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1. Gevaert O, Daemen A, De Moor B, Libbrecht L: A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases. BMC Med Genomics; 2009;2:69
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  • This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets.
  • However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues.
  • Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination.
  • METHODS: We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering.
  • RESULTS: Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data.
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma.
  • We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues.
  • Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies.
  • Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution.
  • A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination.
  • CONCLUSION: Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues.
  • Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination.
  • More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomics. Humans. Internationality. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20017941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-8794
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806369
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2. Shimomura T, Ikemoto I, Yamada H, Hayashi N, Ito H, Oishi Y: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with a chromophobe component producing beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. Int J Urol; 2005 Sep;12(9):835-7
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with a chromophobe component producing beta-human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • We report a case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with a chromophobe component showing significant elevation of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) in the peripheral blood.
  • A 35-year-old man was hospitalized because of a large tumor of the left kidney and elevated serum levels of beta-HCG.
  • However, 3 months later, masses were discovered in the left renal bed and in the lung in association with elevated serum levels of beta-HCG.
  • The patient was rehospitalized and received combination therapy with interferon-alpha and doxorubicin-based multiple chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dacarbazine).
  • The recurrent mass responded extremely well to treatment, and beta-HCG normalized.
  • However, the patient died 14 months after nephrectomy because of eventual resistance to chemotherapy.
  • Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma containing beta-HCG positive cells were pathologically diagnosed with immunohistochemical staining in the left kidney.
  • Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a variant of renal adenocarcinoma which has a poor prognosis.
  • This patient had an extremely rare sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma associated with serum levels of beta-HCG which were elevated and strongly correlated with morphologic cancer activity. beta-HCG might be a useful serum marker for detecting and monitoring this renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / biosynthesis. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Urol. 2006 Jan;13(1):99
  • (PMID = 16201981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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3. Blish KR, Wang W, Willingham MC, Du W, Birse CE, Krishnan SR, Brown JC, Hawkins GA, Garvin AJ, D'Agostino RB Jr, Torti FM, Torti SV: A human bone morphogenetic protein antagonist is down-regulated in renal cancer. Mol Biol Cell; 2008 Feb;19(2):457-64
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  • [Title] A human bone morphogenetic protein antagonist is down-regulated in renal cancer.
  • We analyzed expression of candidate genes encoding cell surface or secreted proteins in normal kidney and kidney cancer.
  • This screen identified a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, SOSTDC1 (sclerostin domain-containing-1) as down-regulated in kidney tumors.
  • The SOSTDC1 message was decreased in 20/20 kidney tumors compared with normal kidney tissue.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed significant decrease of SOSTDC1 protein in clear cell renal carcinomas relative to normal proximal renal tubule cells (p < 0.001).
  • Expression of SOSTDC1 was not decreased in papillary and chromophobe kidney tumors.
  • SOSTDC1 was abundantly expressed in podocytes, distal tubules, and transitional epithelia of the normal kidney.
  • SOSTDC1 suppresses both BMP-7-induced phosphorylation of R-Smads-1, -5, and -8 and Wnt-3a signaling.
  • Restoration of SOSTDC1 in renal clear carcinoma cells profoundly suppresses proliferation.
  • Collectively, these results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is expressed in the human kidney and decreased in renal clear cell carcinoma.
  • Because SOSTDC1 suppresses proliferation of renal carcinoma cells, restoration of SOSTDC1 signaling may represent a novel target in treatment of renal clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Down-Regulation / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Proteins / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor beta / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney / metabolism. Mice. Phosphorylation. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Smad Proteins / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. Wnt3 Protein. Wnt3A Protein

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  • (PMID = 18032587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-4586
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA119181
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP7 protein, human; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SOSTDC1 protein, human; 0 / Smad Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / WNT3A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt3 Protein; 0 / Wnt3A Protein; 0 / Wnt3a protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2230586
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4. Marur S, Eliason J, Heilbrun LK, Dickow B, Smith DW, Baranowski K, Alhasan S, Vaishampayan U: Phase II trial of capecitabine and weekly docetaxel in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Urology; 2008 Oct;72(4):898-902
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of capecitabine and weekly docetaxel in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eligibility included metastatic renal cancer with a maximum of 2 prior regimens, performance status of 0-2, and adequate renal, hepatic, and bone marrow function.
  • Docetaxel was administered intravenously at a dose of 36 mg/m(2) weekly on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28- day cycle and capecitabine was administered orally at a dose of 1800 mg/m(2) from days 5-18.
  • Eighteen patients had clear cell histology, 7 had papillary, sarcomatoid, or chromophobe histology.
  • The therapy was well tolerated.
  • No treatment-related mortality was observed and 2 treatment-related hospitalizations for nausea, diarrhea, and dehydration occurred.
  • The median time to progression was 1.7 months and median survival was 11.1 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine and docetaxel was well tolerated in metastatic renal cancer.
  • Clinical activity was predominantly noted in non-clear cell histology in which chemotherapy would be worthy of future investigation.

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  • (PMID = 18692873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA022453; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-2453
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS514498; NLM/ PMC3859296
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5. Rohan S, Tu JJ, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou XK, Hyjek E, Alonso MA, Chen YT: Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;12(23):6937-45
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes.
  • PURPOSE: To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Nine cases each of chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering separated the chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma into two distinct groups.
  • By a combination of data analysis approaches, we identified 11 candidate genes showing consistent differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Five of these genes, AP1M2, MAL2, PROM2, PRSS8, and FLJ20171, were shown to effectively separate these two tumor groups by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using fresh tissue samples, with similar trends seen on formalin-fixed tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed selective expression of MAL2 and claudin 8 in distal renal tubules, with MAL2 antibody showing differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Functional analyses suggest that genes encoding tight junction proteins and vesicular membrane trafficking proteins, normally expressed in distal nephrons, are retained in chromophobe RCC and lost or consistently down-regulated in oncocytoma, indicating that these two tumor types, believed to be both derived from distal tubules, are likely distinctive in their histogenesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We showed that chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma are distinguishable by mRNA expression profiles and a panel of gene products potentially useful as diagnostic markers were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17145811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AP1M2 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 1; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits; 0 / FLJ20171 protein, human; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / PROM2 protein, human; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / prostasin
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6. OkoĊ„ K: Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(3):129-76
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  • [Title] Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis.
  • Malignant renal tumors constitute 3% of human cancers, although their frequency differs greatly in various areas.
  • Since the fifties, the incidence of renal cancers has been increasing, but at the some time the prognosis has been improving.
  • In particular, in the last years, several new treatment modalities have been introduced, relying on the understanding of renal cancer biology.
  • The identified etiological factors include smoking, increased body mass, dietary factors and chronic renal disease.
  • There are several renal tumor types differing in morphology, molecular genetics and biology.
  • Inactivation of the VHL gene leads to formation of the most frequent form in adults, namely clear cell carcinoma.
  • At least two types of papillary carcinomas exist, which have different morphology and prognosis.
  • The molecular biology of chromophobe carcinoma and oncocytoma is poorly understood.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma and medullary carcinoma are extremely aggressive but rare tumors.
  • Some renal tumors have been described or recognized only relatively recently; these newer entities include multilocular cystic clear cell carcinoma, spindle cell papillary mucinous carcinoma, tubulocystic carcinoma, renal epithelial and stromal tumor, epithelioid and oncocytic angiomyolipoma.
  • The improved prognosis in renal cancer depends on earlier detection, but also on refinement of therapeutic methods.
  • Renal carcinoma is notorious for its low sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • For several years, immunological treatment with IL-2 and INF-alpha was the only adjuvant therapy method.
  • However, recently several new drugs have been introduced; they act on tyrosine-kinase receptors, VEGF, c-Met or mTOR pathway.
  • With this progress, perfect understanding of renal tumor biology and exact histological diagnosis have become of prime practical importance.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms


7. Seveso M, Taverna G, Giusti G, Benetti A, Piccinelli A, Graziotti P: Nephron sparing surgery of parenchymal kidney tumours in solitary kidney. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2007 Mar;79(1):12-6
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  • [Title] Nephron sparing surgery of parenchymal kidney tumours in solitary kidney.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to assess the therapeutic efficacy of nephron sparing surgery (NSS) in our experience applied to patients with either bilateral renal cancer or patients with cancer in a solitary functioning kidney, from an oncological viewpoint as well as renal function.
  • Twenty-seven presented absolute indications with disease in functionally or anatomically solitary kidney.
  • Nineteen patients underwent renal artery clamping and cold ischemia.
  • Final histology showed 17 patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, six papillary cell carcinomas, one chromophobe carcinoma, one oncocytoma and two angiomyolipomas.
  • Two patients present secondary tumours (lung and liver), whereas one patient is being treated with chemotherapy for colon cancer Twenty-two patients are disease-free.
  • None of the 10 patients discharged with creatinine levels >2 mg/dL, were submitted to dialytic therapy during follow-up.
  • None of the patients discharged with normal renal function developed kidney failure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conservative surgery for patients with absolute indications, is a valid alternative to radical surgery that obviously commits patients to long-term dialysis or renal transplantation.
  • Our cases showed minimal surgical complications, brief hospital stay and limited invasiveness for patients with small incidence of kidney failure associated to the all important cancer control.

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  • (PMID = 17484397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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8. David KA, Milowsky MI, Nanus DM: Chemotherapy for non-clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2006 Mar;4(4):263-8
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for non-clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Clear-cell carcinoma is the most common histopathologic subtype of kidney tumors.
  • Consequently, clinical trials for advanced-stage kidney cancer have focused on patients with clear-cell carcinoma and not on the less common subtypes, including papillary, chromophobe, collecting-duct carcinoma, and sarcomatoid-variant tumors.
  • Whereas immunotherapy has constituted the standard treatment for patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), it does not appear to have activity in the management of patients with other histologic subtypes.
  • Novel therapies, including those targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway, have recently demonstrated significant activity in clear-cell RCC.
  • Historically, chemotherapy has shown limited activity in advanced-stage RCC; however, clinical trials to date have failed to individualize treatment based on histologic subtype.
  • In this article, we will review the literature and present our experience with the use of chemotherapy in patients with non-clear-cell kidney cancer by histologic subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Treatment Outcome


9. Kuroda N, Guo L, Toi M, Naruse K, Miyazaki E, Hayashi Y, Yoshikawa C, Ashida S, Shuin T, Enzan H: Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2001 Dec;9(4):315-8
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  • [Title] Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.
  • In this study, 91 renal tumors--65 conventional renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 14 papillary RCCs, 6 chromophobe RCCs, 4 collecting duct carcinomas, 2 oncocytomas--were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of paxillin.
  • In a normal kidney, paxillin was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of distal tubules, loops of Henle, collecting ducts, and vascular smooth muscle cells.
  • In all of the chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, strong expression of paxillin was observed in the tumor cytoplasm.
  • An immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of paxillin in healthy kidney, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytoma.
  • These data suggest that paxillin possibly plays a role in signal transductions as a focal adhesion intervening between tumor cells and the extracellular matrix in renal tumors with collecting duct phenotypes such as chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, but not in conventional RCCs.
  • In addition, paxillin may be an available marker in distinguishing chromophobe RCCs from conventional or papillary RCCs.

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  • (PMID = 11759057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PXN protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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10. Liu LN, Chen GY, Wang P, Zhang CH, Huang SF: [Papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinico-pathologic studies of 33 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;27(2):102-5
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  • [Title] [Papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinico-pathologic studies of 33 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphologic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis and histogenesis of papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC).
  • Light microscopic observation, immunohistochemical assay of EMA, CK7, CD10, Vim, 34 beta E12 by tissue chip were performed.
  • RESULTS: Among 516 cases of renal epithelial tumors 33 cases of PRCC were detected.
  • Tumors were of two major types: basophilic type (n = 10), with small cuboid cell and pale cytoplasm (n = 10), 9 of them were low in Fuhrman grading; eosinophilic type (n = 22) with large columnar cells, rich in eosinophilic cytoplasm, 19 of them were high in Fuhrman grading.
  • The remaining case was of clear cell type.
  • The basophilic tumors were all positive for distal tubule marker EMA/CK7, none for proximal tubule marker CD10, 7 tumors positive for Vim.
  • The prognosis of PRCC was worse than that of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Keratin-7. Keratins / metabolism. Kidney Tubules / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Survival Rate. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15946550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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11. Liu W, Tretiakova M, Kong J, Turkyilmaz M, Li YC, Krausz T: Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1268-78
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  • [Title] Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors.
  • The kidney is not only a primary vitamin D target organ but also is a key site of vitamin D metabolism.
  • Our preliminary immunohistochemical study showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly expressed in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts, whereas the renal proximal tubules and glomeruli did not express VDR.
  • These observations led us to study the expression of VDR in various kidney tumors to determine the possible diagnostic utility of VDR.
  • Paraffin tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were constructed containing core cylinders from clear cell (52), papillary (35), chromophobe (20), sarcomatoid (20), and metastatic (59) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
  • In addition, 30 clear cell RCCs and 3 collecting duct carcinomas were also studied using conventional sections.
  • Furthermore, VDR messenger RNA and protein expression was also quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
  • Vitamin D receptor was strongly positive in collecting duct carcinomas (100% [3/3], cytoplasmic), papillary RCCs (94% [33/35], cytoplasmic), chromophobe RCCs (85% [17/20], membranous), and oncocytomas (90% [18/20], cytoplasmic with perinuclear accentuation).
  • In contrast, VDR expression was focal/weak and present only in the peripheral regions of clear cell RCCs.
  • Vitamin D receptor was weakly positive in sarcomatoid variant RCCs (88% [14/16]) regardless of the type of associated original RCC.
  • Overall, VDR is a discriminative marker for renal cell tumors.
  • The preferential expression of VDR in chromophobe RCCs, oncocytomas, and collecting duct carcinomas is in agreement with the concept that these tumors differentiate toward epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
  • Considering the different VDR expression patterns, VDR is a useful ancillary tool in distinguishing chromophobe RCCs from oncocytomas.
  • In addition, the focal and much weaker VDR expression in clear cell RCCs makes VDR valuable in distinguishing clear cell RCC from other types of RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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12. Molina AM, Tickoo SK, Ishill N, Trinos MJ, Schwartz LH, Russo P, Feldman DR, Patil S, Motzer RJ: Treatment outcome and survival for patients (pts) with sarcomatoid-variant metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC): Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16017

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  • [Title] Treatment outcome and survival for patients (pts) with sarcomatoid-variant metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC): Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience.
  • : e16017 Background: Sarcomatoid-variant represents a spindle cell phenotype of RCC that can be present in any subtype, usually showing aggressive biological behavior.
  • MSKCC experience was studied to provide data on outcome and survival to systemic therapy for metastatic, sarcomatoid-variant RCC.
  • METHODS: Clinical features, treatment outcome and survival were reviewed in 63 pts with sarcomatoid-variant metastatic RCC from a database of 650 pts treated at MSKCC with systemic therapy (cytokines, anti-angiogenesis targeted therapy and chemotherapy).
  • Response to therapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) was determined for pts based on their first treatment at MSKCC.
  • RESULTS: Histology subtypes with sarcomatoid-variant among the 63 pts included 46 clear cell, 5 papillary, 5 chromophobe, 1 collecting duct, and 6 unclassified.
  • 34 pts received targeted therapy (29 sunitinib, 3 sorafenib, 2 temsirolimus), 20 pts received cytokine therapy (19 interferon, 1 interleukin) and 9 received other therapies.
  • Differences in PFS were observed based on therapy (sunitinib vs. all other) and histology (clear cell vs. non-clear cell).
  • The median PFS for sunitinib therapy was 4.4 months (95% CI 2.2-6.7) versus 2 months (95% CI 1.7-2.7) for all other therapies (p = 0.02); and 3 months (95% CI 2.3-4.5) for clear cell versus 1.6 months (95% CI 1.0-2.1) for non-clear cell histology (p = 0.007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic sarcomatoid-variant RCC is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Sunitinib resulted in a modest response rate and longer PFS versus other therapies.
  • Studies to assess outcome, characterize tumor biology, and develop novel treatment strategies are warranted.

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  • (PMID = 27962911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Talarico F, Buli P, Iusco D, Sangiorgi A, Jovine E: Synchronous nephrectomy and right hepatectomy for metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Chir Ital; 2007 Mar-Apr;59(2):257-61
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  • [Title] Synchronous nephrectomy and right hepatectomy for metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • The prognosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma is poor, since non-operative modalities for advanced renal carcinoma have failed to yield effective results.
  • In fact, there is no indication for radiotherapy, except for palliative treatment of symptomatic bone metastases, and systemic chemotherapy is not effective.
  • Surgery, when indicated, seems to be the only therapeutic option possible.
  • Experience with hepatectomy for metastatic renal tumours has rarely been reported.
  • Not only does a small group of patients have isolated liver metastases that may be treated with radical surgery, but also extrahepatic metastases ordinarily coexist at the time of diagnosis.
  • We report a case of a 55-year-old man with a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with a single synchronous hepatic metastasis that were treated simultaneously with radical nephrectomy and right hepatectomy.
  • To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of a single metastasis of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma treated with synchronous kidney and hepatic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Hepatectomy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


14. Stadler WM: Therapeutic options for variant renal cancer: a true orphan disease. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Sep 15;10(18 Pt 2):6393S-6S
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  • [Title] Therapeutic options for variant renal cancer: a true orphan disease.
  • Variant or nonclear cell renal cell cancer is a rare disease constituting only approximately 5% to 8% of the metastatic renal cell cancer population.
  • Pathological criteria for the three main variant subtypes, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct, have been specified.
  • Because these classifications are relatively new and the number of patients with any one subtype is limited, little is known about appropriate therapies for patients with metastatic disease.
  • Retrospective series strongly suggest that immunotherapy is not effective in any nonclear cell subtype.
  • Case reports suggest that cytotoxic chemotherapy used for transitional cell cancers may be helpful in patients with collecting duct cancers.
  • A central registry of patients with variant renal cell cancer should be created in which response to various therapies is recorded.
  • Such a registry could provide support for a more formal multi-institutional study investigating a specific drug or regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Rare Diseases / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15448037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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15. Prager GW, Poettler M, Schmidinger M, Mazal PR, Susani M, Zielinski CC, Haitel A: CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer. Eur J Clin Invest; 2009 Apr;39(4):304-10
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  • [Title] CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In a variety of malignant diseases, molecular targeting represents a therapeutic option, whereby, when compared with chemotherapy, fewer side effects are thought to be expected.
  • Especially in renal cell cancer (RCC), tyrosine kinase-inhibitors have been established as useful and highly effective therapy.
  • However, tyrosine kinase-inhibitors currently approved for RCC treatment lack single molecule specificity and bear a variety of side effects of the gastro-intestinal tract, skin, heart and haematopoietic system.
  • Therefore, the identification of novel cell surface markers is sought, which might lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded RCCs from a well characterized tissue bank were immunohistochemically quantified for embryonic transmembrane antigen CD98hc (SLC3A2) expression and semi-quantitative analyses were correlated with subtype or grade of differentiation.
  • RESULTS: We found increased CD98hc expression in different types of malign RCCs, among them clear cell (cc)RCC, papillary (p)RCC and chromophobe (ch)RCC, but lack of expression in the benign renal oncocytoma.
  • Furthermore, the more malignant type II pRCC significantly higher expressed CD98hc than the less malignant and more differentiated type I pRCC (type II 83.34%, type I 4.76% CD98hc positive, P < 0.00001; n = 51).
  • The established marker for type I pRCC, Cytokreatin 7, showed 95.24% expression in type I and 26.67% expression in type II pRCC (P < 0.00001, n = 51).
  • In pRCCs, CD98hc might represent a novel and reliable marker for type II pRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19292886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2362
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Toma V, Zuber C, Sata T, Komminoth P, Hailemariam S, Eble JN, Heitz PU, Roth J: Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope is expressed in developing and normal kidney but not in renal neoplasms. Hum Pathol; 2000 Jun;31(6):647-55
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  • [Title] Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope is expressed in developing and normal kidney but not in renal neoplasms.
  • The Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope (TF) is considered a general carcinoma autoantigen and is therefore of importance in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy.
  • We report the distribution of the TF glycotope in developing and adult human kidney and renal neoplasms.
  • In developing kidney, the TF was restricted to the loop of Henle, distal tubules, and peripheral collecting ducts, whereas its sialylated form was detectable in all epithelial differentiations derived from the 2 embryonic anlagen, the metanephrogenic blastema being unreactive.
  • This pattern was essentially preserved in adult kidney, with TF labeling beginning in the thick ascending limb and extending into the collecting ducts of outer medulla.
  • The TF was exclusively expressed in the luminal cell surface and hence was inaccessible to immune reactions.
  • Analysis of a spectrum of renal neoplasms failed to detect the TF, with the exception of occasional staining of tubules in nephroblastoma.
  • Moreover, the sialylated TF was only detectable in oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, cystic nephroma, nephroblastoma, and nephroblastomatosis complex and occasionally in type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma.
  • Thus, the TF and its sialylated form are expressed in normal developing and adult kidney.
  • However, the TF does not seem to represent a tumor-associated glycotope in human kidney, nor does it appear to be of value in diagnosis and immunotherapy of renal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / analysis. Kidney / immunology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Plant Lectins

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  • (PMID = 10872656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / amaranthin protein, Amaranthus; 3554-90-3 / Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen; EC 3.2.2.22 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
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17. Reinecke P, Schmitz M, Schneider EM, Gabbert HE, Gerharz CD: Multidrug resistance phenotype and paclitaxel (Taxol) sensitivity in human renal carcinoma cell lines of different histologic types. Cancer Invest; 2000;18(7):614-25
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  • [Title] Multidrug resistance phenotype and paclitaxel (Taxol) sensitivity in human renal carcinoma cell lines of different histologic types.
  • We compared the effects of paclitaxel (Taxol) in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of different histologic types.
  • The growth inhibitory effects of paclitaxel on 34 human RCC cell lines of strictly defined different histologic types were determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assays.
  • Paclitaxel-induced morphologic alterations were visualized by light and immunofluorescence and by transmission electron microscopy.
  • The expression and function of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) were defined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, respectively.
  • A significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent paclitaxel-induced growth inhibition could be demonstrated in all cell lines, with the effects of paclitaxel dissolved in Cremophor EL/ethanol (= Taxol) exceeding the effects of paclitaxel dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide.
  • The extent of response markedly varied between the different cell lines, although chromophilic RCCs exhibited a more pronounced response to Taxol (IC50: 0.03-0.38 microM) than clear cell RCCs (IC50: 0.01-36.69 microM).
  • Exposure to paclitaxel/Taxol induced an increase of microtubule bundles in the clear cell and the chromophobe RCCs but not in the chromophilic RCCs.
  • The expression of the MRP was low in RCC cell lines and was not found to be related to paclitaxel/Taxol sensitivity.
  • Paclitaxel/Taxol effectively inhibits proliferation of human RCCs in vitro, irrespective of their histologic types.
  • Moreover, expression and function of P-glycoprotein markedly contribute to paclitaxel responsiveness, although other as yet undefined drug resistance mechanisms are effective in human RCCs as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / analysis. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / physiology. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1 / analysis. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1 / physiology. Cell Division / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins. Phenotype. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11036469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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18. Choueiri TK, Plantade A, Elson P, Negrier S, Ravaud A, Oudard S, Zhou M, Rini BI, Bukowski RM, Escudier B: Efficacy of sunitinib and sorafenib in metastatic papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 1;26(1):127-31
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  • [Title] Efficacy of sunitinib and sorafenib in metastatic papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Sunitinib and sorafenib are novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have shown significant clinical activity in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • The activity of sunitinib and sorafenib in non-clear cell histologies has not been evaluated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical features at study entry and treatment outcomes were evaluated in patients with metastatic papillary RCC (PRCC) and chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) who received either sunitinib or sorafenib as their initial TKI treatment in five US and French institutions.
  • The number of patients with papillary and chromophobe histologies was 41 (77%) and 12 (23%), respectively.
  • Response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) time, and overall survival time for the entire cohort were 10%, 8.6 months, and 19.6 months, respectively.
  • Additional prospective trials with these agents in non-clear cell RCC will further clarify their use in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Benzenesulfonates / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Indoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Prognosis. Pyridines / administration & dosage. Pyrroles / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


19. Morikawa T, Sugiyama A, Kume H, Ota S, Kashima T, Tomita K, Kitamura T, Kodama T, Fukayama M, Aburatani H: Identification of Toll-like receptor 3 as a potential therapeutic target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Oct 1;13(19):5703-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of Toll-like receptor 3 as a potential therapeutic target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most drug-refractory cancers.
  • The aim of this study is to discover a novel therapeutic target molecule for clear cell RCC (CCRCC), which accounts for the majority of RCC.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression profiles of 27 CCRCCs and 9 normal kidney tissues as well as 15 various adult normal tissues were examined by Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 arrays.
  • The effects of TLR3 signaling on in vitro cell growth were examined.
  • RESULTS: TLR3 gene was highly expressed in CCRCC, with only limited expression in a panel of normal tissues.
  • On immunohistochemical analysis using a monoclonal antibody against TLR3, overexpression of TLR3 was observed in 139 of 189 (73.5%) cases of CCRCC as well as in lung metastatic CCRCC (6 of 8), whereas TLR3 expression was entirely absent in chromophobe RCC (0 of 8).
  • These observations suggest that TLR3 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target in CCRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptor 3 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis. Drug Design. Female. Humans. Interferon Inducers / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Poly I-C / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17908959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 3; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C
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20. Pan CC, Chen PC, Ho DM: The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases. Histopathology; 2004 Nov;45(5):452-9
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  • [Title] The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases.
  • AIMS: To demonstrate the diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC Ma) and CD10 in the classification of RCC and renal oncocytoma, based upon a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 328 samples consisting of 256 clear cell/conventional, 27 papillary, 28 chromophobe, five collecting duct, five unclassified RCCs and seven renal oncocytomas using antibodies MOC31, BerEP4 and antibodies against cytokeratins (KL-1, CAM5.2, 34betaE12, cytokeratin 7), RCC Ma, epithelial membrane antigen, E-cadherin, CD10, CD15 and vimentin.
  • MOC31 and BerEP4 chiefly labelled distal tubules of normal kidney while RCC Ma and CD10 labelled the proximal tubules.
  • Twenty-three chromophobe RCCs (82%) were reactive for MOC31, while only four clear cell RCCs and three papillary RCCs were positive for this marker.
  • Clear cell RCCs were characterized by a high positive rate for CD10 (82%) and a low positive rate for BerEP4 (27%).
  • All renal oncocytomas were negative for MOC31 and CD10.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MOC31 has diagnostic merit in discerning chromophobe RCC.
  • The CD10+/BerEP4- profile and RCC Ma+/BerEP4+ profile achieve moderate sensitivity and good specificity for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC, respectively.
  • The non-reactivity for both MOC31 and CD10 is helpful in distinguishing renal oncocytoma from RCC.
  • When properly selected, antibodies have immunohistochemical diagnostic utility for the classification of renal cortical epithelial tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. Neprilysin

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  • (PMID = 15500648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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21. Pouessel D, Patard JJ, Culine S: [Advanced renal carcinomas with special situations. How to treat them?]. Bull Cancer; 2010;97:83-90
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  • [Title] [Advanced renal carcinomas with special situations. How to treat them?].
  • Advanced or metastatic renal carcinoma represents a frequent disease in oncologic practice.
  • Few years ago, in immunotherapy era, treatments had quickly reached deadlock.
  • New therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors (VEGF-R), sorafenib, sunitinib and bevacizumab, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), temsirolimus and everolimus, have modified these patients prognosis and their quality of life in a few years.
  • Then in the daily practice, patients have distinctive characteristics which were not evaluated in large pivotal studies: poor performance status, older patients, renal dysfunction, cerebral metastases or non clear cell renal cancer.
  • However compared to global population, tolerance have not been very different in geriatric patients, or patients with poor performance status, or with central neurological metastases, or with papillary and chromophobe sub-types.
  • Also before starting treatment, ratio between potential benefit and possible toxicities have to be evaluated.
  • In patients with renal insufficiency, VEGF receptor inhibitors seem to be cautiously initiated at reduced doses, and to be increased according to tolerance.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Everolimus. Humans. Indoles / therapeutic use. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / drug effects. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / drug effects. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / drug effects. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20418207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / sunitinib; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 624KN6GM2T / temsirolimus; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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22. Kauffman EC, Barocas DA, Chen YT, Yang XJ, Scherr DS, Tu JJ: Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2305-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes.
  • PURPOSE: The similar appearance of renal tumor histological subtypes can complicate differential diagnoses.
  • This problem is most notable for the chromophobe subtype of renal cell carcinoma, which can be histologically indistinguishable from oncocytoma with investigational molecular markers failing to provide reliable differentiation.
  • KAI1 is a metastasis suppressor gene whose expression correlates inversely with the metastatic potential of most solid tumor cancer types.
  • We tested the hypothesis that KAI1 is differentially expressed among renal tumor histological subtypes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for KAI1 protein was performed in 152 nephrectomy specimens, including 48 clear cell, 35 papillary and 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples, 28 oncocytomas and 10 tumor-free kidneys.
  • KAI1 mRNA levels were compared by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an additional 22 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma samples.
  • RESULTS: In all 10 tumor-free kidneys KAI1 protein was detected exclusively in distal tubule cell membranes.
  • Of the tumor specimens KAI1 protein was absent in all papillary renal cell carcinoma specimens.
  • It was present in only 1 of 48 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (2%) and 2 of 28 oncocytomas (7%) but only at low levels.
  • In contrast, 27 of 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma specimens (87%) expressed KAI1 protein, most at moderate or high levels.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of KAI1 immunostaining for discerning chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma was 90% with similar results observed at the RNA level.
  • CONCLUSIONS: KAI1 is an accurate biomarker for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that may aid in the diagnostic differentiation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma.
  • It remains to be determined whether KAI1 expression contributes to the low metastatic potential of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19303095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / KAL1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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23. Zhang J, Kang SK, Wang L, Touijer A, Hricak H: Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements. Radiology; 2009 Jan;250(1):137-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the distribution of growth rates across different sizes and subtypes of renal cortical tumors by assessing tumor volume and maximum tumor diameter at serial volumetric computed tomographic (CT) examinations.
  • Fifty-three of 2304 patients (34 men, 19 women; mean age, 67 years +/- 10 [standard deviation; range, 39-88 years) who underwent nephrectomy from 1989 to 2006 did not receive preoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy and underwent at least two preoperative contrast material-enhanced CT examinations (at least 3 months apart) with identical section thickness that was no more than one-fifth of longitudinal tumor diameter.
  • Reciprocal of doubling time (DT) (RDT) was calculated.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-two clear cell carcinomas, 10 papillary carcinomas, six chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and one angiomyolipoma were analyzed.
  • DT ranged from -78476.54 to 18057.43 days (mean, -1230.73 days; median, 590.51 days).
  • Faster-growing tumors were more likely to be clear cell carcinomas, those of higher grade had higher growth rates.
  • Small renal tumors (<or=3.5 cm) were similar to larger tumors in subtype and growth rate.
  • Age at diagnosis correlated negatively with renal tumor growth rate (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSION: Growth rates in renal tumors of different sizes, subtypes, and grades represent a wide range and overlap substantially.
  • Small renal tumors appear to be similar to larger ones in nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods. Kidney Cortex / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):949-50 [24261507.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):314; author reply 314-5 [19561267.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):950
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):318
  • (PMID = 19092093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Thomas AA, Rini BI, Stephenson AJ, Garcia JA, Fergany A, Krishnamurthi V, Novick AC, Gill IS, Klein EA, Zhou M, Campbell SC: Surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma after targeted therapy. J Urol; 2009 Sep;182(3):881-6
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  • [Title] Surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma after targeted therapy.
  • PURPOSE: The development of targeted agents for renal cell carcinoma has renewed interest in consolidative surgery due to the robust clinical responses seen with these agents.
  • The integration of targeted therapy and surgery requires careful consideration due to the potential for increased perioperative morbidity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib, sorafenib or bevacizumab plus interleukin-2 before tumor resection.
  • RESULTS: Between June 2005 and August 2008, 19 patients were treated with targeted therapy and subsequently underwent resection.
  • Two patients with extensive bilateral renal cell carcinoma were also treated to downsize the tumors to enable partial nephrectomy.
  • An anastomotic bowel leak and abscess were noted postoperatively in another patient who underwent en bloc resection of a retroperitoneal recurrence and adjacent colon.
  • Pathological analysis of 20 specimens revealed clear cell, chromophobe and unclassified renal cell carcinoma in 80%, 5% and 10% of cases, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma after targeted therapy is feasible with low morbidity in most patients.
  • However, significant complications can occur, raising concern for possible compromise of tissue and/or vascular integrity associated with surgery in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Benzenesulfonates / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Indoles / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Nephrectomy. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Postoperative Complications. Pyridines / administration & dosage. Pyrroles / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Apr;183(4):1646-7; author reply 1647 [20176381.001]
  • (PMID = 19616232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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25. Dutcher JP, de Souza P, McDermott D, Figlin RA, Berkenblit A, Thiele A, Krygowski M, Strahs A, Feingold J, Hudes G: Effect of temsirolimus versus interferon-alpha on outcome of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma of different tumor histologies. Med Oncol; 2009;26(2):202-9
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  • [Title] Effect of temsirolimus versus interferon-alpha on outcome of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma of different tumor histologies.
  • Purpose Exploratory subgroup analyses from the phase 3 global advanced renal cell carcinoma (ARCC) trial were conducted to assess the influence of tumor histology on outcome of patients treated with temsirolimus (Torisel) or interferon-alpha (IFN).
  • Patients and methods Patients with ARCC including clear cell and other types such as papillary and chromophobe histologies received either IFN (3 million units [MU] subcutaneously three times weekly, escalating to 18 MU) or temsirolimus (25 mg intravenously weekly).
  • Results Approximately 80% of patients had clear cell and 20% of patients had other histologies, the majority of which were papillary.
  • Patients with clear cell and other RCC histologies, treated with temsirolimus, demonstrated comparable median overall and progression-free survival.
  • In contrast, patients with other RCC histologies, treated with IFN, demonstrated shorter median overall and progression-free survival than patients with clear cell RCC.
  • Hazard ratios for death for treatment with temsirolimus versus IFN were less than 1 for patients regardless of tumor histology.
  • For patients treated with temsirolimus, 59% with clear cell and 68% with other RCC histologies experienced tumor reductions.
  • For patients treated with IFN, 35% with clear cell and 14% with other RCC histologies had tumor reductions.
  • Conclusion Temsirolimus appears to be efficacious in patients with clear cell and non-clear cell histologies and can, therefore, be used for the treatment of all types of RCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19229667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 624KN6GM2T / temsirolimus; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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26. Singer EA, Bratslavsky G, Linehan WM, Srinivasan R: Targeted therapies for non-clear renal cell carcinoma. Target Oncol; 2010 Jun;5(2):119-29
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  • [Title] Targeted therapies for non-clear renal cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment of advanced and metastatic kidney cancer has been revolutionized by the development of targeted systemic therapies.
  • Despite the growing number of available agents approved for use against clear cell renal cell carcinoma, patients with non-clear histologies, constituting approximately 1 in 4 cases of kidney cancer, have not received the same attention.
  • The majority of clinical trials testing novel targeted therapies have excluded non-clear subtypes, providing limited therapeutic options for patients with these diagnoses and their oncologists.
  • This review will focus on the use of targeted therapies against the non-clear histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma: papillary I and II, chromophobe, and collecting duct.
  • The unique genetic and molecular profiles of each distinct non-clear kidney cancer subtype will be described, as these differences are integral to the development and effectiveness of the novel agents used to treat them.
  • Trials focusing on non-clear kidney cancer, or those that treated clear cell tumors along with significant numbers of non-clear subtypes, will be discussed.
  • The role of cytoreductive nephrectomy and the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant targeted therapy will be reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Design. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Nephrectomy

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  • (PMID = 20680492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-260X
  • [Journal-full-title] Targeted oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Target Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / BC / Z01 BC011023-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / BC / Z01 BC011028-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / BC / Z01 BC011038-01; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS254814; NLM/ PMC3003336
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27. Linehan WM, Pinto PA, Bratslavsky G, Pfaffenroth E, Merino M, Vocke CD, Toro JR, Bottaro D, Neckers L, Schmidt LS, Srinivasan R: Hereditary kidney cancer: unique opportunity for disease-based therapy. Cancer; 2009 May 15;115(10 Suppl):2252-61
SciCrunch. Clinical Genomic Database: Data: Gene Annotation .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hereditary kidney cancer: unique opportunity for disease-based therapy.
  • Kidney cancer is not a single disease; it is comprised of several different types of cancer, each with a different histology, with a different clinical course, caused by a different gene, and responding differently to therapy.
  • The VHL gene is the gene for the hereditary cancer syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau, as well as for the common form of sporadic, noninherited, clear cell kidney cancer.
  • Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma (HPRC) is a hereditary renal cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for the development of bilateral, multifocal, type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma.
  • The genetic defect underlying HPRC is MET, the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor.
  • Mutations of MET also have been identified in a subset of tumors from patients with sporadic type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • Clinical trials targeting the MET pathway are currently underway in patients with HPRC and in patients with sporadic (nonhereditary) papillary kidney cancer.
  • The BHD gene (also known as folliculin or FLCN) is the gene for Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis associated with a hereditary form of chromophobe and oncocytic, hybrid RCC.
  • Preclinical studies are underway targeting the BHD gene pathway in preparation for clinical trials in Birt-Hogg-Dube and sporadic chromophobe RCC.
  • Patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC (HLRCC) are at risk for developing cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and a very aggressive type of RCC.
  • Studies of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the VHL-HIF pathways have provided the foundation for therapeutic approaches in patients with HLRCC-associated kidney cancer as well as other hereditary and sporadic forms of RCC.

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  • (PMID = 19402075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 SC006659-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12,400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 66
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS113348; NLM/ PMC2720093
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28. Pedrosa I, Alsop DC, Rofsky NM: Magnetic resonance imaging as a biomarker in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer; 2009 May 15;115(10 Suppl):2334-45
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging as a biomarker in renal cell carcinoma.
  • The ability to noninvasively discriminate the most common types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances or their magnetic resonance phenotypes is achievable.
  • Intracellular lipids, a histologic characteristic of the clear cell RCC, can be identified on chemical shift MRI.
  • In addition to morphologic imaging features, the different subtypes of RCC have distinct patterns of enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.
  • Clear cell tumors demonstrate much greater enhancement than papillary and chromophobe RCCs during the corticomedullary and nephrographic phases.
  • The MRI technique arterial spin labeling (ASL) uses magnetic fields to label the water protons in arterial blood and measures blood flow into tissue; quantitative images of blood flow can be generated without exogenous contrast media.
  • Multiple measurements of tumor perfusion may be repeated before and after a physiologic or drug challenge (ie, antiangiogenic therapy).
  • In RCC xenografts and in patients with metastatic RCC, ASL MRI assessments can be used to monitor blood flow changes in response to antiangiogenic therapies.
  • ASL MRI has the potential to serve as a biomarker for patients with metastatic RCC by offering a noninvasive measure of tumor blood flow changes accompanying antiangiogenic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19402070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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29. Procopio G, Verzoni E, Gevorgyan A, Mancin M, Pusceddu S, Catena L, Platania M, Guadalupi V, Martinetti A, Bajetta E: Safety and activity of sorafenib in different histotypes of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):204-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety and activity of sorafenib in different histotypes of advanced renal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety in unresectable or advanced renal carcinoma treated with sorafenib, in a situation closely similar to the everyday medical practice.
  • They were either previously untreated or relapsed after one or more previous treatments with systemic therapy.
  • Most of them had clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), but other histological types such as papillary, chromophobe, Bellini ducts, sarcomatoid and mixed forms were also represented.
  • Response was observed in the majority of patients with RCC, but also in some patients with non-clear cell RCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm previous ones reported in the literature concerning the efficacy and the safety of sorafenib as second-line treatment in patients with RCC.
  • In addition, they disclose the hypothesis that sorafenib could be effective also in patients who underwent multiple previous treatments and in those with histology different from clear cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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