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1. Eisterer W, Bechter O, Söderberg O, Nilsson K, Terol M, Greil R, Thaler J, Herold M, Finke L, Günthert U, Montserrat E, Stauder R: Elevated levels of soluble CD44 are associated with advanced disease and in vitro proliferation of neoplastic lymphocytes in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leuk Res; 2004 Oct;28(10):1043-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elevated levels of soluble CD44 are associated with advanced disease and in vitro proliferation of neoplastic lymphocytes in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • We evaluated the prognostic value of soluble CD44 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and analysed the source and regulation of CD44 secretion in B-CLL clones in vitro.
  • Highly purified B-CLL cells (98% CD19 + CD3 - cells) were stimulated in vitro by different combinations of thioredoxin (Trx), Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain 1 (SAC), IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and by anti-CD40 mAbs presented on irradiated CD32L cells.
  • RESULTS: Serum levels of sCD44s and of sCD44v6 are significantly elevated in B-CLL patients (n = 90) in comparison with normal persons (n = 44) (P < 0.001).
  • Elevated levels of sCD44s and sCD44v6 are associated with an advanced disease as reflected by an extended lymph node involvement (P < 0.02), an advanced Binet (P < 0.03) and Rai stage (P < 0.04) and chemotherapy requirement (P < 0.02).
  • In B-CLL sCD44s as well as sCD44v6 is shed from leukaemia cells as shown by in vitro cultures.
  • Stimulation of B-CLL clones results in a proliferation-associated increased secretion of sCD44s (rho = 0.7; P = 0.0001) and of sCD44v6 (rho = 0.5; P = 0.005).
  • B-CLL clones from advanced stage patients are characterised by an increased capacity for proliferation and CD44 production in comparison with early stage patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both sCD44s and sCD44v6 represent a reliable prognostic marker in B-CLL and may be involved in the pathogenesis of B-CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / immunology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15289016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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2. Karlsson C, Lundin J, Kimby E, Kennedy B, Moreton P, Hillmen P, Osterborg A: Phase II study of subcutaneous alemtuzumab without dose escalation in patients with advanced-stage, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2009 Jan;144(1):78-85
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  • [Title] Phase II study of subcutaneous alemtuzumab without dose escalation in patients with advanced-stage, relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • This phase II study (n = 20) aimed to evaluate type, severity and duration of side-effects and efficacy following subcutaneous (SC) alemtuzumab, without dose-escalation, in advanced-stage relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients.
  • Alemtuzumab 30 and 3 mg was administered SC simultaneously day 1, followed by 30 mg three times per week.
  • 15/20 patients (75%) responded (12 partial responses, three complete responses) with a median time-to-treatment-failure of 20 months.
  • Optimized alemtuzumab therapy in properly selected patients may result in high efficacy even in advanced CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Neoplasm / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Contusions. Drug Administration Schedule. Erythema. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Thigh. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19016731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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3. Nückel H, Frey U, Aralh N, Dürig J, Dührsen U, Siffert W: The CC genotype of the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3 gene (GNB3) is associated with a high relapse rate in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Oct;44(10):1739-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The CC genotype of the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3 gene (GNB3) is associated with a high relapse rate in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • This study was performed to correlate genotypes of the C825T polymorphism with various clinical aspects of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL).
  • The GNB3 genotype distribution in B-CLL patients was similar to that in other Caucasian populations, arguing against a role of the polymorphism in the susceptibility to develop B-CLL.
  • No statistically significant differences were observed at diagnosis between patients with the CC genotype and homozygous or heterozygous T allele carriers with respect to age at disease onset, sex distribution, proportion of patients with CD38+ leukaemia or patients in Binet stage A, blood cell counts, degree of bone marrow infiltration or serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, thymidine kinase or beta2-microglobulin.
  • In a subgroup of 44 patients requiring chemotherapy, the median interval between diagnosis and first treatment and the response to treatment were similar in patients with CC or CT/TT genotypes.
  • A statistically significant difference, however, was found in the proportion of patients relapsing and requiring second line chemotherapy (CC: 95%; CT/TT: 52%; p = 0.0043).
  • The GNB3 genotype (p = 0.024) and age (p = 0.042) were identified as independent prognostic factors for a second therapy.
  • Thus, the long-term success of the treatment appears to be correlated with the GNB3 genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14692527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / G-protein beta3 subunit; EC 3.6.5.1 / Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
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4. Chang JE, Voorhees PM, Kolesar JM, Ahuja HG, Sanchez FA, Rodriguez GA, Kim K, Werndli J, Bailey HH, Kahl BS: Phase II study of arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid for relapsed or refractory lymphoid malignancies: a Wisconsin Oncology Network study. Hematol Oncol; 2009 Mar;27(1):11-6
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  • Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) has established clinical activity in acute promyelocytic leukaemia and has pre-clinical data suggesting activity in lymphoid malignancies.
  • In a subset of patients, sequential levels of intracellular glutathione and measures of Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment.
  • Sixteen patients were evaluable, and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma achieved an unconfirmed complete response after five cycles of therapy for an overall response rate of 6%.
  • The trial, which had been designed as a two-stage study, was closed after the first stage analysis due to lack of activity.
  • Intracellular depletion of glutathione was not consistently observed during treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 18668698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1069
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-08
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212975; NLM/ PMC2897137
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5. Mukiibi JM, Paul B, Nyirenda CM, Adewuyi JO, Gwanzura C, Mzulu E, Mbvundula EM, Magombo ED, Malata HN: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans. Cent Afr J Med; 2004 Nov-Dec;50(11-12):111-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans.
  • OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and haematological features of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) in Central Africans.
  • The majority of patients (78.7%) had Rai stage III and IV and only seven (9.3%) patients were in stage 0.
  • Of the 32 patients treated with chemotherapy, 25.9% and 59.3% achieved complete or partial remissions respectively.
  • In the untreated group of 43 patients, two refused therapy, four died shortly after diagnosis and 37 were lost to follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Although the study has disclosed that CLL is not rare in central Africans and its presentations are similar to cases reported in the literature, the majority of patients seek medical treatment late.
  • Optimal therapy is impossible due to lack of chemotherapy and supportive services..Therefore, it is recommended that tertiary referral centers in African health systems should be equipped for better management of CLL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16615660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-9176
  • [Journal-full-title] The Central African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Zimbabwe
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6. Shanafelt TD, Geyer SM, Bone ND, Tschumper RC, Witzig TE, Nowakowski GS, Zent CS, Call TG, Laplant B, Dewald GW, Jelinek DF, Kay NE: CD49d expression is an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a prognostic parameter with therapeutic potential. Br J Haematol; 2008 Mar;140(5):537-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD49d expression is an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a prognostic parameter with therapeutic potential.
  • In vitro studies have demonstrated that surface expression of CD49d on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells facilitates leukaemic cell-stromal interactions by binding to fibronectin.
  • This interaction reduces both spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis.
  • The present study measured CD49d expression by flow cytometry in a cohort of untreated CLL patients previously accrued to a prospective observational study and evaluated the relationship with overall survival (OS).
  • Among the 158 CLL patients tested, the percentage of leukaemic B cells expressing CD49d ranged from 0 to 100%.
  • Multivariate analysis, controlling for disease stage, ZAP-70, IGHV status and fluorescent in situ hybridization defects identified CD49d as an independent predictor of OS and was a better predictor of clinical outcome than ZAP-70, IGHV, or cytogenetics.
  • This observational cohort study suggests that CLL B-cell expression of CD49d is an easily measurable and independent predictor of OS and CD49d expression in CLL.
  • Importantly, anti-CD49d antibodies are already approved for treatment of other human diseases.
  • Clinical testing of anti-CD49d therapy in CLL appears warranted.

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  • [CommentIn] Future Oncol. 2008 Jun;4(3):355-8 [18518761.001]
  • (PMID = 18275431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 113408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA113408-01A1; None / None / / K23 CA113408-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA094919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA113408-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097274; None / None / / K23 CA113408-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA113408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 94919
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143198-26-9 / Integrin alpha4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS60638; NLM/ PMC4477272
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7. Hamblin TJ: Achieving optimal outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Drugs; 2001;61(5):593-611
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Achieving optimal outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a disease of late middle age and older.
  • The immunophenotype of CLL is sparse surface immunoglobulin, CD5+, CD19+, CD23+, CD79b-, and FMC7-.
  • Most patients have an early stage of disease when diagnosed and perhaps 50% will never progress.
  • This group of patients have a normal life expectancy and do not require treatment beyond reassurance.
  • Intermittent chlorambucil remains the first choice treatment for the majority of patients.
  • Combination chemotherapy offers no advantage.
  • Intravenous fludarabine is probably more effective than chlorambucil, but no trial has yet shown a survival advantage for using it first rather than as a salvage treatment in patients not responding to chlorambucil.
  • It is at least 40 times as expensive as chlorambucil.
  • For patients refractory to both drugs, a variety of options are available.
  • High dose corticosteroids, high dose chlorambucil, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, vincristine and doxorubicin), anti-CD52, anti-CD20 and a range of experimental drugs which are being evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Younger patients should be offered the chance of treatment with curative intent, preferably in the context of a clinical trial.
  • Only time will tell whether some of these patients are cured but it seems unlikely.
  • Standard allogeneic bone marrow transplant is probably too hazardous for most patients, but non-myeloablative regimens hold out the hope of invoking a graft-versus-leukaemia effect without a high tumour-related mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11368285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 156
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8. Glimelius B, Bergh J, Brandt L, Brorsson B, Gunnars B, Hafström L, Haglund U, Högberg T, Janunger KG, Jönsson PE, Karlsson G, Kimby E, Lamnevik G, Nilsson S, Permert J, Ragnhammar P, Sörenson S, Nygren P: The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in some major tumour types--summary and conclusions. Acta Oncol; 2001;40(2-3):135-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in some major tumour types--summary and conclusions.
  • This report by The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) reviews, classifies, and grades the scientific literature on cancer chemotherapy in some major tumour types, describes the practice of chemotherapy in Sweden, compares practice with scientific knowledge, and analyses the costs and cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy.
  • The report is intended primarily for decision-makers at various levels, both practitioners and administrators.
  • For the final evaluation to be as close to the objective truth as possible, a concerted effort was made to guarantee objectivity and thorough assessment of current knowledge about the effects of chemotherapy on the selected cancers.
  • The tumour types selected for this assessment include firstly those types where three investigations had shown an increased use of chemotherapy in Sweden during the latest decade.
  • Secondly, the two tumour types comprising the greatest number of patients treated with chemotherapy in Sweden, breast cancer and haematological malignancies, were included.
  • Among the haematological malignancies, the most prevalent ones, acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), Hodgkin's disease (HD), aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the large B-cell type and indolent NHL of follicular type were evaluated.
  • Thirdly, ovarian cancer was included since chemotherapy has been extensively used and since, at the time of the planning of this overview, a group of very expensive drugs, the taxanes, had preliminarily shown promising results.
  • A wealth of scientific literature has been published on cancer therapy.
  • The review presented in this report is limited to scientific studies judged to be important for evaluating chemotherapy efficacy.
  • The survey of practice of chemotherapy use involved all departments of surgery, urology, gynaecology, internal medicine including haematologic units, pulmonary medicine and general and gynaecologic oncology at 16 hospitals in two health care regions in Sweden, covering 39% of the Swedish population.
  • During the 4 weeks of the survey, all patients with the diagnoses concerned who received chemotherapy were registered.
  • The working group's general conclusions are summarised in the following points: The literature on the effects of chemotherapy is extensive.
  • Chemotherapy has a well-documented role in the curative and palliative treatment of patients with several types of cancer.
  • The use of chemotherapy is of utmost importance for the possibility of cure in certain tumour types.
  • In other tumours, chemotherapy increases the possibility of cure when added to local and regional treatments, particularly surgery.
  • In the instances of no possibility of cure, chemotherapy may to a variable extent improve both patient survival and well-being.
  • In Sweden chemotherapy is largely used in accordance with that documented in the scientific literature.
  • The extent of both over- and under-treatment seems to be limited but cannot be excluded at the individual patient level.
  • The literature-based knowledge is scientifically of lower quality in the most chemotherapy sensitive tumours than in tumours showing more limited sensitivity.
  • In the more sensitive tumours, positive effects on a symptomatic stage and survival were seen several decades ago.
  • In those days, clinical treatment studies did not fulfil the current high quality requirements.
  • Small life-prolonging effects of chemotherapy are sometimes very well documented in large, high quality scientific studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Technology Assessment, Biomedical
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Decision Making. Drug Costs. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 11441927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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9. Brick WG, Majmundar M, Hendricks LK, Kallab AM, Burgess RE, Jillella AP: Leukemic leptomeningeal involvement in stage 0 and stage 1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Jan;43(1):199-201
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  • [Title] Leukemic leptomeningeal involvement in stage 0 and stage 1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in early (Rai Stage 0 and Stage 1) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is rare, with only five cases reported.
  • We present the sixth reported case, a 77-year-old male with a 4 year history of Stage 0 CLL who presented with sudden onset of diplopia and headache.
  • Workup revealed a leukemic involvement of his CNS and he responded well to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate.
  • After his third IT treatment, he developed a change in his mental status, consistent with a chemotherapy induced encephalopathy, which was effectively treated with IT hydrocortisone.
  • In addition to the case presentation, we review the previously reported cases in an effort to determine any characteristics common among the Stage 0/1 CLL patients with reported CNS involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Diseases / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / drug therapy. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Injections, Spinal. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis. Leukemic Infiltration / drug therapy. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11908730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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10. Sinisalo M, Vilpo J, Itälä M, Väkeväinen M, Taurio J, Aittoniemi J: Antibody response to 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Vaccine; 2007 Dec 21;26(1):82-7
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  • [Title] Antibody response to 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a common adulthood mature B-cell neoplasm.
  • We investigated the immunogenicity of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with CLL.
  • The study material comprised 52 patients with CLL and 25 age- and sex-matched controls.
  • Antibody response rates to vaccine antigens were lower in patients with CLL compared to controls.
  • However, if the vaccine had been administered at an early stage of the disease, i.e. before commencement of chemotherapy and the development of hypogammaglobulinaemia, a significant vaccination response to at least six antigens was obtained in almost 40% of the CLL patients.
  • Our results indicate that early administration of conjugate vaccine may be beneficial in CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Bacterial / blood. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / immunology. Meningococcal Vaccines / immunology. Pneumococcal Vaccines / immunology

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  • [CommentIn] Vaccine. 2008 Mar 10;26(11):1407 [18280013.001]
  • (PMID = 18053620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine; 0 / Meningococcal Vaccines; 0 / Pneumococcal Vaccines
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11. Wood L, Robinson R, Gavine L, Juritz J, Jacobs P: A single unit lymphoma experience: outcome in a Cape Town academic centre. Transfus Apher Sci; 2007 Aug;37(1):93-102
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  • Diagnosis was according to World Health Organization criteria, prognosis assigned by the international index and therapy risk-stratified with results subject to appropriate statistical methodology.
  • Constitutional symptoms were present in 22%; a quarter had previous chemotherapy and a third some form of irradiation prior to referral.
  • Fifty-seven percent were stage I or II and 21% had nodal disease above and below the diaphragm whilst in the remainder cells were present in the circulation and this included the subset of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia -- small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • Further adverse factors included any prior treatment, intermediate or high-grade histopathology, risk factors defined by the International Prognostic Index as well as late Rai stages.
  • Analysed by disease category Hodgkin lymphoma (n=17) when managed according to the German Study Group protocols and hairy cell leukaemia (n=10) treated with two chlorodeoxyadenosine -- both had a stable plateau in excess of 90%.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia -- small lymphocytic lymphoma (n=58) were initially given pulsed chlorambucil and sustained response was over 90% with low bulk, but declined to reach 30% as prognostic score rose.
  • It is concluded that precise diagnosis, accurate staging and therapy on standardised risk-stratified programmes, delivered uniformly by a single multidisciplinary group, creates the all-important centre effect; matching figures are unlikely to apply outside these disciplined circumstances.
  • It follows that late referral and prior therapy will adversely affect performance status and compromise life span: These alternative approaches are inappropriate and strongly discouraged.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals, Private. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / mortality. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma / mortality. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Child. Cohort Studies. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. South Africa. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17931976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0502
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfus. Apher. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Cvetković RS, Perry CM: Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Drugs; 2006;66(6):791-820
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  • [Title] Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Rituximab (MabThera, Rituxan) is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that induces lysis and apoptosis of normal and malignant human B cells, and sensitises malignant B cells to the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy.
  • In phase III trials in patients with indolent or aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), intravenous rituximab in combination with chemotherapy was more effective as first- or second-line therapy than chemotherapy alone in providing tumour remission and patient survival.
  • Likewise, in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), rituximab in combination with chemotherapy appeared more effective than chemotherapy alone as either first- or second-line treatment.
  • In addition, rituximab maintenance therapy was shown to significantly prolong tumour remission and patient survival in patients with indolent B-cell NHL or CLL.
  • The combination of rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) was cost effective as first-line therapy for advanced-stage diffuse large B-cell NHL compared with CHOP alone.
  • Rituximab, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, was generally well tolerated in patients with NHL or CLL.
  • Overall, rituximab in combination with chemotherapy, is a valuable option for first- and second-line therapy in patients with advanced-stage indolent or aggressive B-cell NHL, and possibly those with B-cell CLL, and is included in current treatment guidelines for these indications.
  • The drug is also potentially useful as maintenance therapy in patients with indolent B-cell NHL or CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / economics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16706552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 108
  •  go-up   go-down


13. Kalil N, Cheson BD: Management of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Drugs Aging; 2000 Jan;16(1):9-27
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  • [Title] Management of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common form of adult leukaemia in Western countries.
  • Cytogenetic abnormalities are frequent in patients with CLL, and may be associated with poor prognosis.
  • Aggressive transformation occurs in 10% of patients with CLL, most commonly prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL) and Richter's syndrome.
  • PLL de novo must be differentiated from PLL of an aggressive transformation.
  • The incidences of autoimmune diseases and solid or haemopoietic secondary malignancies are increased in patients with CLL.
  • Clinical stage is the strongest prognostic factor in CLL.
  • The current recommendation to start treatment includes disease-related symptoms, massive and/or progressive hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy, increasing bone marrow failure, autoimmune disease, and recurrent infections.
  • Alkylating agents (e.g. chlorambucil) and nucleoside analogues (e.g. fludarabine) are the most active agents for CLL.
  • Fludarabine is the drug of choice for the majority of patients with CLL.
  • No drug combination is better than single agents.
  • For patients refractory to initial treatment, referral to a clinical trial is the best choice.
  • Other salvage therapy includes retreatment with the same initial agent (chlorambucil or fludarabine) if initial response was observed, or fludarabine for patients refractory to chlorambucil.
  • Promising new approaches include cycle-active agents, nelarabine, biological therapy such as anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, bone marrow transplantation, including the use of submyeloablative preparative regimens ('minitransplant') to induce graft-versus-leukaemia effect, and gene therapy.
  • Assessment of response to therapy in CLL has been updated by the National Cancer Institute Working Group, and these guidelines are used worldwide for clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / drug therapy. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10733261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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14. Dürig J, Naschar M, Schmücker U, Renzing-Köhler K, Hölter T, Hüttmann A, Dührsen U: CD38 expression is an important prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leukemia; 2002 Jan;16(1):30-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD38 expression is an important prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Employing a multicolour flow cytometry assay, 133 B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) cases were analysed for surface expression of CD38.
  • Based on a cut-off value of 20%, CLL patients were categorised into a CD38-positive (> or = 20%, n = 56) and a CD38-negative subgroup (< 20%, n = 77) and separately analysed for clinical and laboratory parameters.
  • Patients in the CD38-positive cohort were characterised by an unfavourable clinical course with a more advanced disease stage, poor responsiveness to chemotherapy, short time to initiation of first treatment and shorter survival.
  • In contrast, the CD38- negative group required minimal or no treatment, remained treatment-free for a longer time period and had prolonged survival (P < 0.05).
  • CD38 expression was a robust marker in the majority of patients in that it was stable over time and not significantly influenced by chemotherapy.
  • In conclusion, our data confirm recent studies suggesting a role of CD38 as a predictor of clinical outcome in patients with B-CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / mortality. NAD+ Nucleosidase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] ADP-ribosyl Cyclase. Antigens, CD38. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / chemistry. Cohort Studies. Female. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Immunoglobulin A / blood. Immunophenotyping. Life Tables. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Platelet Count. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11840260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / CD38 protein, human; EC 3.2.2.5 / NAD+ Nucleosidase
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15. Weide R, Heymanns J, Gores A, Köppler H: Bendamustine mitoxantrone and rituximab (BMR): a new effective regimen for refractory or relapsed indolent lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Feb;43(2):327-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bendamustine (B) and mitoxantrone (M) have been shown to be potent cytotoxic drugs for the treatment of relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas.
  • This study was an open label, single center pilot study for patients with relapsed or refractory, CD20-positive (indolent) lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • The therapy consisted of bendamustine (80 mg/m2, day 1-3), mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2, day 1), rituximab (375 mg/m2, week 2-5).
  • The maximum therapy consisted of one BMR-cycle, followed by five BM courses.
  • Treatment was stopped when the disease responded with PR/CR.
  • During March 1999 and December 2000, 20 patients received the BMR-regimen (four secondary high grade lymphoma, 12 indolent lymphoma, four B-CLL).
  • Median number of previous treatment regimens was two (1-6).
  • Of the lymphoma patients, 14 had stage IV disease, 1 stage III and 1 stage II.
  • B-CLL patients were all Rai stage IV (Binet C).
  • Overall response rate was 95% (19/20) with seven patients achieving a CR (35%) and 12 patients achieving a PR (60%).
  • Median time to progression is 7 months (1-21) with a median observation time of 7 months (1-21).
  • Response is still durable in 15/20 patients (75%) (1+ to 21+ months after therapy).
  • In conclusion, BMR is a well tolerated, very effective outpatient regimen of treatment for relapsed and refractory indolent lymphoid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 11999564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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16. Bauduer F, Capdupuy C, Renoux M: Characteristics of deaths in a department of oncohaematology within a general hospital. A study of 81 cases. Support Care Cancer; 2000 Jul;8(4):302-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Underlying diseases were: multiple myeloma (9 cases), acute myeloid leukaemia (22), lymphoma (14), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (6), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (4), myelodysplastic syndromes (3), solid tumours (11), and other (12).
  • Only 15 patients had been admitted for the first time.
  • In 70% of these cases death appeared predictable, as the consequence of refractory or end-stage disease.
  • The percentages of use of therapy tools chosen as indicators were: benzodiazepines 80%; chemotherapy 46%; anti-infectious agents 47%; transfusions 42%; major analgesics 27%; and steroids 40%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cause of Death. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology. Middle Aged. Pain / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Quality of Health Care

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  • (PMID = 10923770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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17. Hewamana S, Pepper C, Jenkins C, Rowntree C: Acute renal failure as the presenting feature of leukaemic infiltration in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2009 Apr;13(2):179-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute renal failure as the presenting feature of leukaemic infiltration in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a neoplastic condition of B cells which commonly affects the lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bone marrow.
  • Leukaemic involvement of the kidney is also relatively common in CLL, but characteristically is not associated with renal impairment.
  • Our report describes a patient who developed acute renal failure as the initial presenting feature of CLL.
  • Treatment with chlorambucil and prednisolone resulted in stabilisation of the renal function for approximately 1 year prior to the need for long-term haemodialysis.
  • Leukaemic infiltration of kidney should always be considered when a patient with CLL presents with renal impairment, regardless of the clinical stage, as the renal failure often responds well to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / etiology. Kidney / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / complications

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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1981 May;12(5):432-40 [7250955.001]
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  • (PMID = 19255826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Telek B, Rejto L, Kiss A, Méhes L, Batár P, Udvardy M: [New perspectives in the evolution of prognosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia]. Orv Hetil; 2004 Aug 29;145(35):1795-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New perspectives in the evolution of prognosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].
  • [Transliterated title] Uj perspektívák a krónikus lymphoid leukaemia prognózisának megállapításában és kezelésében.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a disease with a variable clinical course and prognosis.
  • Conventional and biological prognostic factors allow to identify patients with unfavorable prognosis at early stage.
  • Purin analogues, fludarabine and fludarabine based combinations can achieve complete hematological remission in approximately one third of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Stem cell transplantation as well as early and effective chemotherapy are curative choices of treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Mutation. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15493222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / ZAP70 protein, human; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / CD38 protein, human; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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19. Gundogdu M, Kaya H, Gulcin I, Erdem F, Cayir K, Keles M, Yilmaz A: Oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin and some acute phase reactant and trace element concentrations in serum of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Scott Med J; 2007 Feb;52(1):24-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin and some acute phase reactant and trace element concentrations in serum of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the parameters in serum of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and correlate with the cancer stage.
  • The serum from 34 patients with CLL were extracted before chemotherapy.
  • Serum transferrin, albuminumin and Zinc concentrations were lower in patients with CLL while serum a-1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, copper concentrations, and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity were higher in CLL patients when compared with the control group.
  • Although serum manganese concentration was lower in CLL groups than in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant.
  • Serum transferrin concentration was lower in the early stage group compared with the advanced stage.
  • Serum ceruloplasmin level positively correlated with serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in patients from the early stage group.
  • Serum ceruloplasmin level positively correlated with serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in patients with advanced stage.
  • In conclusion, increased serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, ceruloplasmin, a-1-acid glycoprotein, copper levels and decreased transferrin and albuminumin, unchanged manganese levels are associated with CLL and appear to be a consequence of the disease itself.
  • [MeSH-major] Ceruloplasmin / analysis. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood. Trace Elements / blood

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  • (PMID = 17373421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-9330
  • [Journal-full-title] Scottish medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scott Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / Trace Elements; 0 / Transferrin; EC 1.16.3.1 / Ceruloplasmin
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