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1. Laros-van Gorkom BA, Huisman CA, Wijermans PW, Schipperus MR: Experience with alemtuzumab in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the Netherlands. Neth J Med; 2007 Oct;65(9):333-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Experience with alemtuzumab in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the Netherlands.
  • BACKGROUND: Alemtuzumab (MabCampath) is a monoclonal antibody against CD52, indicated as third-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
  • METHODS: To gain insight into the use and complications of alemtuzumab therapy, the alemtuzumab-treated CLL patients in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands were evaluated by means of a questionnaire.
  • RESULTS: In the period from 31 October 2001 until 17 November 2005, 27 patients with CLL or prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL), RAI stage I to IV, Binet stage A to C, received 32 treatments with alemtuzumab.
  • The time from diagnosis until start of alemtuzumab treatment was 6 +/- 4.5 years (mean +/- SD ).
  • The treatment lasted 11 +/- 7 weeks.
  • Of the treatments, 41% could be administered for the full 12 weeks.
  • Infectious complications occurred in 12 of 32 (38%) treatments: pneumonia (25%; of which one Pneumocystis carini pneumonia and four Aspergillus infections), sepsis (9%; of which one Listeria), herpes zoster (9%), herpes simplex (6%), CMV reactivation (6%), meningitis (3%) and Guillain Barre (3%).
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with alemtuzumab is often terminated prematurely, leading to a suboptimal treatment effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD / drug effects. Antigens, Neoplasm / drug effects. Aspergillosis / chemically induced. Drug Evaluation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Glycoproteins / drug effects. Humans. Medical Records. Netherlands. Opportunistic Infections / chemically induced. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17954952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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2. Dürig J, Naschar M, Schmücker U, Renzing-Köhler K, Hölter T, Hüttmann A, Dührsen U: CD38 expression is an important prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leukemia; 2002 Jan;16(1):30-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD38 expression is an important prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Employing a multicolour flow cytometry assay, 133 B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) cases were analysed for surface expression of CD38.
  • Based on a cut-off value of 20%, CLL patients were categorised into a CD38-positive (> or = 20%, n = 56) and a CD38-negative subgroup (< 20%, n = 77) and separately analysed for clinical and laboratory parameters.
  • Patients in the CD38-positive cohort were characterised by an unfavourable clinical course with a more advanced disease stage, poor responsiveness to chemotherapy, short time to initiation of first treatment and shorter survival.
  • In contrast, the CD38- negative group required minimal or no treatment, remained treatment-free for a longer time period and had prolonged survival (P < 0.05).
  • CD38 expression was a robust marker in the majority of patients in that it was stable over time and not significantly influenced by chemotherapy.
  • In conclusion, our data confirm recent studies suggesting a role of CD38 as a predictor of clinical outcome in patients with B-CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / mortality. NAD+ Nucleosidase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] ADP-ribosyl Cyclase. Antigens, CD38. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / chemistry. Cohort Studies. Female. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Immunoglobulin A / blood. Immunophenotyping. Life Tables. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Platelet Count. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11840260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / CD38 protein, human; EC 3.2.2.5 / NAD+ Nucleosidase
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3. Shanafelt TD, Geyer SM, Bone ND, Tschumper RC, Witzig TE, Nowakowski GS, Zent CS, Call TG, Laplant B, Dewald GW, Jelinek DF, Kay NE: CD49d expression is an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a prognostic parameter with therapeutic potential. Br J Haematol; 2008 Mar;140(5):537-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD49d expression is an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a prognostic parameter with therapeutic potential.
  • In vitro studies have demonstrated that surface expression of CD49d on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells facilitates leukaemic cell-stromal interactions by binding to fibronectin.
  • This interaction reduces both spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis.
  • The present study measured CD49d expression by flow cytometry in a cohort of untreated CLL patients previously accrued to a prospective observational study and evaluated the relationship with overall survival (OS).
  • Among the 158 CLL patients tested, the percentage of leukaemic B cells expressing CD49d ranged from 0 to 100%.
  • Multivariate analysis, controlling for disease stage, ZAP-70, IGHV status and fluorescent in situ hybridization defects identified CD49d as an independent predictor of OS and was a better predictor of clinical outcome than ZAP-70, IGHV, or cytogenetics.
  • This observational cohort study suggests that CLL B-cell expression of CD49d is an easily measurable and independent predictor of OS and CD49d expression in CLL.
  • Importantly, anti-CD49d antibodies are already approved for treatment of other human diseases.
  • Clinical testing of anti-CD49d therapy in CLL appears warranted.

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  • [CommentIn] Future Oncol. 2008 Jun;4(3):355-8 [18518761.001]
  • (PMID = 18275431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 113408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA113408-01A1; None / None / / K23 CA113408-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA094919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA113408-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097274; None / None / / K23 CA113408-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA113408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 94919
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143198-26-9 / Integrin alpha4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS60638; NLM/ PMC4477272
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4. Lemancewicz D, Dziecioł J, Piszcz J, Lebelt A, Mazgajska-Barczyk K, Klim B, Kłoczko J: Assessment of expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in lymphoid infiltration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with nucleoside analogues. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(3):361-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in lymphoid infiltration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with nucleoside analogues.
  • B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is characterized by clonal growth and accumulation of mature lymphoid cells due to disturbance in genetically regulated form of cell death called apoptosis.
  • The aim of the study was to assess expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in neoplastic infiltration in bone marrow in patients with B-CLL treated with nucleoside analogues.
  • The study comprised examination of bone marrow obtained routinely by trephine biopsy from 18 patients with B-CLL diagnosed before administration of purine nucleoside analogues treatment and after its completion.
  • Lymphoid cells in bone marrow were present in all patients before administration of treatment.
  • After treatment in two patients bone marrow was infiltrated in diffuse pattern, whereas other patients presented nodular pattern of infiltration.
  • The difference between stage of infiltration before and after treatment was statistically significant (p<0.002).
  • High percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 reaction from 42.0% in one patient to 85.33+/-3.06% in four patients before treatment was observed.
  • After treatment percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 antibody reaction was from 33.0+/-18.38% in two patients to 99.0% in one patient.
  • Positive correlation between stage of infiltration and expression of Bcl-2 protein was confirmed before and after treatment.
  • There was a difference between Bcl-/Bax ratio before and after treatment.
  • Immunohistochemical assessment of expression of Bcl-2 family proteins in cells of lymphoid infiltration in bone marrow of patients with CLL is an important method in detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19056541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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5. Chang JE, Voorhees PM, Kolesar JM, Ahuja HG, Sanchez FA, Rodriguez GA, Kim K, Werndli J, Bailey HH, Kahl BS: Phase II study of arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid for relapsed or refractory lymphoid malignancies: a Wisconsin Oncology Network study. Hematol Oncol; 2009 Mar;27(1):11-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) has established clinical activity in acute promyelocytic leukaemia and has pre-clinical data suggesting activity in lymphoid malignancies.
  • In a subset of patients, sequential levels of intracellular glutathione and measures of Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment.
  • Sixteen patients were evaluable, and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma achieved an unconfirmed complete response after five cycles of therapy for an overall response rate of 6%.
  • The trial, which had been designed as a two-stage study, was closed after the first stage analysis due to lack of activity.
  • Intracellular depletion of glutathione was not consistently observed during treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 18668698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1069
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-08
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212975; NLM/ PMC2897137
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6. Telek B, Rejto L, Kiss A, Méhes L, Batár P, Udvardy M: [New perspectives in the evolution of prognosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia]. Orv Hetil; 2004 Aug 29;145(35):1795-800
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  • [Title] [New perspectives in the evolution of prognosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].
  • [Transliterated title] Uj perspektívák a krónikus lymphoid leukaemia prognózisának megállapításában és kezelésében.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a disease with a variable clinical course and prognosis.
  • Conventional and biological prognostic factors allow to identify patients with unfavorable prognosis at early stage.
  • Purin analogues, fludarabine and fludarabine based combinations can achieve complete hematological remission in approximately one third of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Stem cell transplantation as well as early and effective chemotherapy are curative choices of treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Mutation. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15493222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / ZAP70 protein, human; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / CD38 protein, human; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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7. Kimby E, Brandt L, Nygren P, Glimelius B, SBU-group. Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care: A systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Acta Oncol; 2001;40(2-3):224-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • A systematic review of chemotherapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU).
  • This synthesis of the literature on chemotherapy for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is based on data from 20 randomised controlled trials and one meta-analysis.
  • The conclusions reached can be summarized into the following points: Primary treatment of patients with symptomatic B-CLL is recommended to be an oral alkylating agent such as chlorambucil.
  • This drug induces tumour remission and symptomatic relief in a majority of patients with progressive disease.
  • It is recommended to defer initial therapy until required by disease progression.
  • Large randomised trials have demonstrated that early treatment with chlorambucil in a continuous or an intermittent schedule does not prolong survival in B-CLL patients with low tumour burden (Binet stage A).
  • Combination chemotherapy as primary treatment has not shown any advantage compared with single drugs.
  • Early inclusion of anthracyclines to the therapy does not convincingly add to the activity of alkylating agents.
  • The purine analogues fludarabine and 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine are active in B-CLL.
  • However, like other drugs, they do not appear to be curative.
  • In randomised multicentre trials a benefit from fludarabine as primary therapy compared with polychemotherapy (CHOP or CAP) has been observed in terms of tolerance and treatment response but not yet in survival.
  • At relapse after single drug treatment, retreatment with the same drug often induces new remissions.
  • However, the proportion of patients responding declines each time chlorambucil or any other single agent is readministered.
  • For patients with advanced B-CLL failing to respond to fludarabine or CHOP, the prognosis is poor.
  • High-dose chemo-radiotherapy with stem cell transplantation has been evaluated for young patients with B-CLL.
  • In the future an individual risk-adapted therapy will be required.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, B-Cell / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Salvage Therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11441934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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8. Glimelius B, Bergh J, Brandt L, Brorsson B, Gunnars B, Hafström L, Haglund U, Högberg T, Janunger KG, Jönsson PE, Karlsson G, Kimby E, Lamnevik G, Nilsson S, Permert J, Ragnhammar P, Sörenson S, Nygren P: The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in some major tumour types--summary and conclusions. Acta Oncol; 2001;40(2-3):135-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in some major tumour types--summary and conclusions.
  • This report by The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) reviews, classifies, and grades the scientific literature on cancer chemotherapy in some major tumour types, describes the practice of chemotherapy in Sweden, compares practice with scientific knowledge, and analyses the costs and cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy.
  • The report is intended primarily for decision-makers at various levels, both practitioners and administrators.
  • For the final evaluation to be as close to the objective truth as possible, a concerted effort was made to guarantee objectivity and thorough assessment of current knowledge about the effects of chemotherapy on the selected cancers.
  • The tumour types selected for this assessment include firstly those types where three investigations had shown an increased use of chemotherapy in Sweden during the latest decade.
  • Secondly, the two tumour types comprising the greatest number of patients treated with chemotherapy in Sweden, breast cancer and haematological malignancies, were included.
  • Among the haematological malignancies, the most prevalent ones, acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), Hodgkin's disease (HD), aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the large B-cell type and indolent NHL of follicular type were evaluated.
  • Thirdly, ovarian cancer was included since chemotherapy has been extensively used and since, at the time of the planning of this overview, a group of very expensive drugs, the taxanes, had preliminarily shown promising results.
  • A wealth of scientific literature has been published on cancer therapy.
  • The review presented in this report is limited to scientific studies judged to be important for evaluating chemotherapy efficacy.
  • The survey of practice of chemotherapy use involved all departments of surgery, urology, gynaecology, internal medicine including haematologic units, pulmonary medicine and general and gynaecologic oncology at 16 hospitals in two health care regions in Sweden, covering 39% of the Swedish population.
  • During the 4 weeks of the survey, all patients with the diagnoses concerned who received chemotherapy were registered.
  • The working group's general conclusions are summarised in the following points: The literature on the effects of chemotherapy is extensive.
  • Chemotherapy has a well-documented role in the curative and palliative treatment of patients with several types of cancer.
  • The use of chemotherapy is of utmost importance for the possibility of cure in certain tumour types.
  • In other tumours, chemotherapy increases the possibility of cure when added to local and regional treatments, particularly surgery.
  • In the instances of no possibility of cure, chemotherapy may to a variable extent improve both patient survival and well-being.
  • In Sweden chemotherapy is largely used in accordance with that documented in the scientific literature.
  • The extent of both over- and under-treatment seems to be limited but cannot be excluded at the individual patient level.
  • The literature-based knowledge is scientifically of lower quality in the most chemotherapy sensitive tumours than in tumours showing more limited sensitivity.
  • In the more sensitive tumours, positive effects on a symptomatic stage and survival were seen several decades ago.
  • In those days, clinical treatment studies did not fulfil the current high quality requirements.
  • Small life-prolonging effects of chemotherapy are sometimes very well documented in large, high quality scientific studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Technology Assessment, Biomedical
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Decision Making. Drug Costs. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 11441927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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9. Scarisbrick JJ, Child FJ, Clift A, Sabroe R, Whittaker SJ, Spittle M, Russell-Jones R: A trial of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced refractory primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol; 2001 May;144(5):1010-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A trial of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced refractory primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide shows synergistic toxicity in vitro and has been used to treat nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • METHODS: Nine patients with erythrodermic CTCL were identified for the study, eight of whom met the criteria for Sézary syndrome (SS), and three with tumour-stage mycosis fungoides (MF).
  • Six patients had treatment withdrawn, five due to bone marrow suppression and one due to progressive disease.
  • No difference in pretrial parameters were found in those who had treatment withdrawn and those who tolerated at least three courses.
  • As with other multiagent chemotherapy regimens, bone marrow toxicity is a common and severe side-effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Pilot Projects. Sezary Syndrome / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11359390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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10. Karlsson C, Lundin J, Kimby E, Kennedy B, Moreton P, Hillmen P, Osterborg A: Phase II study of subcutaneous alemtuzumab without dose escalation in patients with advanced-stage, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2009 Jan;144(1):78-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of subcutaneous alemtuzumab without dose escalation in patients with advanced-stage, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • This phase II study (n = 20) aimed to evaluate type, severity and duration of side-effects and efficacy following subcutaneous (SC) alemtuzumab, without dose-escalation, in advanced-stage relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients.
  • Alemtuzumab 30 and 3 mg was administered SC simultaneously day 1, followed by 30 mg three times per week.
  • 15/20 patients (75%) responded (12 partial responses, three complete responses) with a median time-to-treatment-failure of 20 months.
  • Optimized alemtuzumab therapy in properly selected patients may result in high efficacy even in advanced CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Neoplasm / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Contusions. Drug Administration Schedule. Erythema. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Thigh. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19016731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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11. Beyan C, Kaptan K, Cetin T, Nevruz O, Satar B: Facial paresis after fludarabine treatment for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Haematologia (Budap); 2002;32(3):287-90
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  • [Title] Facial paresis after fludarabine treatment for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • This case report discusses a case with advanced-stage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) that presented with facial paresis after fludarabine treatment.
  • A 68-year old patient with CLL (Rai classification, stage IV) was admitted to Gülhane Military Medical Academy for treatment.
  • Possible aetiological reasons why the patient being treated for advanced-stage CLL had facial paresis after the administration of fludarabine ended are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Paralysis / chemically induced. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / complications. Vidarabine / adverse effects. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Shock, Septic / drug therapy. Shock, Septic / etiology

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  • (PMID = 12611490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6559
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologia (Budap)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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12. Köppler H, Heymanns J, Pandorf A, Weide R: Bendamustine plus mitoxantrone--a new effective treatment for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: results of a phase I/II study. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 May;45(5):911-3
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  • [Title] Bendamustine plus mitoxantrone--a new effective treatment for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: results of a phase I/II study.
  • The toxicity arid efficacy of the combination bendamustine plus mitoxantrone (BM) was evaluated in 22 patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
  • Six out of twenty-two patients were Binet stage B and 16/22 Binet stage C.
  • The number of courses was limited to six and chemotherapy stopped when a complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) according to NCI-Criteria was achieved.
  • Six out of twenty-two patients achieved a CR and 13/22 patients a PR resulting in an overall response rate of 86% (19/22 patients).
  • Median time to progression was 10 months (range 4-22) and median survival 39 months (range 6-50).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / administration & dosage. Opportunistic Infections / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15291348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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13. Mukiibi JM, Paul B, Nyirenda CM, Adewuyi JO, Gwanzura C, Mzulu E, Mbvundula EM, Magombo ED, Malata HN: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans. Cent Afr J Med; 2004 Nov-Dec;50(11-12):111-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans.
  • OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and haematological features of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans.
  • The majority of patients (78.7%) had Rai stage III and IV and only seven (9.3%) patients were in stage 0.
  • Of the 32 patients treated with chemotherapy, 25.9% and 59.3% achieved complete or partial remissions respectively.
  • In the untreated group of 43 patients, two refused therapy, four died shortly after diagnosis and 37 were lost to follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Although the study has disclosed that CLL is not rare in central Africans and its presentations are similar to cases reported in the literature, the majority of patients seek medical treatment late.
  • Optimal therapy is impossible due to lack of chemotherapy and supportive services..Therefore, it is recommended that tertiary referral centers in African health systems should be equipped for better management of CLL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16615660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-9176
  • [Journal-full-title] The Central African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Zimbabwe
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14. Nückel H, Frey U, Aralh N, Dürig J, Dührsen U, Siffert W: The CC genotype of the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3 gene (GNB3) is associated with a high relapse rate in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Oct;44(10):1739-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The CC genotype of the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3 gene (GNB3) is associated with a high relapse rate in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • This study was performed to correlate genotypes of the C825T polymorphism with various clinical aspects of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL).
  • The GNB3 genotype distribution in B-CLL patients was similar to that in other Caucasian populations, arguing against a role of the polymorphism in the susceptibility to develop B-CLL.
  • No statistically significant differences were observed at diagnosis between patients with the CC genotype and homozygous or heterozygous T allele carriers with respect to age at disease onset, sex distribution, proportion of patients with CD38+ leukaemia or patients in Binet stage A, blood cell counts, degree of bone marrow infiltration or serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, thymidine kinase or beta2-microglobulin.
  • In a subgroup of 44 patients requiring chemotherapy, the median interval between diagnosis and first treatment and the response to treatment were similar in patients with CC or CT/TT genotypes.
  • A statistically significant difference, however, was found in the proportion of patients relapsing and requiring second line chemotherapy (CC: 95%; CT/TT: 52%; p = 0.0043).
  • The GNB3 genotype (p = 0.024) and age (p = 0.042) were identified as independent prognostic factors for a second therapy.
  • Thus, the long-term success of the treatment appears to be correlated with the GNB3 genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14692527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / G-protein beta3 subunit; EC 3.6.5.1 / Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
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16. Gundogdu M, Kaya H, Gulcin I, Erdem F, Cayir K, Keles M, Yilmaz A: Oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin and some acute phase reactant and trace element concentrations in serum of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Scott Med J; 2007 Feb;52(1):24-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin and some acute phase reactant and trace element concentrations in serum of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the parameters in serum of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and correlate with the cancer stage.
  • The serum from 34 patients with CLL were extracted before chemotherapy.
  • Serum transferrin, albuminumin and Zinc concentrations were lower in patients with CLL while serum a-1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, copper concentrations, and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity were higher in CLL patients when compared with the control group.
  • Although serum manganese concentration was lower in CLL groups than in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant.
  • Serum transferrin concentration was lower in the early stage group compared with the advanced stage.
  • Serum ceruloplasmin level positively correlated with serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in patients from the early stage group.
  • Serum ceruloplasmin level positively correlated with serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in patients with advanced stage.
  • In conclusion, increased serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, ceruloplasmin, a-1-acid glycoprotein, copper levels and decreased transferrin and albuminumin, unchanged manganese levels are associated with CLL and appear to be a consequence of the disease itself.
  • [MeSH-major] Ceruloplasmin / analysis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood. Trace Elements / blood

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  • (PMID = 17373421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-9330
  • [Journal-full-title] Scottish medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scott Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / Trace Elements; 0 / Transferrin; EC 1.16.3.1 / Ceruloplasmin
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17. Wood L, Robinson R, Gavine L, Juritz J, Jacobs P: A single unit lymphoma experience: outcome in a Cape Town academic centre. Transfus Apher Sci; 2007 Aug;37(1):93-102
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  • Diagnosis was according to World Health Organization criteria, prognosis assigned by the international index and therapy risk-stratified with results subject to appropriate statistical methodology.
  • Constitutional symptoms were present in 22%; a quarter had previous chemotherapy and a third some form of irradiation prior to referral.
  • Fifty-seven percent were stage I or II and 21% had nodal disease above and below the diaphragm whilst in the remainder cells were present in the circulation and this included the subset of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia -- small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • Further adverse factors included any prior treatment, intermediate or high-grade histopathology, risk factors defined by the International Prognostic Index as well as late Rai stages.
  • Analysed by disease category Hodgkin lymphoma (n=17) when managed according to the German Study Group protocols and hairy cell leukaemia (n=10) treated with two chlorodeoxyadenosine -- both had a stable plateau in excess of 90%.
  • Curves for the aggressive or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=44) fell initially to 48%, but relapse continued in stages III and IV to the current level of 18% when receiving cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine and prednisone on the 21-day schedule.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia -- small lymphocytic lymphoma (n=58) were initially given pulsed chlorambucil and sustained response was over 90% with low bulk, but declined to reach 30% as prognostic score rose.
  • It is concluded that precise diagnosis, accurate staging and therapy on standardised risk-stratified programmes, delivered uniformly by a single multidisciplinary group, creates the all-important centre effect; matching figures are unlikely to apply outside these disciplined circumstances.
  • It follows that late referral and prior therapy will adversely affect performance status and compromise life span: These alternative approaches are inappropriate and strongly discouraged.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals, Private. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / mortality. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma / mortality. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Child. Cohort Studies. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. South Africa. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17931976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0502
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfus. Apher. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Weide R, Heymanns J, Gores A, Köppler H: Bendamustine mitoxantrone and rituximab (BMR): a new effective regimen for refractory or relapsed indolent lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Feb;43(2):327-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bendamustine (B) and mitoxantrone (M) have been shown to be potent cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas.
  • This study was an open label, single center pilot study for patients with relapsed or refractory, CD20-positive (indolent) lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • The therapy consisted of bendamustine (80 mg/m2, day 1-3), mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2, day 1), rituximab (375 mg/m2, week 2-5).
  • The maximum therapy consisted of one BMR-cycle, followed by five BM courses.
  • Treatment was stopped when the disease responded with PR/CR.
  • During March 1999 and December 2000, 20 patients received the BMR-regimen (four secondary high grade lymphoma, 12 indolent lymphoma, four B-CLL).
  • Median number of previous treatment regimens was two (1-6).
  • Of the lymphoma patients, 14 had stage IV disease, 1 stage III and 1 stage II.
  • B-CLL patients were all Rai stage IV (Binet C).
  • Overall response rate was 95% (19/20) with seven patients achieving a CR (35%) and 12 patients achieving a PR (60%).
  • Median time to progression is 7 months (1-21) with a median observation time of 7 months (1-21).
  • Response is still durable in 15/20 patients (75%) (1+ to 21+ months after therapy).
  • In conclusion, BMR is a well tolerated, very effective outpatient regimen of treatment for relapsed and refractory indolent lymphoid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 11999564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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19. Lysak D, Koza V, Steinerova K, Jindra P, Vozobulova V, Schutzova M: Mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in CLL patients after front-line fludarabine treatment. Ann Hematol; 2005 Jul;84(7):456-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in CLL patients after front-line fludarabine treatment.
  • Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is performed in an increasing number of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients who are in the first remission following fludarabine treatment.
  • We analysed retrospectively mobilization results in 56 poor-risk CLL patients (median age: 56 years) who underwent first-line treatment with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide.
  • The procedure was successful in 23 (41%) patients.
  • The successful mobilization was associated with a longer interval from the last chemotherapy (>2 months).
  • No correlation was found in other parameters such as disease stage at diagnosis, disease status at stimulation or age.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15770494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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20. Bauduer F, Capdupuy C, Renoux M: Characteristics of deaths in a department of oncohaematology within a general hospital. A study of 81 cases. Support Care Cancer; 2000 Jul;8(4):302-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Underlying diseases were: multiple myeloma (9 cases), acute myeloid leukaemia (22), lymphoma (14), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (6), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (4), myelodysplastic syndromes (3), solid tumours (11), and other (12).
  • Only 15 patients had been admitted for the first time.
  • In 70% of these cases death appeared predictable, as the consequence of refractory or end-stage disease.
  • The percentages of use of therapy tools chosen as indicators were: benzodiazepines 80%; chemotherapy 46%; anti-infectious agents 47%; transfusions 42%; major analgesics 27%; and steroids 40%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cause of Death. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology. Middle Aged. Pain / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Quality of Health Care

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  • (PMID = 10923770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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21. Cowan RA, Murby B, Gunton D, Owens SE, Hoyes KP, Sharma HL, Smith AM, Chang J, van Kessel B, Nuttall PM, Crowther D: Autologous lymphocytes as vectors to target therapeutic radiation, using indium-114m, in patients with lymphoid cell malignancy. Br J Haematol; 2002 Nov;119(2):459-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Autologous lymphocytes as vectors to target therapeutic radiation, using indium-114m, in patients with lymphoid cell malignancy.
  • This report describes a phase I-II study using autologous lymphocytes to target the radionuclide indium-114m ((114m)In) in patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Nineteen patients, the majority of whom had been heavily pretreated with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, received between 69 and 211 MBq (114m)In-labelled autologous lymphocytes.
  • The indium treatment was not associated with any subjective toxicity, although all patients suffered from myelosuppression, with thrombocytopenia being the dose-limiting factor.
  • This study has demonstrated a significant anti-tumour effect in a group of patients with late-stage highly resistant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphocytes. Radioimmunotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 12406086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indium Radioisotopes
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