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1. Laros-van Gorkom BA, Huisman CA, Wijermans PW, Schipperus MR: Experience with alemtuzumab in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the Netherlands. Neth J Med; 2007 Oct;65(9):333-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Experience with alemtuzumab in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the Netherlands.
  • BACKGROUND: Alemtuzumab (MabCampath) is a monoclonal antibody against CD52, indicated as third-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
  • METHODS: To gain insight into the use and complications of alemtuzumab therapy, the alemtuzumab-treated CLL patients in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands were evaluated by means of a questionnaire.
  • RESULTS: In the period from 31 October 2001 until 17 November 2005, 27 patients with CLL or prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL), RAI stage I to IV, Binet stage A to C, received 32 treatments with alemtuzumab.
  • The time from diagnosis until start of alemtuzumab treatment was 6 +/- 4.5 years (mean +/- SD ).
  • The treatment lasted 11 +/- 7 weeks.
  • Of the treatments, 41% could be administered for the full 12 weeks.
  • Infectious complications occurred in 12 of 32 (38%) treatments: pneumonia (25%; of which one Pneumocystis carini pneumonia and four Aspergillus infections), sepsis (9%; of which one Listeria), herpes zoster (9%), herpes simplex (6%), CMV reactivation (6%), meningitis (3%) and Guillain Barre (3%).
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with alemtuzumab is often terminated prematurely, leading to a suboptimal treatment effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD / drug effects. Antigens, Neoplasm / drug effects. Aspergillosis / chemically induced. Drug Evaluation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Glycoproteins / drug effects. Humans. Medical Records. Netherlands. Opportunistic Infections / chemically induced. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17954952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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2. Biswas G, Parikh PM, Nair R, Bhagwat R, Bakshi A, Prabhash K, Vora A, Gupta S, Pai VR, Menon H, Sastry PS: Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) in lymphoproliferative malignancies: Tata Memorial experience. J Assoc Physicians India; 2006 Jan;54:29-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The histology was aggressive NHL in 35, indolent NHL in 22 and 7 cases were diagnosed as CLL.
  • Among NHL, sixteen were in early stage (I/II) and the remaining forty-one were in advanced stage (III/IV) of disease.
  • A total of 33 were de novo cases and 31 were previously treated.
  • Rituximab was used in combination with chemotherapy in the other 47 cases.
  • The patient who developed anaphylaxis required discontinuation of further Rituximab.
  • The overall RR (CR + PR) was 72%.
  • A total of seven patients died, three due to progressive disease, three due to chemotherapy related toxicity and one due to an unrelated cause.
  • We conclude that Rituximab is a valuable addition to the treatment armamentarium of lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD20 / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / drug effects. Retrospective Studies. Rituximab. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16649735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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3. Frankel AE, Fleming DR, Hall PD, Powell BL, Black JH, Leftwich C, Gartenhaus R: A phase II study of DT fusion protein denileukin diftitox in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Sep 1;9(10 Pt 1):3555-61
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  • [Title] A phase II study of DT fusion protein denileukin diftitox in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a poor prognosis.
  • We tested the safety and efficacy in these patients of a diphtheria fusion protein DAB(389)IL2 (denileukin diftitox) directed against the interleukin 2 receptor that is expressed by CLL cells.
  • Two had Rai stage I, 6 had Rai stage II, and 10 had Rai stage IV.
  • The mean number of prior treatments was 4.5 (range, 1-11).
  • Responses were evaluated by peripheral CLL counts, computed tomography scans of all nodes and bone marrow biopsies.
  • Eleven of 12 patients showed reductions of peripheral CLL cells, with 6 of 11 showing >/==" BORDER="0">95% reductions.
  • Seven of 12 patients showed reductions of node diameters on exam and computed tomography scans, and 2 of 12 showed 60 and 80% shrinkage, respectively.
  • Pre and postbone marrow biopsies showed a reduction in CLL marrow index in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DAB(389)IL2 produced a rapid decrease of leukemic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of most chemotherapy refractory CLL patients.
  • The results suggest DAB(389)IL2 has biological activity in patients with B-cell CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Diphtheria Toxin / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Marrow Cells. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2004 May 15;10(10):3572-5 [15161717.001]
  • (PMID = 14506141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphtheria Toxin; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 25E79B5CTM / denileukin diftitox; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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4. Vener C, Gianelli U, Cortelezzi A, Fracchiolla NS, Somalvico F, Savi F, Pasquini MC, Bosari S, Deliliers GL: ZAP-70 immunoreactivity is a prognostic marker of disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Feb;47(2):245-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ZAP-70 immunoreactivity is a prognostic marker of disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • The expression of zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) seems to correlate with the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region genes, clinical course and patient prognosis.
  • The aim was to determine the prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical expression of ZAP-70 protein in CLL by means of the long-term follow-up of 108 patients.
  • Overall, ZAP-70 immunoreactivity correlated with an abnormal karyotype ( p = 0.017), a lymphocyte doubling time (LDT) of <6 months ( p = 0.001) and <12 months ( p = 0.01), Rai II - IV and Binet B - C stage ( p = 0.013), the clinical need for chemotherapy ( p < 0.001) and the need for more than 1 chemotherapy line ( p < 0.001).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that ZAP-70 immunoreactivity closely correlated with a shorter LDT ( p < 0.0001) and time from diagnosis to initial therapy ( p = 0.0001).
  • This study shows that ZAP-70 immunoreactivity can be a reliable prognostic marker in CLL and proposes a system for evaluating the results.
  • The observations support the inclusion of the immunohistochemical expression of ZAP-70 in clinical trials involving CLL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / metabolism. ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16321853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / ZAP70 protein, human
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5. Sieklucka M, Pozarowski P, Bojarska-Junak A, Hus I, Dmoszynska A, Rolinski J: Apoptosis in B-CLL: the relationship between higher ex vivo spontaneous apoptosis before treatment in III-IV Rai stage patients and poor outcome. Oncol Rep; 2008 Jun;19(6):1611-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apoptosis in B-CLL: the relationship between higher ex vivo spontaneous apoptosis before treatment in III-IV Rai stage patients and poor outcome.
  • B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) has been described as the progressive accumulation of mature-appearing B cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow, resulting from failed apoptosis rather than from alterations in cell cycle regulation.
  • In this study, we aimed to examine the process of apoptosis in B-CLL patients before and during anti-cancer therapy, to answer the question of whether this parameter would presage the response to treatment and the clinical course of the disease.
  • We found that ex vivo spontaneous apoptosis was higher in advanced-stage (III-IV acc.
  • Rai) than in early-stage (I-II acc.
  • In I-II Rai stage patients the percentage of ex vivo apoptotic cells after chemotherapy was higher than that of apoptotic cells prior to treatment, whereas in III-IV Rai stage patients the percentage of ex vivo apoptotic cells after chemotherapy was lower than that of apoptotic cells before the anti-cancer therapy.
  • The results of our study, in the context of the cited literature, suggest a relationship between higher ex vivo spontaneous apoptosis before treatment in advanced-stage patients with a higher proliferation of leukaemic cells and poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18497973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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6. Leporrier M: Role of fludarabine as monotherapy in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hematol J; 2004;5 Suppl 1:S10-9
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  • [Title] Role of fludarabine as monotherapy in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Fludarabine is a synthetic adenine nucleoside analog that is indicated for first- and second-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • The recommended intravenous (i.v.) dosage regimen is 25 mg/m2 daily for 5 consecutive days, with treatment cycles repeated every 28 days.
  • In treatment-naïve patients with Binet stage B and C CLL, i.v. fludarabine produces superior responses to established first-line chemotherapies.
  • Fludarabine produces a higher overall remission rate (60-70%) and longer progression-free survival (median approximately 20-30 months) than standard therapy with chlorambucil+/-prednisone and CAP (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/prednisone), and a comparable overall remission rate to CHOP (cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone/doxorubicin).
  • Fludarabine demonstrates high efficacy in both intermediate-risk (Rai stage I or II) and high-risk (Rai stage III or IV) patients.
  • Fludarabine has significant activity as monotherapy in previously treated CLL, producing objective response rates of up to 94% in typically small-scale, noncomparative studies, with the majority of studies yielding rates of 30-60%.
  • In a phase III multicenter study, the overall remission rate was significantly higher with fludarabine than with CAP (48 versus 27%) among the subset of treatment-refractory patients (n=96).
  • For those patients who are refractory to or have relapsed following conventional chemotherapy (chlorambucil, CAP and CHOP), fludarabine can be considered the treatment of choice for second-line therapy.
  • Moreover, patients with relapsed CLL may benefit from retreatment with fludarabine if they have previously demonstrated sensitivity to the drug.

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  • (PMID = 15079149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-4860
  • [Journal-full-title] The hematology journal : the official journal of the European Haematology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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7. Dillman RO, Schreeder MT, Hon JK, Connelly EF, DePriest C, Cutter K: Community-based phase II trial of pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (PCR) biochemotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2007 Apr;22(2):185-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Community-based phase II trial of pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (PCR) biochemotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • We conducted a multicenter, community-based phase II trial of PCR biochemotherapy (pentostatin 4 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, and rituximab 375 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for up to 6 cycles in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL).
  • The study was stopped after enrolling 24 patients because of diminished investigator interest after 8 patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, and 5 others died during treatment.
  • The median age of patients was 69 years; 11 patients were over age 70, and 71% had Rai stage III or IV disease.
  • The response rate among the 17 evaluable patients who completed 3 cycles of therapy was 58% (35%-81%, 95% confidence interval), with 2 complete responders (both greater than 70 years of age) and 7 partial responders.
  • No patients developed progressive disease while receiving PCR.
  • This is the first report of a trial in CLL utilizing a combination of purine analog, alkylator, and rituximab, in which most patients were older than 65 years and had high-risk disease.
  • PCR is active in CLL/SLL, but appears to be less active and associated with more complications in the community setting, compared to trials with younger, lower risk patients who travel to academic referral centers for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Delivery of Health Care. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Pentostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunotherapy / adverse effects. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins. Middle Aged. Rituximab. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2007 Oct;22(5):713-4; author reply 715-7 [17979574.001]
  • (PMID = 17600465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-9785
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 143891-49-0 / TI 1 protein, Mustela vison; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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8. Chanan-Khan A, Miller KC, Musial L, Lawrence D, Padmanabhan S, Takeshita K, Porter CW, Goodrich DW, Bernstein ZP, Wallace P, Spaner D, Mohr A, Byrne C, Hernandez-Ilizaliturri F, Chrystal C, Starostik P, Czuczman MS: Clinical efficacy of lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec 1;24(34):5343-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical efficacy of lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have profound immune defects and limited treatment options.
  • Given the dramatic activity of lenalidomide in other B-cell malignancies and its pleotropic immunomodulatory effects, we conducted a phase II trial of this agent in CLL.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell CLL (B-CLL) were eligible if they required treatment as per the National Cancer Institute Working Group 1996 guidelines.
  • Patients were to continue treatment until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or complete remission.
  • Sixty-four percent of the patients had Rai stage III or IV disease, and 51% were refractory to fludarabine.
  • CONCLUSION: Lenalidomide is clinically active in patients with relapsed or refractory B-CLL.
  • These findings are encouraging and warrant further investigation of this agent in the treatment of this disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced


9. Mukiibi JM, Paul B, Nyirenda CM, Adewuyi JO, Gwanzura C, Mzulu E, Mbvundula EM, Magombo ED, Malata HN: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans. Cent Afr J Med; 2004 Nov-Dec;50(11-12):111-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans.
  • OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and haematological features of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans.
  • The majority of patients (78.7%) had Rai stage III and IV and only seven (9.3%) patients were in stage 0.
  • Of the 32 patients treated with chemotherapy, 25.9% and 59.3% achieved complete or partial remissions respectively.
  • In the untreated group of 43 patients, two refused therapy, four died shortly after diagnosis and 37 were lost to follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Although the study has disclosed that CLL is not rare in central Africans and its presentations are similar to cases reported in the literature, the majority of patients seek medical treatment late.
  • Optimal therapy is impossible due to lack of chemotherapy and supportive services..Therefore, it is recommended that tertiary referral centers in African health systems should be equipped for better management of CLL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16615660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-9176
  • [Journal-full-title] The Central African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Zimbabwe
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10. Byrd JC, Peterson B, Piro L, Saven A, Vardiman JW, Larson RA, Schiffer C: A phase II study of cladribine treatment for fludarabine refractory B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from CALGB Study 9211. Leukemia; 2003 Feb;17(2):323-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II study of cladribine treatment for fludarabine refractory B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from CALGB Study 9211.
  • Cladribine has been reported to have little activity in fludarabine- refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • We sought to determine whether resistance to therapy with cladribine in fludarabine-refractory CLL patients represented primary drug resistance or the inability to tolerate the myelosuppression associated with this therapy.
  • Patients with fludarabine refractory CLL patients without severe thrombocytopenia (platelets >/=50 x 10(9)/l) or granulocytopenia (neutrophils >1.5 x 10(9)/l) were enrolled.
  • Patients received up to six cycles of therapy.
  • Twenty-eight patients enrolled; 13 had intermediate (Rai stage I or II) and 15 high (Rai stage III and IV) risk stages.
  • The median time to relapse for responders was 12 months, while median progression-free survival for the entire group was 9 months (95% confidence interval, 4-14 months).
  • Response was predicted by pre-treatment Rai status with seven of 13 (54%) intermediate risk vs two of 15 (13%) high-risk patients responding (P = 0.04).
  • Cladribine has modest clinical activity and considerable toxicity in a very selected group of patients with fludarabine-refractory CLL lacking pre-treatment neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cladribine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Vidarabine / adverse effects. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Confidence Intervals. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12592330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11789; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45389; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47555; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47577; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77440
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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11. Balakrishnan K, Verma D, O'Brien S, Kilpatrick JM, Chen Y, Tyler BF, Bickel S, Bantia S, Keating MJ, Kantarjian H, Gandhi V, Ravandi F: Phase 2 and pharmacodynamic study of oral forodesine in patients with advanced, fludarabine-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Aug 12;116(6):886-92
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  • [Title] Phase 2 and pharmacodynamic study of oral forodesine in patients with advanced, fludarabine-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with primary resistance to fludarabine-based therapy or with progressive disease were eligible for oral forodesine (200 mg/d) for up to 24 weeks.
  • Six had Rai stage III to IV and were previously heavily treated (median prior therapy = 5).
  • Compared with in vivo, in vitro incubations of CLL lymphocytes with 10 or 20 microM dGuo and forodesine (2 microM) resulted in accumulation of higher levels of dGTP (40-250 microM) which resulted in increase in apoptosis.
  • Forodesine has biologic activity in CLL; pharmacodynamic parameters suggest that an alternate dosing schedule and/or higher doses to achieve greater intracellular dGTP may be beneficial in this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Purine Nucleosides / administration & dosage. Purine Nucleosides / pharmacokinetics. Pyrimidinones / administration & dosage. Pyrimidinones / pharmacokinetics. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Apoptosis / drug effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphocytes / cytology. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / antagonists & inhibitors. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20427701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00289549
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA81534; United States / PHS HHS / / P30-16672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 426X066ELK / forodesine; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924226
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12. Weide R, Heymanns J, Gores A, Köppler H: Bendamustine mitoxantrone and rituximab (BMR): a new effective regimen for refractory or relapsed indolent lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Feb;43(2):327-31
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  • Bendamustine (B) and mitoxantrone (M) have been shown to be potent cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas.
  • This study was an open label, single center pilot study for patients with relapsed or refractory, CD20-positive (indolent) lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • The therapy consisted of bendamustine (80 mg/m2, day 1-3), mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2, day 1), rituximab (375 mg/m2, week 2-5).
  • The maximum therapy consisted of one BMR-cycle, followed by five BM courses.
  • Treatment was stopped when the disease responded with PR/CR.
  • During March 1999 and December 2000, 20 patients received the BMR-regimen (four secondary high grade lymphoma, 12 indolent lymphoma, four B-CLL).
  • Median number of previous treatment regimens was two (1-6).
  • Of the lymphoma patients, 14 had stage IV disease, 1 stage III and 1 stage II.
  • B-CLL patients were all Rai stage IV (Binet C).
  • Overall response rate was 95% (19/20) with seven patients achieving a CR (35%) and 12 patients achieving a PR (60%).
  • Median time to progression is 7 months (1-21) with a median observation time of 7 months (1-21).
  • Response is still durable in 15/20 patients (75%) (1+ to 21+ months after therapy).
  • In conclusion, BMR is a well tolerated, very effective outpatient regimen of treatment for relapsed and refractory indolent lymphoid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 11999564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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13. Beyan C, Kaptan K, Cetin T, Nevruz O, Satar B: Facial paresis after fludarabine treatment for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Haematologia (Budap); 2002;32(3):287-90
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  • [Title] Facial paresis after fludarabine treatment for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • This case report discusses a case with advanced-stage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) that presented with facial paresis after fludarabine treatment.
  • A 68-year old patient with CLL (Rai classification, stage IV) was admitted to Gülhane Military Medical Academy for treatment.
  • Possible aetiological reasons why the patient being treated for advanced-stage CLL had facial paresis after the administration of fludarabine ended are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Paralysis / chemically induced. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / complications. Vidarabine / adverse effects. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Shock, Septic / drug therapy. Shock, Septic / etiology

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  • (PMID = 12611490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6559
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologia (Budap)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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14. Khouri IF, Keating MJ, Saliba RM, Champlin RE: Long-term follow-up of patients with CLL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Cytotherapy; 2002;4(3):217-21
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of patients with CLL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: We investigated the long-term outcome of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation after myeloablative conditioning regimen as treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens per patient was 3.
  • The median follow-up time for the surviving patients was 66 months.
  • Progression-free survival at 5 years was 78% for the chemosensitive and 26% for those who were refractory to conventional chemotherapy at the time of transplantation (P = 0.03).
  • The actuarial risk of acute Grade II-IV GvHD was 49%.
  • Only one patient developed acute Grade III GvHD.
  • CONCLUSION: Allogeneic transplantation is probably curative for a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Patients should be considered for clinical trials involving allogeneic transplantation at an earlier stage prior acquiring chemorefractoriness.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft vs Host Disease / mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12194718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3249
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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15. Hiddemann W, Dreyling M: Mantle cell lymphoma: therapeutic strategies are different from CLL. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2003 Jun;4(3):219-26
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  • [Title] Mantle cell lymphoma: therapeutic strategies are different from CLL.
  • In contrast to the typical course of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and despite an indolent lymphoma-like presentation, the clinical outcome of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is dismal, with a median survival time of 3 years and virtually no long-term survivors.
  • Most patients are diagnosed with advanced stage III/IV disease.
  • Although clinical studies did not prove a clear superiority of anthracyclin-containing combinations, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-like regimens represent the standard therapeutic approach in MCL.
  • Recent randomized studies have shown a benefit of a combined immunochemotherapy strategy (chemotherapy plus rituximab) increasing the complete and overall response rates, whereas further follow-up is pending for evaluation of the progression-free and overall survival.
  • However, despite the benefits of this multimodal approach, most patients relapse even after high-dose therapy.
  • Prospective randomized trials remain critical to further improve the clinical course of MCL with the addition of newer treatment modalities, such as radioactively labeled antibodies and targeted therapies (eg, flavopiridol and PS-341).
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Immunotherapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 12718799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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16. Virchis A, Ganeshaguru K, Hart S, Jones D, Fletcher L, Wright F, Wickremasinghe R, Man A, Csermak K, Meyer T, Fabbro D, Champain K, Yap A, Prentice HG, Mehta A: A novel treatment approach for low grade lymphoproliferative disorders using PKC412 (CGP41251), an inhibitor of protein kinase C. Hematol J; 2002;3(3):131-6
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  • [Title] A novel treatment approach for low grade lymphoproliferative disorders using PKC412 (CGP41251), an inhibitor of protein kinase C.
  • We have undertaken a single centre, open-label, multi-dose, exploratory Phase II clinical trial of PKC412 in patients with CLL and low grade NHL.
  • METHODS: Thirteen CLL patients and eight stage IV NHL patients were treated at three oral dose levels of 25, 150 and 225 mg/day for 14 days.
  • RESULTS: There was a median decrease of 29.4% in the lymphocyte count in 11 out of 18 patients with circulating disease following treatment.
  • All returned to normal following cessation of treatment.
  • In 14 out of 20 patients total PKC activity measured in peripheral blood and/or bone marrow lymphocytes was reduced during treatment to a mean of 54% of pre-treatment level.
  • CONCLUSION: PKC412 is safe, well tolerated and reduces the tumor load in chronic B-cell malignancies.
  • Inhibition of PKC offers a novel approach to the chemotherapy of B-cell malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 12111648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-4860
  • [Journal-full-title] The hematology journal : the official journal of the European Haematology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 120685-11-2 / 4'-N-benzoylstaurosporine; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; H88EPA0A3N / Staurosporine
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17. Byrd JC, Peterson BL, Gabrilove J, Odenike OM, Grever MR, Rai K, Larson RA, Cancer and Leukemia Group B: Treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia by 72-hour continuous infusion or 1-hour bolus infusion of flavopiridol: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19805. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1;11(11):4176-81
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  • [Title] Treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia by 72-hour continuous infusion or 1-hour bolus infusion of flavopiridol: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19805.
  • PURPOSE: Flavopiridol has in vitro activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and promotes apoptosis independent of p53 function or prior fludarabine exposure.
  • We sought to determine if flavopiridol has activity in previously treated CLL using two schedules of administration.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously treated CLL were enrolled in two sequentially done phase II studies.
  • Patients received up to 12 (CI cohort) or 8 (IVB cohort) cycles of therapy.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients were enrolled in the 72-hour CI phase II trial; 6 (40%) had intermediate-risk (Rai stage I or II) and 9 (60%) had high-risk (Rai stage III and IV) stages.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Flavopiridol has modest, schedule-dependent clinical activity in relapsed CLL and warrants future investigation utilizing alternative schedules of administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Flavonoids / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Piperidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusion Pumps. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Survival Analysis. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 1;11(11):3971-3 [15930331.001]
  • (PMID = 15930354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Piperidines; 45AD6X575G / alvocidib
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18. Kath R, Blumenstengel K, Fricke HJ, Höffken K: Bendamustine monotherapy in advanced and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2001 Jan;127(1):48-54
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  • [Title] Bendamustine monotherapy in advanced and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • In an open phase-II study we treated 23 patients with a median age of 62 years at study entry (43-86 years) with advanced, refractory or relapsed (Rai stage III n = 9, Rai stage IV n = 14) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with bendamustine.
  • At study entry, only 13 patients were chemotherapy-naive.
  • The treatment schedule with bendamustine was as follows: for patients up to 70 years 60 mg/m2 for 5 days, for patients over 70 years 50 mg/m2 for 5 days, repetition at day 29.
  • An objective remission was achieved in 15/20 patients (75%), including six patients with complete remission (CR).
  • Three of the complete responders had no chemotherapy prior to bendamustine.
  • Median overall survival after bendamustine treatment is 13.6 months (1-46 months) and 16.6 months (1-46 months) in patients responding to bendamustine.
  • Therapy-related anemia and thrombocytopenia were rare.
  • However, WHO grade III/IV leukocytopenia occurred in 38/74 cycles (51%), resulting in treatment-related mortality in 3/23 patients (13%).
  • As a corollary of the study, a general prophylactic antibiotic treatment (trimethoprim/ sulfamerazine) was instituted.
  • A general feature was the decline of the CD4/CD8 ratio: mean before therapy: 1.36; after two courses: 0.98; after four courses: 0.6, as documented in all patients who received at least two courses of bendamustine (n = 12).
  • We observed mainly cutaneous allergic reactions (three WHO grade I; one WHO grade II) leading to a cessation of bendamustine treatment in 4/23 patients (18%).
  • Bendamustine is highly effective in advanced or refractory CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkylating Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Random Allocation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11206271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride
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19. Ali R, Ozkalemkaş F, Ozkocaman V, Bülbül-Başkan E, Ozçelik T, Ozan U, Kimya Y, Tunali A: Successful labor in the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and management of CLL during pregnancy with leukapheresis. Ann Hematol; 2004 Jan;83(1):61-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful labor in the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and management of CLL during pregnancy with leukapheresis.
  • We describe the successful management of a 30-year-old woman in the second trimester of her pregnancy with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in stage IV by using only leukapheresis.
  • The procedure did not have any significant adverse effect on the patient and the fetus.
  • Seven months after delivery, Richter's syndrome developed in the patient.
  • We conclude that leukapheresis may provide an alternative for palliative treatment to chemotherapy in pregnant patients with CLL.
  • To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of CLL in pregnancy, and the first management of CLL during pregnancy with leukapheresis.
  • [MeSH-major] Labor, Obstetric. Leukapheresis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy


20. Paydas S, Tanriverdi K, Yavuz S, Seydaoglu G: PRAME mRNA levels in cases with chronic leukemia: Clinical importance and review of the literature. Leuk Res; 2007 Mar;31(3):365-9
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  • [Title] PRAME mRNA levels in cases with chronic leukemia: Clinical importance and review of the literature.
  • Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) is a tumor antigen expressed in various malignant tumors including solid tumors and hemopoietic neoplasias but no or weak expression in normal tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the frequency and the clinical importance of PRAME expression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)/chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • PRAME mRNA was measured by real time RT-PCR in 88 cases with chronic leukemia (CL) and 42 controls.
  • Seventy cases had CML/CMPD (56 had chronic phase (CP)-14 had accelerated/blastic phase disease (AP/BP) and 18 cases had CLL (11 had early stage (Rai 0-I-II) and 7 had late stage (Rai III-IV).
  • Twenty-four of 70 (34%) cases with CML/CMPD and 5 of 18 (28%) cases with CLL showed PRAME expression.
  • PRAME (+) and PRAME (-) cases were not different for age, Hb, Hct, WBC count, platelet count, stage of the disease and response to therapy.
  • PRAME was monitorised in eight cases during follow-up: in three cases PRAME was negative at CP and expression developed at the AP/BP disease.
  • PRAME was positive at the beginning in five cases (4 CML-1CLL) and expression disappeared after chemotherapy.
  • PRAME mRNA changes may be detected during the progression of these disorders and/or after therapy.
  • PRAME mRNA may be a useful marker to detect the minimal residual disease (MRD) and to determine the response to therapy in CLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics. Myeloproliferative Disorders / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chronic Disease. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16914202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PRAME protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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21. Kermani IA, Dehdilani M, Dolatkhah R: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the recent 10 years and treatment effects of Fludarabin. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):367-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the recent 10 years and treatment effects of Fludarabin.
  • OBJECTIVE: CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia) is the most common form of leukemia in the western world and because of prolonged survival of patients, the prevalence is high.
  • Chemotherapy is usually not indicated in early and stable disease and using Chlorambucil with or without steroids has been the drug of choice in the treatment of CLL for many years .
  • Clinical studies have shown that using Fludarabin can cause a complete response in significant number of untreated and/or previously treated CLL patients.
  • The aim of this study is evaluating of CLL patients and determining the effects of treatment with Fludarabin.
  • METHODS: A retrospective (descriptive/cross sectional) study of CLL patients who admitted to Hematology and Oncology Research Center of Tabriz university of Medical Sciences, between 1995-2005 was made and 126 patients enrolled.
  • Most of the patients were in stage C in Binet system (52.4%) and/or stage IV in Rai system (44.4%).
  • Chemotherapy with chlorambucil and Prednisolone was the most common regimen used (60.3%) and 49.2% of patients were in partial remission with this treatment.
  • Above all, Fludarabin is the choice treatment as first and second line therapy, as well as for patients who have failed therapy with standard regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18159969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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22. Bosch F, Abrisqueta P, Villamor N, Terol MJ, González-Barca E, Ferra C, González Diaz M, Abella E, Delgado J, Carbonell F, García Marco JA, Escoda L, Ferrer S, Monzó E, González Y, Estany C, Jarque I, Salamero O, Muntañola A, Montserrat E: Rituximab, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone: a new, highly active chemoimmunotherapy regimen for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 20;27(27):4578-84
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  • [Title] Rituximab, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone: a new, highly active chemoimmunotherapy regimen for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: The addition of monoclonal antibodies to chemotherapy has significantly improved treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • Based on excellent results with the chemotherapy-only regimen fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and mitoxantrone (FCM), we built a new chemoimmunotherapy combination--rituximab plus FCM (R-FCM).
  • We report a phase II clinical trial consisting of an initial treatment with R-FCM followed by rituximab maintenance.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-two untreated CLL patients age 70 years or younger received rituximab 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 (375 mg/m(2) the first cycle), fludarabine 25 mg/m(2) IV on days 1 to 3, cyclophosphamide 200 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 3, and mitoxantrone 6 mg/m(2) IV on day 1, given at 4-week intervals with up to six cycles supported with colony-stimulating factor.
  • RESULTS: The overall response, minimal residual disease (MRD) -negative complete response (CR), MRD-positive CR, and partial response rates were 93%, 46%, 36%, and 11%, respectively.
  • Severe neutropenia developed in 13% of patients.
  • Advanced clinical stage, del(17p), or increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels correlated with a lower CR rate.
  • CONCLUSION: R-FCM is highly effective in previously untreated CLL, with an 82% CR rate and a high proportion of MRD-negative CRs (46%).
  • Treatment toxicity is acceptable.
  • Parameters correlating with a lower response rate were advanced clinical stage, high serum beta2-microglobulin levels, and del(17p).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19704063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; R-FCM protocol
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23. Wang ML, Shih LY, Dunn P, Kuo MC: Meningeal involvement in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: report of two cases. J Formos Med Assoc; 2000 Oct;99(10):775-8
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  • [Title] Meningeal involvement in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: report of two cases.
  • Symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or its variants is rare.
  • We report two cases of CLL with leptomeningeal involvement.
  • Patient one was an 81-year-old male who had CLL stage C (IV) at diagnosis and developed meningeal disease 29 months later.
  • Patient 2 was a 42-year-old male with a diagnosis of CLL stage A (II) that evolved into mixed-cell CLL/prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) 1.5 years later, with leptomeningeal infiltration of prolymphocytes developing 26 months after initial diagnosis.
  • Meningeal leukemia was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid examination, with flow cytometry showing the same immunophenotypic findings of lambda-light chain restriction as the lymphocytes in bone marrow in one patient, and with morphologic characteristics exhibiting exclusively prolymphocytes in the other patient.
  • The CNS disease of both patients responded effectively to intrathecal chemotherapy and cranial irradiation.
  • However, both patients died of infection, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CLL.
  • The clinicopathologic features of these two patients indicate that, despite the rarity of CNS involvement in CLL patients, any neurologic manifestation in CLL patients should arouse suspicion of meningeal leukemia and patients should be examined and managed accordingly.

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  • (PMID = 11061073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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