 Oct;28(9):986-8
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  • [Title] Management of intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia of the cornea and conjunctiva: a long-term follow up.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to report the long-term results of using immunotherapy for the management of cornea and conjunctiva intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma after surgical excision of the neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Ten eyes of 10 patients with cornea and conjunctiva intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell carcinoma had wide surgical excisions of the neoplasm after evaluation of the level of corneal involvement using ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • All eyes received topical cyclosporine A (0.05%) and topical mitomycin C (0.01%) 4 times daily for 12 weeks after surgery.
  • Epithelial toxicity (punctate keratopathy) occurred in 3 eyes, ocular irritation and mild conjunctival hyperemia in 5 eyes, and lid toxicity in 2 cases during the treatment with mitomycin C.
  • There were no serious complications that necessitated stopping the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: During a 2-year follow-up period, the use of topical cyclosporine A (0.05%) combined with mitomycin C (0.01%) as an adjunctive treatment after surgical excision in cornea and conjunctiva intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma was found to prevent tumor recurrence, especially in extensive lesions, when surgical excision cannot ensure a tumor-free margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / therapy. Corneal Diseases / therapy. Eye Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Cornea. 2012 Apr;31(4):465 [22314824.001]
  • [CommentIn] Cornea. 2011 Apr;30(4):486; author reply 486-7 [21107255.001]
  • (PMID = 19724215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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13. Shields CL, Naseripour M, Shields JA: Topical mitomycin C for extensive, recurrent conjunctival-corneal squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2002 May;133(5):601-6
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  • [Title] Topical mitomycin C for extensive, recurrent conjunctival-corneal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical mitomycin C for extensive recurrent conjunctival and corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Ten patients (ten eyes) with extensive recurrent conjunctival and corneal SCC were studied.
  • The patients received topical mitomycin C 0.04% one drop four times daily in the eye with SCC.
  • Treatment cycles were defined as 1 week using medication followed by 1 week without medication.
  • Such treatment cycles were repeated until resolution of the conjunctival malignancy was clinically evident.
  • The main outcome measures were tumor response and medication-related complications.
  • Before referral, the patients had undergone a median of two previous conjunctival tumor resections revealing the diagnosis of in situ SCC in three cases and locally invasive SCC in six cases.
  • At presentation, the tumor involved the limbus and cornea in all ten eyes, forniceal conjunctiva in three eyes, and tarsal conjunctiva in one eye.
  • The extensive tumor affected a median of 10 clock hours of limbal conjunctiva and 10 clock hours of cornea, with corneal epithelial invasion for a median of 50% (range 20%-100%) of its surface.
  • Mitomycin C 0.04% four times daily was applied for a median of three cycles (range 1-4 cycles).
  • Mitomycin C caused moderate temporary local irritation and conjunctival erythema and chemosis, but no long-term intraocular or extraocular complications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on this small series, topical mitomycin C 0.04% appears to be a safe and effective therapy for conjunctival or corneal SCC, even when there is extensive recurrent tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Drug Evaluation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Jan;135(1):122-3; author reply 123-4 [12504721.001]
  • (PMID = 11992855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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14. Karp CL, Galor A, Chhabra S, Barnes SD, Alfonso EC: Subconjunctival/perilesional recombinant interferon α2b for ocular surface squamous neoplasia: a 10-year review. Ophthalmology; 2010 Dec;117(12):2241-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subconjunctival/perilesional recombinant interferon α2b for ocular surface squamous neoplasia: a 10-year review.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the biologic effect of subconjunctival recombinant interferon α2b (IFNα2b) for the treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN).
  • The median time to resolution was 1.4 months (range, 0.6-5.7).
  • In the time of follow-up after lesion resolution (median, 55 months), only 1 of the 15 eyes in the study exhibited disease recurrence, and this occurred 4 months after clinical resolution.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perilesional subconjunctival recombinant IFNα2b may be a viable medical alternative for the treatment of OSSN.
  • Future studies will be needed to evaluate the ideal treatment regimen of IFNα2b.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Conjunctiva. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Retreatment. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2011 Jul;118(7):1485; author reply 1485-6 [21724051.001]
  • (PMID = 20619462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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15. Kummoona R: Periorbital and orbital malignancies: methods of management and reconstruction in Iraq. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Nov;18(6):1370-5
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  • Tumor types were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, fibrosarcoma, and ectopic mixed tumor in two, one, two, one, one, and one patients, respectively, in addition to eight patients with jaw lymphoma involving the orbit, out of 24 patients reported by us.
  • Eight patients were treated surgically with adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, whereas eight patients with lymphoma treated with combination chemotherapy (vincristine, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and prednisolone), the survival rate was very poor.
  • There is no single best method for reconstruction of the periorbital and orbital defects left after tumor resection, and different flaps applied for reconstruction had given satisfactory results related to the type and complexity of the deformity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Iraq. Lymphoma / chemistry. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17993883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Schallenberg M, Niederdräing N, Steuhl KP, Meller D: [Topical Mitomycin C as a therapy of conjunctival tumours]. Ophthalmologe; 2008 Aug;105(8):777-84
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  • [Title] [Topical Mitomycin C as a therapy of conjunctival tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Topisches Mitomycin C als Therapie konjunktivaler Tumore.
  • Surgical excision with tumour free margins is the gold standard for squamous cell and melanocytic tumours of the conjunctiva.
  • Therefore, alternative or adjuvant therapies are required.
  • Topical chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC) is increasingly finding use in clinical practice.
  • Present studies have shown that mitomycin C is a good option in squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva.
  • However, further multi-centre studies and long-term follow-up are needed.The results in treating melanocytic tumours of the conjunctiva with MMC are less convincing.
  • MMC seems to be an option for the treatment of primary acquired melanosis (PAM); but, if the tumour is suspicious for melanoma primary chemotherapy with MMC is obsolete.
  • In these cases MMC can only be used as an adjuvant therapy, otherwise tumour control is not assured.
  • However, prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary for a final evaluation of MMC therapy in melanocytic tumours of the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Humans. Melanosis / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18618124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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17. Semenova EA, Milman T, Finger PT, Natesh S, Kurli M, Schneider S, Iacob CE, McCormick SA: The diagnostic value of exfoliative cytology vs histopathology for ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Am J Ophthalmol; 2009 Nov;148(5):772-778.e1
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  • [Title] The diagnostic value of exfoliative cytology vs histopathology for ocular surface squamous neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the reliability and role of conjunctival exfoliative cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis of biopsied tissue in ocular surface squamous neoplasia.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of an interventional case series of patients biopsied and treated for squamous conjunctival and corneal neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Forty-nine patients who underwent conjunctival cytologic analysis (n = 36), conjunctival biopsy (n = 35), or both were evaluated.
  • For the purposes of this study, three ocular pathologists reviewed the results of cytologic and biopsied tissue in a masked fashion.
  • RESULTS: Evaluation of cytologic smears revealed a 91% concordance in interpretation of conjunctival cytologic material as no dysplasia vs dysplasia.
  • Evaluation of subsequent biopsy revealed a 98% concordance between the pathologists in interpretation of biopsied tissue as no dysplasia vs any degree of dysplasia.
  • Cytologic evaluation was capable of distinguishing a neoplastic from nonneoplastic process before tissue biopsy in 80% of cases.
  • It was used in the settings of recurrent tumor and for follow-up care of patients treated with topical chemotherapy.
  • Although cytologic smears cannot replace incisional or excisional biopsy for definitive diagnosis, exfoliative cytologic analysis can play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Conjunctiva / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Corneal Diseases / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19660734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1891
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Fujita K, Miyamoto T, Okada Y, Ishikawa N, Saika S: Expression pattern of sonic hedgehog and effect of topical mitomycin C on its expression in human ocular surface neoplasms. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2008 May-Jun;52(3):190-4
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  • METHODS: Conjunctival tissues obtained from two normal subjects, two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the ocular surface (conjunctiva), and one patient with ocular epithelial dysplasia were used in this study.
  • RESULTS: Faint immunoreactivity for Shh was detected in basal epithelial cells of limbus, bulbar, and palpebral conjunctival epithelial cells.
  • On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma cells markedly expressed Shh with positive staining for Patched 1(Ptc), the cell surface receptor of Shh.
  • Similar marked expression of Shh was detected in the patient with ocular epithelial dysplasia, and this Shh expression was almost eliminated following topical mitomycin C treatment.
  • A cell culture experiment was conducted to examine the effect of mitomycin C on Shh expression in a cultured squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival epithelium constitutively expresses a low level of Shh, and its expression increases during malignant conversion of epithelial cells.
  • Reduction of Shh expression might be involved in the therapeutic efficacy of topical mitomycin C for ocular surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Epithelium, Corneal / drug effects. Epithelium, Corneal / metabolism. Epithelium, Corneal / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation

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  • [Cites] Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003 Feb;13(1):34-42 [12573433.001]
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  • (PMID = 18661269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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19. Gökmen Soysal H, Ardiç F: Malignant conjunctival tumors invading the orbit. Ophthalmologica; 2008;222(5):338-43
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  • [Title] Malignant conjunctival tumors invading the orbit.
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to present the clinical and histopathological features as well as the treatment results of advanced conjunctival malignant tumors with orbital invasion, in the context of all secondary orbital tumors.
  • METHODS: A total of 151 secondary orbital tumors were observed over a 10-year period; 21 (14%) out of 151 cases were detected to be of conjunctival origin, and the cases were reviewed retrospectively.
  • The age, gender, duration of symptoms, clinical and histopathological features and the treatment results of patients were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Four out of 21 patients had malignant melanoma (MM), while 17 had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the conjunctiva.
  • Two patients underwent wide excision with control of the surgical margins and postoperative adjunctive topical chemotherapy.
  • Two patients with regional metastasis were treated by radical neck dissection and radiation therapy to the neck.
  • After a mean follow-up time of 35.6 months, no tumor recurrence or tumor-related death was encountered.
  • CONCLUSION: Delay in presentation for treatment and previous unsuccessful surgery of conjunctival malignant lesions are likely to lead to orbital invasion and loss of the eye.
  • Exenteration is generally needed but margin-controlled wide surgical excision and adjuvant chemotherapy may be curative in selected cases.
  • Early diagnosis and effective treatment of lesions will minimize the mortality rate and morbidity related to the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Orbit Evisceration. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18635931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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20. Babu K, Murthy KR, Krishnakumar S: Two successive ocular malignancies in the same eye of a HIV-positive patient: a case report. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2010 Apr;18(2):101-3
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  • Retinal biopsy suggested an intraocular B-cell lymphoma for which he received radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Histopathology of enucleated eye showed a low-grade conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Blindness / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Retinal Detachment / etiology. Retinal Detachment / pathology. Vincristine / administration & dosage


21. Verma V, Shen D, Sieving PC, Chan CC: The role of infectious agents in the etiology of ocular adnexal neoplasia. Surv Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul-Aug;53(4):312-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Given the fact that infectious agents contribute to around 18% of human cancers worldwide, it would seem prudent to explore their role in neoplasms of the ocular adnexa: primary malignancies of the conjunctiva, lacrimal glands, eyelids, and orbit.
  • By elucidating the mechanisms by which infectious agents contribute to oncogenesis, the management, treatment, and prevention of these neoplasms may one day parallel what is already in place for cancers such as cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Antibiotic treatment and vaccines against infectious agents may herald a future with a curtailed role for traditional therapies of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • This review discusses the pathogenetic role of several microorganisms in different ocular adnexal malignancies, including human papilloma virus in conjunctival papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus in conjunctival squamous carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus or human herpes simplex virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) in conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori,), Chlamydia, and hepatitis C virus in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Alphapapillomavirus / physiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Chlamydophila psittaci / isolation & purification. Chlamydophila psittaci / physiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / microbiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / virology. Eyelid Neoplasms / microbiology. Eyelid Neoplasms / virology. HIV-1 / isolation & purification. HIV-1 / physiology. Helicobacter pylori / isolation & purification. Helicobacter pylori / physiology. Hepacivirus / isolation & purification. Hepacivirus / physiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / microbiology. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / virology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / virology. Orbital Neoplasms / microbiology. Orbital Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 18572051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 EY000222-22
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 248
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS58178; NLM/ PMC2507724
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22. Robinson JW, Brownstein S, Jordan DR, Hodge WG: Conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a patient with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and a review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;51(5):513-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a patient with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and a review of the literature.
  • Invasive mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva of the left lower eyelid was diagnosed in an orbital exenteration specimen of a 57-year-old woman, after a biopsy of the same lesion was originally diagnosed as invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The woman was undergoing mitomycin C injections for ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, diagnosed in the same eye 2 years prior to identification of the neoplasm.
  • The original biopsy specimen was reassessed with stains for mucin and found to be mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva.
  • We reviewed 21 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva described to date in the English literature.
  • Evaluating suspected aggressive squamous cell carcinoma with special stains for mucin generally helps to identify mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva.
  • More extensive surgical excision than that used for squamous cell carcinoma should be implemented in the management of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva to prevent recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Conjunctivitis / complications. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Basement Membrane / pathology. Biopsy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluorometholone / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use


23. Atique-Tacla M, Paves L, Pereira MD, Manso PG: [Exenteration: a retrospective study]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;69(5):679-82
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  • Data regarding sex, age, race, primary lesion site, visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis, previous surgeries related to the exenteration, type of performed surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, postoperative complications and use of adjuvant treatment were collected.
  • Lesions originated from eyelids in twelve patients, from bulbar conjunctiva in six and from the orbit in three.
  • Cases were also classified as squamous cell carcinoma (eleven cases), basal cell carcinoma (four cases), sebaceous gland carcinoma (two cases), rhabdomyosarcoma (two cases), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one case) and adnexal microcistic carcinoma (one case).
  • Visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis ranged from 20/40 to no light perception.
  • Six patients needed postoperative radiotherapy and two had been previously submitted to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients analyzed in our study presented lesions that are usually small in the beginning; however, they can disseminate to the orbit in the absence of adequate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Orbit Evisceration. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Continental Population Groups. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17187134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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24. Lyall DA, Srinivasan S, Roberts F: Limbal stem cell failure secondary to advanced conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological case report. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limbal stem cell failure secondary to advanced conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological case report.
  • A 67-year-old man with a history of multiple myeloma (treated with chemotherapy) was referred with a left hyperaemic conjunctival lesion covering almost 360° of the limbus and extending onto the corneal surface.
  • Conjunctival biopsy revealed conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Initial treatment consisted of topical and intralesional injections of interferon α-2b.
  • The patient subsequently developed limbal stem cell deficiency resulting in a persistent non-healing corneal epithelial defect.
  • This was successfully managed with total excisional biopsy of the lesion, combined with limbal stem cell autograft (from the fellow eye) and amniotic membrane transplantation.
  • Histopathology revealed a conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This case highlights a rare case of advanced ocular surface neoplasia causing secondary limbal stem cell deficiency.
  • Medical and surgical management of ocular surface neoplasia with limbal stem cell transplantation is effective in treating such cases.

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  • (PMID = 22121391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027379
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25. Procianoy F, Cruz AA, Baccega A, Ferraz V, Chahud F: Aggravation of eyelid and conjunctival malignancies following photodynamic therapy in DeSanctis-Cacchione syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Nov-Dec;22(6):498-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggravation of eyelid and conjunctival malignancies following photodynamic therapy in DeSanctis-Cacchione syndrome.
  • A 5-year-old girl with DeSanctis-Cacchione syndrome (a severe variant of xeroderma pigmentosum) was referred for evaluation of multiple eyelid and bulbar conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Examination evidenced multiple vegetating lesions on the eyelid, bulbar conjunctiva, and cornea of both eyes.
  • As the lesions were considered not to be manageable by surgical excision and would have required exenteration, photodynamic therapy was performed on the patient's left eye.
  • Three months after photodynamic therapy, the patient presented with a dramatic increase in the extension of the tumors.
  • Since xeroderma pigmentosum is a DNA repair disorder, the radiation involved in photodynamic therapy probably played an iatrogenic role in the evolution of the case.
  • We believe that photodynamic therapy may be harmful to patients with DNA repair disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / etiology. Eyelid Neoplasms / etiology. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Photosensitizing Agents / adverse effects. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Evisceration. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Severity of Illness Index. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 17117119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
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26. Holbach LM, Pogorelov P, Kruse FE: [Differential diagnosis and treatment options for conjunctival tumors]. Ophthalmologe; 2007 Jun;104(6):521-38; quiz 538

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis and treatment options for conjunctival tumors].
  • The diagnostic classification of most conjunctival tumors is based on case history, inspection, and examination with the slit lamp microscope.
  • Pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytic nevi are the most frequent conjunctival tumors.
  • Essential in practice is the histopathological confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, e.g., distinguishing between nonpigmented melanomas and sebaceous gland carcinomas with a pagetoid growth pattern or squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Depending on the course and findings, the following therapeutic measures can be indicated: cryotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, modified enucleation, orbital exenteration, or a combination of different methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / therapy. Ophthalmoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17530261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Scheinfeld N: A review of deferasirox, bortezomib, dasatinib, and cyclosporine eye drops: possible uses and known side effects in cutaneous medicine. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Mar;6(3):352-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recently, a number of medications approved for nondermatologic use have proved useful against dermatologic diseases.
  • Deferasirox--an oral iron chelator--could be an effective treatment against porphyria cutanea tarda, hemochromatosis, and pathogens such as mucor that thrive in iron rich environments.
  • Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor and multiple myeloma treatment, may be effective against nodular amyloid and has been effectively used against squamous cell carcinoma; although trials demonstrate it is ineffective against metastatic melanoma.
  • Dasatinib is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor active in vitro against most cell lines containing BCR-ABL mutations that confer resistance to imatinib.
  • Cyclosporine eye drops might also have utility in treating eye pathology of ocular rosacea, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, graft versus host disease, herpes keratitis, chronic sarcoidosis of the conjunctiva, conjunctival manifestations of actinic prurigo, keratitis of keratitis-ichthyosis deafness (KID) syndrome, and lichen planus-related kerato-conjunctivitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzoates / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Iron Chelating Agents / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thiazoles / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17373201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzoates; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Iron Chelating Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; 0 / Triazoles; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib; V8G4MOF2V9 / deferasirox
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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28. Teng CC, Chin KJ, Finger PT: Subconjunctival ranibizumab for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva with corneal extension. Br J Ophthalmol; 2009 Jun;93(6):837-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subconjunctival ranibizumab for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva with corneal extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cornea / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ranibizumab

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  • (PMID = 19471005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; ZL1R02VT79 / Ranibizumab
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29. Hirst LW: Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with photodynamic therapy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Apr;139(4):759-60; author reply 760
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Carcinoma, Squamous Cell.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma with photodynamic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Aug;138(2):183-9 [15289124.001]
  • (PMID = 15808212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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30. Shields CL, Demirci H, Marr BP, Masheyekhi A, Materin M, Shields JA: Chemoreduction with topical mitomycin C prior to resection of extensive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Arch Ophthalmol; 2005 Jan;123(1):109-13
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemoreduction with topical mitomycin C prior to resection of extensive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Carcinoma, Squamous Cell.
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  • (PMID = 15642823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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