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1. Berrada M, Yang Z, Lehnert S: Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil: effects of drug alone and in combined treatments. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1550-7
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  • [Title] Tumor treatment by sustained intratumoral release of 5-fluorouracil: effects of drug alone and in combined treatments.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate an intratumoral polymer implant for sustained delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a mouse tumor model.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: 5-FU was incorporated into a polyanhydride-based polymer, bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)propane sebacic acid (CPP:SA) and implanted in RIF-1 mouse fibrosarcoma growing s.c.
  • The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated by tumor growth delay.
  • A second drug, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cis-DDP), was administered by intraperitoneal injection or by osmotic pump.
  • RESULTS: For drug/polymer implant alone, the tumor growth delay was proportional to the amount of drug in the implant.
  • The 5-FU polymer implant was most effective when combined with cis-DDP or with acute or fractionated radiation, and in some cases, the effects of combined treatments were greater than additive.
  • CONCLUSION: Results indicate that 5-FU can be effectively delivered by polymer implant and that this mode of delivery is particularly appropriate for combined treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cobalt Radioisotopes. Combined Modality Therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organoplatinum Compounds. Polymers / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiometry. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12459384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 78022-86-3 / diammine platinum(II) dilactate; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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2. Krueger GG, Gottlieb AB, Sterry W, Korman N, Van De Kerkhof P: A multicenter, open-label study of repeat courses of intramuscular alefacept in combination with other psoriasis therapies in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. J Dermatolog Treat; 2008;19(3):146-55
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  • [Title] A multicenter, open-label study of repeat courses of intramuscular alefacept in combination with other psoriasis therapies in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of multiple courses of alefacept in combination with traditional psoriasis therapy for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP).
  • METHODS: Patients with CPP requiring systemic therapy were eligible for this study.
  • One concomitant psoriasis therapy (topical agents, methotrexate, cyclosporine, systemic retinoids, or ultraviolet B [UVB]) per course was allowed.
  • The extent of disease was determined using the 7-point Physician Global Assessment (PGA; scale ranging from 0 = clear to 6 = severe).
  • RESULTS: More than 73% of patients improved by > or = one PGA category and > or = 44% of patients improved by > or = two PGA categories across all concomitant treatments.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple courses of alefacept appear to be well tolerated and demonstrate efficacy in patients with CPP when administered with other psoriasis therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / administration & dosage. Ultraviolet Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Cyclosporine / adverse effects. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Infection / chemically induced. Lymphopenia / chemically induced. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Retinoids / administration & dosage. Retinoids / adverse effects. Retreatment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18569270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Retinoids; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; ELK3V90G6C / alefacept; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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3. Lee HJ, Wang CJ, Kuo HC, Chou FP, Jean LF, Tseng TH: Induction apoptosis of luteolin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2005 Mar 1;203(2):124-31
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  • Since hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major challenging clinical problem in many parts of the world including Eastern Asia and Southern Africa, it is imperative to develop more effective chemopreventive and chemotherapy agents.
  • We found that Bax and Bak translocated to mitochondria apparently, whereas Fas ligand (FasL) was unchanged after a treatment with luteolin for 3 h.
  • In addition, it showed that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after the treatment of luteolin for 3-12 h.
  • Further investigation showed that a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reduced the activation of CPP 32, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c that induced by luteolin.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Luteolin / pharmacology. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspase 3. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Humans. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Mitochondria / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 15710173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; KUX1ZNC9J2 / Luteolin
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4. Kono S, Suzuki A, Obata Y, Igarashi H, Bito H, Sato S: Vasopressin with delayed combination of nitroglycerin increases survival rate in asphyxia rat model. Resuscitation; 2002 Sep;54(3):297-301
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  • Recently, vasopressin has been reported as a more effective drug than epinephrine (adrenaline) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  • However, vasopressin decreases myocardial blood flow (MBF) because of its strong vasoconstriction, to maintain better coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) compared with epinephrine.
  • In a VF model, vasopressin combined with nitroglycerin maintained CPP; however, low survival rates were observed compared with vasopressin alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Asphyxia / drug therapy. Nitroglycerin / administration & dosage. Vasopressins / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Coronary Circulation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epinephrine / administration & dosage. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 12204464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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5. Stoner J, Martin G, O'Mara K, Ehlers J, Tomlanovich M: Amiodarone and bretylium in the treatment of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation in a canine model. Acad Emerg Med; 2003 Mar;10(3):187-91
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  • [Title] Amiodarone and bretylium in the treatment of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation in a canine model.
  • Despite mixed experimental data, some authors view bretylium as the drug of choice in hypothermic VF.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare defibrillation rates from hypothermic VF after drug therapy with amiodarone, bretylium, and placebo.
  • Thirty anesthetized dogs were mechanically ventilated and instrumented to monitor coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), rectal core temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG).
  • Ventricular fibrillation was induced as needed with a transthoracic AC current.
  • Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was defined as a sustainable ECG rhythm generating a corresponding arterial pressure tracing lasting a minimum of 15 minutes.
  • RESULTS: CPR was adequate based on CPP > 15 mm Hg in all animals.
  • Mean (+/-SD) CPP was 35.3 +/- 18.8 mm Hg with an overall lower trend in the amiodarone group (p = 0.06).
  • [MeSH-major] Amiodarone / therapeutic use. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / therapeutic use. Bretylium Compounds / therapeutic use. Ventricular Fibrillation / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Dogs. Hypothermia, Induced. Random Allocation

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  • (PMID = 12615580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1069-6563
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Arrhythmia Agents; 0 / Bretylium Compounds; N3RQ532IUT / Amiodarone; RZR75EQ2KJ / bretylium
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6. Oddo M, Levine JM, Frangos S, Carrera E, Maloney-Wilensky E, Pascual JL, Kofke WA, Mayer SA, LeRoux PD: Effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline on cerebral oxygenation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2009 Aug;80(8):916-20
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  • [Title] Effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline on cerebral oxygenation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension.
  • BACKGROUND: The impact of osmotic therapies on brain oxygen has not been extensively studied in humans.
  • We examined the effects on brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and refractory intracranial hypertension.
  • METHODS: 12 consecutive patients with severe TBI who underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) and PbtO(2) monitoring were studied.
  • PbtO(2), ICP, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), central venous pressure and cardiac output were monitored continuously.
  • RESULTS: 42 episodes of intracranial hypertension, treated with mannitol (n = 28 boluses) or HTS (n = 14 boluses), were analysed.
  • HTS treatment was associated with an increase in PbtO(2) (from baseline 28.3 (13.8) mm Hg to 34.9 (18.2) mm Hg at 30 min, 37.0 (17.6) mm Hg at 60 min and 41.4 (17.7) mm Hg at 120 min; all p<0.01) while mannitol did not affect PbtO(2) (baseline 30.4 (11.4) vs 28.7 (13.5) vs 28.4 (10.6) vs 27.5 (9.9) mm Hg; all p>0.1).
  • Compared with mannitol, HTS was associated with lower ICP and higher CPP and cardiac output.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe TBI and elevated ICP refractory to previous mannitol treatment, 7.5% hypertonic saline administered as second tier therapy is associated with a significant increase in brain oxygenation, and improved cerebral and systemic haemodynamics.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Chemistry / drug effects. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Diuretics / pharmacology. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Mannitol / pharmacology. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Recurrence


7. Meybohm P, Cavus E, Dörges V, Weber B, Stadlbauer KH, Wenzel V, Scholz J, Steffen M, Bein B: Release of protein S100B in haemorrhagic shock: effects of small volume resuscitation combined with arginine vasopressin. Resuscitation; 2008 Mar;76(3):449-56
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  • BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of conventional fluid resuscitation and small volume resuscitation alone and combined with arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and protein S100B during experimental haemorrhagic shock.
  • RESULTS: Compared to baseline, CPP decreased and S100B levels increased significantly at haemodynamic decompensation (S100B: fluid, 0.52+/-0.23 microg L(-1) vs. 0.85+/-0.37 microg L(-1), p<0.05; HHS+NS, 0.47+/-0.18 microg L(-1) vs. 0.90+/-0.33 microg L(-1), p<0.05; HHS+AVP, 0.53+/-0.18 microg L(-1) vs. 0.90+/-0.39 microg L(-1), p<0.01).
  • During the initial 10 min of therapy, CPP of HHS+NS was significantly higher compared to the fluid group, increased more rapidly in the HHS+AVP group, but was not significantly different thereafter.
  • CONCLUSION: HHS+AVP resulted in higher CPP compared to fluid and HHS+NS in the initial phase of therapy, but did not differ thereafter.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Colloids. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Isotonic Solutions. Liver / injuries. Male. Prospective Studies. Rehydration Solutions / administration & dosage. S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit. Saline Solution, Hypertonic. Swine

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  • (PMID = 17976887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids; 0 / Hemostatics; 0 / Isotonic Solutions; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Rehydration Solutions; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic; 0 / crystalloid solutions; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin
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8. Bordman R, Jackson B: Below the belt: approach to chronic pelvic pain. Can Fam Physician; 2006 Dec;52(12):1556-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach to the symptom complex called chronic pelvic pain (CPP).
  • Chronic pelvic pain is defined as nonmenstrual pain lasting 6 months or more that is severe enough to cause functional disability or require medical or surgical treatment.
  • MAIN MESSAGE: While the source of pain in CPP can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or psychoneurologic, 4 conditions account for most CPP: endometriosis, adhesions, interstitial cystitis, and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Nonnarcotic analgesics are first-line therapy for pain relief; hormonal therapies are beneficial if the pain has a cyclical component.
  • CONCLUSION: Although caring for patients with CPP can be challenging and frustrating, family physicians are in an ideal position to manage and coordinate their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Pain / diagnosis. Pelvic Pain / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Chronic Disease. Cystitis, Interstitial / complications. Cystitis, Interstitial / diagnosis. Cystitis, Interstitial / drug therapy. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Endometriosis / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / complications. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / diagnosis. Irritable Bowel Syndrome / therapy. Physical Examination

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  • (PMID = 17279236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1783755
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9. Pillai A, Rajeev K, Chandi S, Unnikrishnan M: Intrinsic brainstem choroid plexus papilloma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2004 Jun;100(6):1076-8
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  • [Title] Intrinsic brainstem choroid plexus papilloma. Case report.
  • The authors report an intrinsic brainstem lesion that was diagnosed initially as a pontine cavernoma, which finally proved to be a choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Choroid plexus papillomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system and are usually intraventricular in location.
  • The occurrence of this tumor in an intraparenchymal location is extremely rare, and its occurrence within the brainstem is previously unreported.
  • The authors also report a trial of chemotherapy with lomustine in the management of the residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15200124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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10. Lukanova M, Popov I: [Chronic pelvic pain and combined oral hormonal contraception]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2008;47(3):20-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine the frequency of usage of combined oral hormonal contraception/COHC/ and its efficiency in women with chronic pelvic pain/CPP/.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-hundred and seventy, consecutively admitted in the Clinic women with CPP, were included in the study.
  • The patients from the both groups were compared according to their socio-demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics, type of disease, duration of CPP assessment of pain intensity and McGill pain indices, subjective rating of efficiency of the used COHC by the means of 5-rate scale in diseases, manifested with chronic pain symptomatic/leiomyoma /L/ endometriosis/E, pelvic congestion syndrome/PCS/, adhaesion syndrome/AS, Allen-Masters syndrome and other gynaecologic pathology/OGP/--chronic pelvic inflammatory disease/ CPID/, ovarian cysts /OC/, etc./.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Duration of CPP /in months/ was comparatively longer in group A /50,74 +/- 10,33/in comparison wit group B/41,38 +/- 5,97/.
  • It was ascertained a bigger number of types of used medicines in group A/analgesics, spasmolytics, gestagenes and GnRH-agonists/.
  • Efficiency of COHC was assessed by the patients in the range "good-/basically/very good-excellent", and that was well demonstrated by women with L, E, AS and OGP/CPID, etc./.
  • CONCLUSION: COHC was administered to patients with more heavily demonstrated chronic pelvic pain symptomatic, that required combination of more than two medicines in order to obtain a better therapeutic effect.
  • Diseases, manifesting with CPP like E, L and OGP/CPID, OC, AS, etc/are of great priority in treatment with COHC.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / therapeutic use. Pelvic Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analgesics / administration & dosage. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Chronic Disease. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Pain Measurement. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18756828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
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11. Nomura Y, Yasumoto S, Yanai F, Akiyoshi H, Inoue T, Nibu K, Tsugu H, Fukushima T, Hirose S: Survival and late effects on development of patients with infantile brain tumor. Pediatr Int; 2009 Jun;51(3):337-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival and late effects on development of patients with infantile brain tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Most infants with brain tumor may have a poor prognosis.
  • The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the survival and outcome with regard to mental and physical development in 11 subjects with brain tumor; these tumors were diagnosed when the patients were under 1 year of age.
  • METHODS: The histological diagnoses of these tumors were astrocytoma, n = 3; pineocytoma, n = 2; teratoma, n = 1; ependymoma, n = 1; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, n = 1; glioblastoma, n = 1; medulloblastoma, n = 1; and choroid plexus papilloma, n = 1.
  • Surgical resection was performed in eight patients, and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to all except one patient with choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Radiotherapy was additionally performed for four of the 10 chemotherapy patients.
  • Among the surviving patients, five were under no treatment for 50-167 months after the diagnosis (median duration, 89 months), while one received chemotherapy for 20 months.
  • Five patients exhibited mental retardation, and one patient experienced normal development after surgical removal of his choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Diencephalic syndrome developed in one patient with pilomyxoid astrocytoma that necessitated hormone replacement therapy, and bodyweight over +2 SD was observed in two patients.
  • The remaining five patients died 11-111 months after diagnosis (median duration, 24 months).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of infantile brain tumor with regard to mortality and developmental outcome remains poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Child Development. Pinealoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


12. Huang SJ, Hong WC, Han YY, Chen YS, Wen CS, Tsai YS, Tu YK: Clinical outcome of severe head injury using three different ICP and CPP protocol-driven therapies. J Clin Neurosci; 2006 Oct;13(8):818-22
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome of severe head injury using three different ICP and CPP protocol-driven therapies.
  • In the past 5 years, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management has become the standard in the treatment of severe head injuries.
  • Guidelines published in 2000 suggest that CPP should be at least 70 mmHg; however, there is still debate about the optimal CPP.
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these three widely used therapies: (i) intracranial pressure (ICP) targeted;.
  • (ii) CPP-targeted with CPP >70 mmHg; and (iii) modified CPP-targeted (mCPP) therapy with CPP >60 mmHg.
  • Data, including patient age, sex, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, ICP, CPP, fluid status, amount of mannitol and vasopressor used, daily fluid intake and output, complications and clinical results, were collected from 213 patients with severe head injuries over a 12-year period.
  • Patients were categorized into three groups (ICP, CPP, mCPP) according to the treatment protocol used.
  • The mortality rate was 28.6%, 14.3% and 13.5% in the ICP, CPP, and mCPP groups, respectively.
  • Highest intake/output ratio, amount of vasopressor used and pulmonary complications were seen in the CPP patients.
  • Although CPP-targeted therapy is the most recommended therapeutic protocol, our data show that patients treated with modified CPP-target therapy with CPP >60 mmHg have better clinical outcomes and fewer complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / blood supply. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Craniocerebral Trauma / therapy. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Barbiturates / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hyperventilation. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16908157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Barbiturates; WQ92Y2793G / barbituric acid
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13. Bentsen G, Breivik H, Lundar T, Stubhaug A: Predictable reduction of intracranial hypertension with hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch: a prospective clinical trial in critically ill patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 2004 Oct;48(9):1089-95
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  • [Title] Predictable reduction of intracranial hypertension with hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch: a prospective clinical trial in critically ill patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: After head trauma, hypertonic saline lowers intracranial pressure (ICP) and preserves or increases cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on elevated ICP and on CPP in patients critically ill from SAH.
  • METHODS: Critically ill SAH-patients needing urgent treatment for an elevated ICP, but otherwise stable, were included in this study.
  • Our primary outcome variables were changes in ICP and CPP during and for 3 h after this infusion.
  • RESULTS: All interventions resulted in decreased ICP and elevation of CPP.
  • The mean percent peak increase in CPP was 26% (range 16-32%, P = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 7.2% saline in 6% hydroxyethyl starch is an effective and safe therapy for intracranial hypertension after SAH.
  • We demonstrate that an infusion of 2 ml kg(-1) during 20 min has a predictable and clinically significant beneficial effect on ICP and CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / therapeutic use. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Plasma Substitutes / therapeutic use. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Volume / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Critical Illness. Extravascular Lung Water / drug effects. Female. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osmolar Concentration. Prospective Studies. Saline Solution, Hypertonic

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  • (PMID = 15352953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5172
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Plasma Substitutes; 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic
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14. Cavus E, Meybohm P, Doerges V, Hugo HH, Steinfath M, Nordstroem J, Scholz J, Bein B: Cerebral effects of three resuscitation protocols in uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock: a randomised controlled experimental study. Resuscitation; 2009 May;80(5):567-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare haemodynamic and cerebral variables during aggressive fluid resuscitation vs. administration of a hypertonic starch solution (HS) combined with either noradrenaline [norepinephrine] or arginine vasopressin in an animal model of uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock.
  • Thirty minutes after drug administration, bleeding was controlled manually.
  • RESULTS: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and brain tissue oxygen pressure (P(bt)O(2)) decreased significantly with haemorrhage in all groups (p<0.05).
  • AVP/HS resulted in a faster and higher increase of MAP and CPP compared to both NA/HS and FR (p<0.001 vs. FR; p<0.01 vs. NA/HS).
  • Compared to FR, P(bt)O(2) increased faster with AVP/HS and NA/HS (p<0.05) after therapy, and ICP was lower at the end of the study period (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Following uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock in this animal model, combination of HS with arginine vasopressin increased CPP and cerebral oxygenation faster than aggressive fluid resuscitation, without re-increasing ICP.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Protocols. Resuscitation / methods. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arginine Vasopressin / administration & dosage. Brain / blood supply. Brain / drug effects. Brain / physiopathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Fluid Therapy / methods. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / administration & dosage. Hypertonic Solutions / administration & dosage. Male. Norepinephrine / administration & dosage. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Plasma Substitutes / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Random Allocation. Swine. Treatment Outcome. Vasoconstrictor Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19217706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Hypertonic Solutions; 0 / Plasma Substitutes; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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15. Municchi G, Marconcini S, D'Ambrosio A, Berardi R, Acquaviva A: Central precocious puberty in multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Jun;19(4):273-8
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  • The authors describe a girl with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) who developed central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • She subsequently developed diabetes insipidus with a documented lesion of the pituitary stalk; she received chemotherapy and began therapy with l-desamino-8-D-argininevasopressin.
  • Growth hormone deficiency was diagnosed at the age of 4.4 years and GH replacement therapy started.
  • The patient has been off therapy for LCH since the age of 6.
  • Signs of pubertal development appeared at 7.5 years (bone age 8 years) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) treatment was started.
  • During the observation period she developed central hypothyroidism.
  • Development of CPP during LCH is extremely rare; to the authors 'knowledge, no patient has been described so far.
  • The authors believe that CPP was secondary to LCH and did not represent a casual finding, even in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary axis involvement.
  • The possibility of CPP development should be considered during the follow-up of these patients.


16. Pak AC, Ashby CR Jr, Heidbreder CA, Pilla M, Gilbert J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL: The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol; 2006 Oct;9(5):585-602
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  • [Title] The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) may play a role in mediating the reward and reinforcement produced by addictive drugs and in the attentional processing of drug-associated environmental cues.
  • The meso-accumbens DA system is selectively enriched with DA D3 receptors, a DA receptor subtype increasingly implicated in reward-related brain and behavioural processes.
  • From a variety of evidence, it has been suggested that selective DA D3 receptor antagonism may be a useful pharmacotherapeutic approach for treating addiction.
  • The present experiments tested the efficacy of SB-277011A, a selective DA D3 receptor antagonist, in rat models of nicotine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR), nicotine-induced conditioned locomotor activity (LMA), and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • SB-277011A, given intraperitoneally within the dose range of 1-12 mg/kg, dose-dependently reduced nicotine-enhanced BSR, nicotine-induced conditioned LMA, and nicotine-induced CPP.
  • The results suggest that selective D3 receptor antagonism constitutes a new and promising pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of nicotine dependence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Nicotine / pharmacology. Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacology. Nitriles / pharmacology. Reward. Tetrahydroisoquinolines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Area Under Curve. Association Learning / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Cues. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans

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  • (PMID = 16942635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1461-1457
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 DA999999
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / SB 277011; 0 / Tetrahydroisoquinolines; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS493706; NLM/ PMC3732043
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17. Abes S, Moulton H, Turner J, Clair P, Richard JP, Iversen P, Gait MJ, Lebleu B: Peptide-based delivery of nucleic acids: design, mechanism of uptake and applications to splice-correcting oligonucleotides. Biochem Soc Trans; 2007 Feb;35(Pt 1):53-5
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  • Accordingly, splicing correction by CPP-conjugated steric-block ON analogues is inefficient in the absence of endosomolytic agents.
  • They offer promising leads for the development of efficient cellular delivery vectors for therapeutic steric-block ON analogues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Drug Delivery Systems. Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy / methods. Genomics / methods. Humans. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 17233600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5127
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical Society transactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Soc. Trans.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105178803
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleic Acids; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Peptides
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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18. Courteix C, Privat AM, Pélissier T, Hernandez A, Eschalier A, Fialip J: Agmatine induces antihyperalgesic effects in diabetic rats and a superadditive interaction with R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid, a N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 2007 Sep;322(3):1237-45
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  • [Title] Agmatine induces antihyperalgesic effects in diabetic rats and a superadditive interaction with R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid, a N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist.
  • Agmatine, an endogenous cationic amine resulting from the decarboxylation of L-arginine, produces antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects in animal models of chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain.
  • To determine its mechanism of action and the potential interest of some of its combinations, the antihyperalgesic effect of agmatine was challenged with alpha(2)-adrenergic imidazoline and opioid-receptor antagonists, and its interaction with the opioid-receptor agonist morphine, the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D-CPP [R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid], and the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (L-N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) were examined.
  • In diabetic rats, an isobolographic analysis showed that combinations of i.t. agmatine with i.v.
  • L-NAME or with i.t. morphine resulted in an additive antihyperalgesic effect, whereas the agmatine/D-CPP i.t. combination was superadditive.
  • Moreover, agmatine combined with D-CPP produces an antinociceptive synergy in experimental neuropathy, opening opportunities in the development of new strategies for pain therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Agmatine / pharmacology. Hyperalgesia / drug therapy. Pain / drug therapy. Piperazines / pharmacology. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anticonvulsants / pharmacology. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / complications. Drug Interactions. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Rats. Streptozocin

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  • (PMID = 17551093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 70J407ZL5Q / Agmatine
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19. Toussaint M, Delair B, Foulon C, Lempereur N, Vaccher C, Maurice T, Melnyk P: Tic hydantoin sigma-1 agonist: pharmacological characterization on cocaine-induced stimulant and appetitive effects. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol; 2009 Jul;19(7):504-15
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  • [Title] Tic hydantoin sigma-1 agonist: pharmacological characterization on cocaine-induced stimulant and appetitive effects.
  • The most active enantiomer 4, facilitated CPP acquisition but failed to substitute for cocaine.
  • When CPP was acquired with cocaine and then extinguished, 4 provoked reactivation of CPP.
  • Preliminary ADME properties are in favour of an optimal therapeutic development.
  • Such Tic-hydantoin compound may serve as a new effective agonist therapy in cocaine addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Appetitive Behavior / drug effects. Cocaine / pharmacology. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Hydantoins / pharmacology. Hyperkinesis / chemically induced. Receptors, sigma / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Cellulose, Oxidized / pharmacology. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Ethylenediamines / pharmacology. Extinction, Psychological / drug effects. Locomotion / drug effects. Male. Mice. Protein Binding / drug effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19249191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7862
  • [Journal-full-title] European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cellulose, Oxidized; 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Ethylenediamines; 0 / Hydantoins; 0 / INTERCEED; 0 / Receptors, sigma; 138356-20-4 / BD 1047; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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20. Tan M, Lan KH, Yao J, Lu CH, Sun M, Neal CL, Lu J, Yu D: Selective inhibition of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer in vivo by a novel TAT-based ErbB2-targeting signal transducers and activators of transcription 3-blocking peptide. Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;66(7):3764-72
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  • ErbB2 is an excellent target for cancer therapies.
  • Unfortunately, the outcome of current therapies for ErbB2-positive breast cancers remains unsatisfying due to resistance and side effects.
  • New therapies for ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers continue to be in great need.
  • Peptide therapy using cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) as peptide carriers is promising because the internalization is highly efficient, and the cargoes delivered can be bioactive.
  • However, the major obstacle in using these powerful CPPs for therapy is their lack of specificity.
  • Here, we sought to develop a peptide carrier that could introduce therapeutics specifically to ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
  • By modifying the HIV TAT-derived CPP and conjugating anti-HER-2/neu peptide mimetic (AHNP), we developed the peptide carrier (P3-AHNP) that specifically targeted ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • P3-AHNP-STAT3BP inhibited cell growth in vitro, with ErbB2-overexpressing 435.eB breast cancer cells being more sensitive to the treatment than the ErbB2 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 cells.
  • Compared with ErbB2 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 xenografts, i.p. injected P3-AHNP-STAT3BP preferentially accumulated in 435.eB xenografts, which led to more reduction of proliferation and increased apoptosis and targeted inhibition of tumor growth.
  • This novel peptide delivery system provided a sound basis for the future development of safe and effective new-generation therapeutics to cancer-specific molecular targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Immunoconjugates / pharmacokinetics. Immunoconjugates / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, SCID. Molecular Sequence Data. NIH 3T3 Cells. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16585203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 109570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 119127-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 099031; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / anti-HER2-neu peptide mimic, 1.5 kDa; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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21. Baviera M, Invernizzi RW, Carli M: Haloperidol and clozapine have dissociable effects in a model of attentional performance deficits induced by blockade of NMDA receptors in the mPFC. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2008 Feb;196(2):269-80
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  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics in a model of attentional performance deficit of schizophrenia induced by blockade of N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Attentional performance was assessed using the five-choice serial reaction time task.
  • The task provides indices of attentional functioning (% correct responses), executive control (measured by anticipatory and perseverative responding), decision time (measured by correct response latency), and omissions.
  • Haloperidol and clozapine were given intraperitoneally (IP) to animals that had received vehicle or a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, 3-(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), directly into the medial prefrontal cortex.
  • RESULTS: Fifty nanograms/side of CPP reduced accuracy (% correct responses) and increased anticipatory and perseverative responding.
  • Haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg IP) reduced the CPP-induced anticipatory and perseverative overresponding but not the impairment in accuracy.
  • CPP increased decision time and omissions, but these effects were not affected by either haloperidol or clozapine.
  • [MeSH-major] Attention / drug effects. Clozapine / pharmacology. Haloperidol / pharmacology. Prefrontal Cortex / drug effects. Schizophrenia / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Antipsychotic Agents / administration & dosage. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / administration & dosage. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Microinjections. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Piperazines / toxicity. Rats. Reaction Time / drug effects. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Serial Learning / drug effects. Serotonin Antagonists / administration & dosage. Serotonin Antagonists / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17940750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3158
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Serotonin Antagonists; 98Y1I8ZD4M / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; J60AR2IKIC / Clozapine; J6292F8L3D / Haloperidol
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22. Chiu WT, Lin TJ, Lin JW, Huang SJ, Chang CK, Chen HY: Multicenter evaluation of propofol for head-injured patients in Taiwan. Surg Neurol; 2006;66 Suppl 2:S37-42
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  • BACKGROUND: The present study was a multicenter, retrospective study which aimed to evaluate the efficacy of propofol, a new choice of pharmacotherapy in head-injured patients.
  • Data on patients' demographics, laboratory data, GCS score, ICP, CPP, concurrent medications, and therapeutic outcomes were collected.
  • Mean CPP for the first 5 days in the ICU was 71.10 +/- 15.32 mm Hg in the propofol group and 43.20 +/- 29.92 mm Hg in the nonpropofol group (P<.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Brain Injuries / mortality. Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use. Propofol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17071254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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23. Concolino D, Muzzi G, Pisaturo L, Piccirillo A, Di Natale P, Strisciuglio P: Precocious puberty in Sanfilippo IIIA disease: diagnosis and follow-up of two new cases. Eur J Med Genet; 2008 Sep-Oct;51(5):466-71
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  • [Title] Precocious puberty in Sanfilippo IIIA disease: diagnosis and follow-up of two new cases.
  • We observed two children affected by MPS IIIA with central precocious puberty (CPP) both treated with GnRH agonists.
  • The occurrence of CPP in both patients with MPS IIIA suggests that it is necessary to look for an association between the two conditions.
  • The follow-up of our two patients leads us to believe also that GnRH agonist treatment can have a beneficial effect on final height and probably on the improvement of behavioural problems.
  • [MeSH-major] Mucopolysaccharidosis III / complications. Mucopolysaccharidosis III / diagnosis. Mutation. Puberty, Precocious / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Body Height / drug effects. Brain / pathology. Child. Child Behavior Disorders / complications. Child Behavior Disorders / drug therapy. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Luteolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18586597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-7212
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Luteolytic Agents; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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24. Turk DC, Swanson KS, Gatchel RJ: Predicting opioid misuse by chronic pain patients: a systematic review and literature synthesis. Clin J Pain; 2008 Jul-Aug;24(6):497-508
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, a minority may develop aberrant drug behaviors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence of published strategies for identifying at-risk patients to guide clinicians' decisions and practices for prescribing opioid treatment for chronic pain patients (CPP).
  • Studies were limited to human studies in the English language related to screening for predictors of aberrant drug behaviors in CPP who were prescribed long-term opioids.
  • We included studies reviewing, developing measures, or investigating outcomes related to screening for aberrant opioid behaviors in CPP.
  • RESULTS: We identified 6 published articles addressing clinician-based predictors of substance misuse of opioids and 9 published studies evaluating the predictive ability of clinical interviews and self-report measures for aberrant opioid behaviors in CPP.
  • CONCLUSION: Review of the published studies reveals that no one procedure or set of predictor variables is sufficient to identify CPP at-risk for opioid misuse or abuse.
  • Strong predictors include a personal history of illicit drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Prospective studies, especially ones with CPP who have not already been started on chronic opioid therapy, are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects. Opioid-Related Disorders / etiology. Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Humans. MEDLINE / statistics & numerical data. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18574359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5409
  • [Journal-full-title] The Clinical journal of pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5K23GM071400-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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25. Heger S, Müller M, Ranke M, Schwarz HP, Waldhauser F, Partsch CJ, Sippell WG: Long-term GnRH agonist treatment for female central precocious puberty does not impair reproductive function. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Jul 25;254-255:217-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term GnRH agonist treatment for female central precocious puberty does not impair reproductive function.
  • Depot gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (GnRHa) therapy is the treatment of choice for patients with central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • The present study was performed on 46 women, former CPP patients, 12.5+/-3.7 years after the discontinuation of treatment with depot GnRHa.
  • In a structured interview, we assessed general health status, clinical signs possibly associated with hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle, gynaecological diseases and reproductive function.
  • It appears that long-term treatment with depot GnRHa is safe and does not impair reproductive function.
  • The risk of former CPP patients to develop hirsutism and/or polycystic ovary syndrome does not seem to be increased compared to the normal population but this issue needs to be addressed in further long-term follow-up studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Reproduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Androgens / adverse effects. Body Height / drug effects. Body Mass Index. Body Weight / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Genital Diseases, Female / etiology. Health Status. Humans. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Interviews as Topic. Long-Term Care. Menstrual Cycle / drug effects. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16757104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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26. Belfort MA: Is high cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral flow predictive of impending seizures in preeclampsia? A case report. Hypertens Pregnancy; 2005;24(1):59-63
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  • Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to demonstrate elevated estimated cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and cerebral flow index (CFI) in a preeclamptic patient.
  • She subsequently developed eclampsia.
  • After magnesium sulfate therapy her CPP and CFI were within the normal range and she did not experience further seizures.
  • This finding suggests that cerebral overperfusion may be at least one of the etiologies involved in the pathogenesis of eclampsia.
  • [MeSH-major] Intracranial Hypertension / ultrasonography. Pre-Eclampsia / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Outcome. Seizures / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Flow Velocity. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Eclampsia / diagnosis. Eclampsia / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Magnesium Sulfate / therapeutic use. Parity. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Risk Assessment


27. Celik T, Kayir H, Ceyhan M, Demirtaş S, Coşar A, Uzbay IT: CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo. Brain Res Bull; 2004 Sep 30;64(3):243-9
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  • [Title] CPP and amlodipine alter the decrease in basal acetylcholine and choline release by audiogenic stimulus in hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats in vivo.
  • Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and Ca2+ channel antagonists on extracellular acetylcholine and choline release in the hippocampus of ethanol-withdrawn rats were investigated by in vivo microdialysis.
  • Either an NMDA receptor antagonist (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) or a calcium channel antagonist amlodipine was administered, and 15 min later, an audiogenic stimulus (100 dB, 1 min) was applied to rats.
  • CPP (15 mg/kg) and amlodipine (20 mg/kg) reversed the decrement in acetylcholine and increment in choline release in EW rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Amlodipine / pharmacology. Ethanol / adverse effects. Hippocampus / drug effects. Piperazines / pharmacology. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acoustic Stimulation / adverse effects. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / drug therapy. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / metabolism. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / physiopathology. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Choline / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / physiology. Drug Interactions / physiology. Epilepsy, Reflex / chemically induced. Epilepsy, Reflex / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Reflex / physiopathology. Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Male. Microdialysis. Neural Pathways / drug effects. Neural Pathways / metabolism. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Seizures / chemically induced. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / physiopathology. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects. Synaptic Transmission / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15464861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0 / Piperazines; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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28. Strojan P, Popović M, Surlan K, Jereb B: Choroid plexus tumors: a review of 28-year experience. Neoplasma; 2004;51(4):306-12
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  • [Title] Choroid plexus tumors: a review of 28-year experience.
  • The aims of the study were to review the patients with choroid plexus tumor (CPT) treated in Slovenia between 1972-1999, to calculate the incidence of CPTs, and to evaluate treatment results in respect to tumor histology and mode of therapy.
  • Twelve patients (7 females, 5 males), 0.8-43 years old (median 6.1 years; <15 years: 10/12,83%) with CPT, representing 0.36% of all intracranial tumors registered during the period under study, were identified.
  • There were eight papillomas (CPPs) and four carcinomas (CPCs) with no difference in age distribution between the groups.
  • Of seven patients with gross tumor resection in CPP group, one patient died of postoperative meningitis and one had local recurrence 1.6 years after surgery; the latter is disease-free 17.9 years after re-operation.
  • In the CPC-group, only the patient who received adjuvant BEP chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation following incomplete surgery is alive with no signs of disease after 6.5 years.
  • Ten-year disease-specific survival for all CPTs and for CPP subgroup was 73% and 100%, respectively.
  • In Slovenia, CPTs represent 0.36% of intracranial tumors.
  • In CPPs, the treatment of choice is surgery alone.
  • For CPCs, adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy and craniospinal radiotherapy following surgery should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / diagnosis. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / epidemiology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / therapy. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15254663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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29. Yang H, Liu S, Cai H, Wan L, Li S, Li Y, Cheng J, Lu X: Chondroitin sulfate as a molecular portal that preferentially mediates the apoptotic killing of tumor cells by penetratin-directed mitochondria-disrupting peptides. J Biol Chem; 2010 Aug 13;285(33):25666-76
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  • [Title] Chondroitin sulfate as a molecular portal that preferentially mediates the apoptotic killing of tumor cells by penetratin-directed mitochondria-disrupting peptides.
  • The use of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as drug carriers for targeted therapy is limited by the unrestricted cellular translocation of CPPs.
  • The preferential induction of tumor cell death by penetratin (Antp)-directed peptides (PNC27 and PNC28), however, suggests that the CPP Antp may contribute to the preferential cytotoxicity of these peptides.
  • The IC(50) values of PNC27 in tumor cells were 2-3 times lower than in normal cells.
  • However, all three engineered peptides demonstrated similar cytotoxic effects in tumor and normal cells.
  • Another three chimeric peptides containing the leader peptide Antp with different mitochondria-disrupting peptides (KLA-Antp (KGA), B27-Antp (BA27), and B28-Antp (BA28)), preferentially induced apoptosis in tumor cells.
  • The IC(50) values of these peptides (3-10 microM) were 3-6 times lower in tumor cells than in normal cells.
  • In contrast, TAT-directed peptides (TAT-KLA (TK), TAT-B27 (TB27), and TAT-B28 (TB28)), were cytotoxic to both tumor and normal cells.
  • Furthermore, Antp-directed peptides bind chondroitin sulfate (CS), and the removal of endogenous CS reduces the cytotoxic effects of Antp-directed peptides in tumor cells.
  • The overexpression of CS in tumor cells is positively correlated to the cell entry and cytotoxicity of Antp- directed peptides.
  • These results suggest that CS overexpression in tumor cells is an important molecular portal that mediates the preferential cytotoxicity of Antp-directed peptides.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Carrier Proteins / pharmacology. Chondroitin Sulfates / pharmacology. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / metabolism. Peptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Transport / drug effects. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. Glycosaminoglycans / pharmacology. HeLa Cells. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20484051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / PNC-27; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / penetratin; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2919130
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30. Mori T, Sasaki J, Aoyama Y, Sera T: Regulation of cancer-related growth factor expression by artificial zinc-finger proteins. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf); 2006;(50):291-2
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  • One attractive approach to anticancer therapy is repression of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, which is a potent target for prevention of tumor growth.
  • We demonstrated ATFs fused to CPPs, designated CPP-ATFs or designed regulatory proteins (DRPs), could penetrate into mammalian cells and transiently repress expression of a reporter gene, which was under control of the VEGF promoter/5'-UTR.
  • We discuss gene-regulatory properties of CPP-ATFs in detail.
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression / drug effects. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Neoplasms / blood supply. Zinc Fingers

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  • (PMID = 17150932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-8272
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids symposium series (2004)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / PTD4-ATF protein; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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31. Di Gennaro JL, Mack CD, Malakouti A, Zimmerman JJ, Armstead W, Vavilala MS: Use and effect of vasopressors after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Dev Neurosci; 2010;32(5-6):420-30
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  • [Title] Use and effect of vasopressors after pediatric traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are commonly used to increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but there are few data comparing vasopressor effectiveness after pediatric TBI.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine which vasopressor is most effective at increasing MAP and CPP in children with moderate-to-severe TBI.
  • We evaluated differences in MAP and CPP at 3 h after initiation of therapy between phenylephrine, dopamine and norepinephrine among patients who did not require a second vasopressor during this time.
  • Multivariate linear regression was used to adjust for age, gender, injury severity score and baseline MAP or CPP and to cluster by subject.
  • The most common initial medication was phenylephrine for 47 (57%).
  • Thirteen (16%) of the patients received a second vasopressor during the first 3 h of treatment and were thus not included in the regression analyses; these patients received more fluid resuscitation and exhibited higher in-hospital mortality (77 vs. 32%; p = 0.004) compared to patients receiving a single vasopressor.
  • The norepinephrine group exhibited a 5 mm Hg higher MAP (95% CI: -4 to 13; p = 0.31) and a 12 mm Hg higher CPP (95% CI: -2 to 26; p = 0.10) than the phenylephrine group, and a 5 mm Hg higher MAP (95% CI: -4 to 15; p = 0.27) and a 10 mm Hg higher CPP (95% CI: -5 to 25; p = 0.18) than the dopamine group.
  • However, in post hoc analysis, after adjusting for time to start of vasopressor, hypertonic saline and pentobarbital, the effect on MAP was lost, but the CPP was 8 mm Hg higher (95% CI: -10 to 25; p = 0.39) than in the phenylephrine group, and 5 mm Hg higher (95% CI: -14 to 24; p = 0.59) than in the dopamine group.
  • While there was no statistically significant difference in MAP or CPP between vasopressor groups, norepinephrine was associated with a clinically relevant higher CPP and lower intracranial pressure at 3 h after start of vasopressor therapy compared to the other vasopressors examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Dopamine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Norepinephrine / therapeutic use. Phenylephrine / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 21124016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9859
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 1WS297W6MV / Phenylephrine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3073759
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32. Isaac H, Patel L, Meyer S, Hall CM, Cusick C, Price DA, Clayton PE: Efficacy of a monthly compared to 3-monthly depot GnRH analogue (goserelin) in the treatment of children with central precocious puberty. Horm Res; 2007;68(4):157-63
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  • [Title] Efficacy of a monthly compared to 3-monthly depot GnRH analogue (goserelin) in the treatment of children with central precocious puberty.
  • AIMS: To compare the efficacy of goserelin 10.8 mg (Zoladex LA-ZLA) administered 9-12 weekly with 3.6 mg (Zoladex-Z) given monthly in suppressing pubertal development, and effect on body mass index (BMI).
  • METHODS: Children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with Z (n = 34) or ZLA (n = 28) were studied retrospectively.
  • Pubertal scores and BMI SDS during 24 months' treatment were compared.
  • RESULTS: To attain adequate pubertal suppression, more patients on ZLA than Z required increase in injection frequency (p = 0.02) and this was so for 7/8 patients with a structural aetiology for CPP on ZLA and 2/8 on Z.
  • Children with CPP had an elevated BMI at the onset of therapy and ZLA had a transient positive influence on BMI.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Goserelin / administration & dosage. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Body Mass Index. Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Growth and Development / drug effects. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17356292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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33. Baudy RB, Fletcher H 3rd, Yardley JP, Zaleska MM, Bramlett DR, Tasse RP, Kowal DM, Katz AH, Moyer JA, Abou-Gharbia M: Design, synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of highly potent benzimidazole-spaced phosphono-alpha-amino acid competitive NMDA antagonists of the AP-6 type. J Med Chem; 2001 May 10;44(10):1516-29
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  • [Title] Design, synthesis, SAR, and biological evaluation of highly potent benzimidazole-spaced phosphono-alpha-amino acid competitive NMDA antagonists of the AP-6 type.
  • A series of 2-amino-(phosphonoalkyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2-alkanoic acids was synthesized and evaluated for NMDA receptor affinity using a [3H]CPP binding assay.
  • Several compounds of the AP-6 type demonstrated potent and selective NMDA antagonistic activity both in vitro and in vivo.
  • In particular, [R(-)]-2-amino-3-(5-chloro-1-phosphonomethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propionic acid (1) displayed an IC(50) value of 7.1 nM in the [3H]CPP binding assay and an ED(50) value of 0.13 mg/kg (ip) in the NMDA lethality model.
  • Compound 1, when administered intravenously as a single bolus dose of 3 mg/kg following permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat, reduced the volume of infarcted brain tissue by 45%.
  • These results support a promising therapeutic potential for compound 1 as a neuroprotective agent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arterial Occlusive Diseases / complications. Binding, Competitive. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Carotid Artery Diseases / complications. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. In Vitro Techniques. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / drug therapy. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / etiology. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology. Male. Mice. Models, Molecular. Organophosphonates. Radioligand Assay. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 11334562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-amino-3-(5-chloro-1-phosphonomethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)propionic acid; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
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34. Lu L, Zeng S, Liu D, Ceng X: Inhibition of the amygdala and hippocampal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II attenuates the dependence and relapse to morphine differently in rats. Neurosci Lett; 2000 Sep 22;291(3):191-5
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  • Based on the recent finding that calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) is essential in learning and memory processes, the present study was performed to examine whether inhibition of hippocampal and amygdala CaMKII prevents the dependence and relapse to morphine.
  • Microinjection of KN-62 into both hippocampus and amygdala suppressed the development of formation and reactivation of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • However, inhibition of CaMKII in amygdala, but not in hippocampus, could attenuate the maintenance of morphine CPP.
  • Inhibition of this kinase may have some therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate dependence and relapse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Male. Microinjections. Morphine / pharmacology. Naloxone / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / drug therapy. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 10984639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 127191-97-3 / KN 62; 36B82AMQ7N / Naloxone; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; 84477-87-2 / 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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35. Chen HI, Malhotra NR, Oddo M, Heuer GG, Levine JM, LeRoux PD: Barbiturate infusion for intractable intracranial hypertension and its effect on brain oxygenation. Neurosurgery; 2008 Nov;63(5):880-6; discussion 886-7
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  • [Title] Barbiturate infusion for intractable intracranial hypertension and its effect on brain oxygenation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate-induced coma can be used in patients to treat intractable intracranial hypertension when other therapies, such as osmotic therapy and sedation, have failed.
  • Despite control of intracranial pressure, cerebral infarction may still occur in some patients, and the effect of barbiturates on outcome remains uncertain.
  • In this study, we examined the relationship between barbiturate infusion and brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2).
  • METHODS: Ten volume-resuscitated brain-injured patients who were treated with pentobarbital infusion for intracranial hypertension and underwent PbtO2 monitoring were studied in a neurosurgical intensive care unit at a university-based Level I trauma center.
  • PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and brain temperature were continuously monitored and compared in settings in which barbiturates were or were not administered.
  • When pentobarbital administration began, the mean ICP, CPP, and PbtO2 were 18 +/- 10, 72 +/- 18, and 28 +/- 12 mm Hg, respectively.
  • During the 3 hours before barbiturate infusion, the maximum ICP was 24 +/- 13 mm Hg and the minimum CPP was 65 +/- 20 mm Hg.
  • Within this group, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a higher likelihood of compromised brain oxygen (PbtO2 < 20 mm Hg) was associated with a decrease in pentobarbital dose after controlling for ICP and other physiological parameters (P < 0.001).
  • These patients had higher ICP, lower CPP, and later initiation of barbiturates compared with patients whose PbtO2 increased.
  • CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that pentobarbital administered for intractable intracranial hypertension is associated with a significant and independent increase in PbtO2 in the majority of patients.
  • However, in some patients with more compromised brain physiology, pentobarbital may have a negative effect on PbtO2, particularly if administered late.
  • Larger studies are needed to examine the relationship between barbiturates and cerebral oxygenation in brain-injured patients with refractory intracranial hypertension and to determine whether PbtO2 responses can help guide therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Barbiturates / administration & dosage. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Oxygen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Critical Care / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


36. Zhang H, Zhao Q, Bhattacharya S, Waheed AA, Tong X, Hong A, Heck S, Curreli F, Goger M, Cowburn D, Freed EO, Debnath AK: A cell-penetrating helical peptide as a potential HIV-1 inhibitor. J Mol Biol; 2008 May 2;378(3):565-80
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  • The capsid domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein is a critical determinant of virus assembly, and is therefore a potential target for developing drugs for AIDS therapy.
  • Using this structural information, we have utilized a structure-based rational design approach to stabilize the alpha-helical structure of CAI and convert it to a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP).
  • This proof-of-concept cell-penetrating peptide may aid validation of capsid as an anti-HIV-1 drug target and may help in designing peptidomimetics and small molecule drugs targeted to this protein.

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  • (PMID = 18374356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-8638
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010778-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41 GM066354-05; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-66354; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41 GM066354; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41 GM066354-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM066354-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Gene Products, gag; 0 / NYAD-1 peptide; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS76587; NLM/ PMC2695608
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37. Patel MB, Feinstein AJ, Saenz AD, Majetschak M, Proctor KG: Prehospital HBOC-201 after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in swine. J Trauma; 2006 Jul;61(1):46-56
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  • [Title] Prehospital HBOC-201 after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in swine.
  • BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the actions of hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • Supplemental NS was administered to both groups to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) >60 mm Hg until 60 minutes, and to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) >70 mm Hg from 60 to 300 minutes.
  • The control group received mannitol (1 g/kg) and blood (10 mL/kg) at 90 minutes and half (n = 5) received CPP directed phenylephrine (PE) therapy after 120 minutes.
  • RESULTS: With HBOC administration, MAP, CPP, and brain tissue PO2 were restored within 30 minutes and maintained until 300 minutes.
  • In contrast, with control, MAP and brain tissue PO2 did not correct until 120 minutes, after mannitol, transfusion and 40% more crystalloid.
  • Furthermore, without PE, CPP did not reach target and 0/5 could be extubated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After TBI, a single HBOC-201 bolus with minimal supplements provided rapid resuscitation, while maintaining CPP and improving brain oxygenation, without causing cardiac dysfunction, coagulopathy, cytokine release, or brain structural changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Substitutes / toxicity. Brain Injuries / therapy. Fluid Therapy / methods. Hemoglobins / toxicity. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Blood Coagulation / drug effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain / pathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Cytokines / blood. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Male. Swine

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  • (PMID = 16832248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM08749-01
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Substitutes; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / HBOC 201; 0 / Hemoglobins
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38. Hobbs A, Foster P, Prescott C, Scotland R, Ahluwalia A: Natriuretic peptide receptor-C regulates coronary blood flow and prevents myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: novel cardioprotective role for endothelium-derived C-type natriuretic peptide. Circulation; 2004 Sep 7;110(10):1231-5
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  • [Title] Natriuretic peptide receptor-C regulates coronary blood flow and prevents myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: novel cardioprotective role for endothelium-derived C-type natriuretic peptide.
  • BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury complicates myocardial infarction and stroke by exacerbating tissue damage and increasing risk of mortality.
  • We have recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in the mesenteric resistance vasculature and described a novel signaling pathway involving activation of natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR-C), which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of local blood flow.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: CNP and (Cys18)-atrial natriuretic factor (4-23) amide (cANF(4-23)) elicited dose-dependent decreases in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) that were blocked by Ba(2+) and ouabain in the isolated Langendorff rat heart.
  • CNP and cANF(4-23) reduced infarct size after 25 minutes of global ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion, maintaining CPP and left ventricular pressure at preischemic values.
  • Moreover, this newly defined pathway represents a protective mechanism against I/R injury and a novel target for therapeutic intervention in ischemic cardiovascular disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Coronary Circulation / drug effects. Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type / physiology. Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholine / pharmacology. Animals. Atrial Natriuretic Factor / pharmacology. Atrial Natriuretic Factor / therapeutic use. Barium / pharmacology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Endothelium, Vascular / secretion. Male. Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy. Myocardial Infarction / pathology. Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control. NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / pharmacology. Nitric Oxide / physiology. Ouabain / pharmacology. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Signal Transduction. Vasodilation / drug effects. Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology. Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use


39. Bortolato M, Campolongo P, Mangieri RA, Scattoni ML, Frau R, Trezza V, La Rana G, Russo R, Calignano A, Gessa GL, Cuomo V, Piomelli D: Anxiolytic-like properties of the anandamide transport inhibitor AM404. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2006 Dec;31(12):2652-9
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  • We also evaluated whether AM404 might influence motivation (in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test), sensory reactivity (acoustic startle reflex) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex).
  • In the CPP test, AM404 (1.25-10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) elicited rewarding effects in rats housed under enriched conditions, but not in rats kept in standard cages.
  • These results support a role of anandamide in the regulation of emotion and point to the anandamide transport system as a potential target for anxiolytic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Anxiety Disorders / drug therapy. Arachidonic Acids / metabolism. Arachidonic Acids / pharmacology. Brain / drug effects. Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / drug effects. Polyunsaturated Alkamides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacology. Anxiety, Separation / drug therapy. Anxiety, Separation / metabolism. Anxiety, Separation / physiopathology. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Endocannabinoids. Male. Maze Learning / drug effects. Maze Learning / physiology. Neural Inhibition / drug effects. Neural Inhibition / physiology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Rats, Wistar. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / agonists. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / metabolism. Reflex, Startle / drug effects. Reflex, Startle / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16541083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA-12447; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA-3412
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Arachidonic Acids; 0 / Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Endocannabinoids; 0 / N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonylamide; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Polyunsaturated Alkamides; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 158681-13-1 / rimonabant; 94421-68-8 / anandamide
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40. Read SP, Cashman SM, Kumar-Singh R: POD nanoparticles expressing GDNF provide structural and functional rescue of light-induced retinal degeneration in an adult mouse. Mol Ther; 2010 Nov;18(11):1917-26
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  • Peptide for ocular delivery (POD) is a novel cationic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) which, when conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-POD), can deliver plasmid DNA to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of adult murine retina.
  • The thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the superior retina of PEG-POD~GDNF-injected eyes was significantly greater (23.6-39.3%) than control-injected retina 14 days post-light treatment.
  • PEG-POD~GDNF-injected eyes showed a 27-39% greater functional response relative to controls, as measured by electroretinogram (ERG) 7 days post-light treatment.
  • This is one of only two studies demonstrating histological and functional rescue of a mouse model of retinal degeneration following nonviral administration of a transgene into adult retina.
  • Although rescue is short lived for clinical application, this study represents an important step in the development of nonviral gene therapy for retinal diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / genetics. Nanoparticles. Radiation Injuries, Experimental / therapy. Retina / radiation effects. Retinal Degeneration / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Caspases / metabolism. Drug Delivery Systems. Electroretinography. Light / adverse effects. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols. Rats

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  • (PMID = 20700110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY013887; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014991; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013837; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY021805; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014991
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gdnf protein, rat; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990513
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41. Jackson KJ, Walters CL, Miles MF, Martin BR, Damaj MI: Characterization of pharmacological and behavioral differences to nicotine in C57Bl/6 and DBA/2 mice. Neuropharmacology; 2009 Sep;57(4):347-55
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  • [Title] Characterization of pharmacological and behavioral differences to nicotine in C57Bl/6 and DBA/2 mice.
  • Approximately 50-70% of the risk for developing nicotine dependence is attributed to genetics; therefore, it is of great significance to characterize the genetic mechanisms involved in nicotine reinforcement and dependence in hopes of generating better smoking cessation therapies.
  • The overall goal of these studies was to characterize behavioral and pharmacological responses to nicotine in C57Bl/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice, two inbred strains commonly used for genetic studies on behavioral traits.
  • B6 and D2 mice where subjected to a battery of behavioral tests to measure nicotine's acute effects, calcium-mediated antinociceptive responses, tolerance to chronic treatment with osmotic mini pumps, and following three days of nicotine withdrawal.
  • B6, but not D2 mice, developed tolerance to nicotine and nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • These results provide a thorough, simultaneous evaluation of the pharmacological and behavioral differences to experimenter-administered nicotine as measured in several behavioral tests of aspects that contribute to smoking behavior.

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  • (PMID = 19619563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7064
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropharmacology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA012610-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / U01 AA016662; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA012610; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA013678; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / U01 AA016667; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / #DA/ 12610; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA012610-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133451; NLM/ PMC2753410
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42. Zhao RJ, Woo RS, Jeong MS, Shin BS, Kim DG, Kim KW: Orphanin FQ/nociceptin blocks methamphetamine place preference in rats. Neuroreport; 2003 Dec 19;14(18):2383-5
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  • Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (NOC) has been reported to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission in rewarding pathway, and to suppress the development of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by certain addictive drugs.
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of NOC on CPP induced by repeated administration of methamphetamine (MAP) in rats.
  • Repeated administration of MAP (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced substantial CPP.
  • MAP-induced CPP was completely suppressed by NOC (10 nmol, i.c.v.).
  • ), an antagonist of the NOC receptor, antagonized the suppressive effect of NOC on MAP-induced CPP.
  • These results suggest that NOC blocks MAP-induced CPP by activation of the NOC receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Methamphetamine / antagonists & inhibitors. Methamphetamine / pharmacology. Opioid Peptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Addictive / drug therapy. Behavior, Addictive / psychology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 14663196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4965
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroreport
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroreport
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Opioid Peptides; 0 / nociceptin; 44RAL3456C / Methamphetamine
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43. Udy A, Boots R, Senthuran S, Stuart J, Deans R, Lassig-Smith M, Lipman J: Augmented creatinine clearance in traumatic brain injury. Anesth Analg; 2010 Dec;111(6):1505-10
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  • [Title] Augmented creatinine clearance in traumatic brain injury.
  • BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline and/or norepinephrine infusion are routinely used to achieve a desired cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • METHODS: This was an observational cohort study in TBI patients older than 16 years with normal serum creatinine concentrations, requiring maintenance of CPP.
  • Demographic data, use of vasoactive medications, fluid balance, feeding regimen, and hemodynamic variables were recorded throughout the study period.
  • The mean maximum CrCl was 179 mL/min/1.73 m(2) while receiving CPP therapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 159-198), returning to a mean of 111 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI, 91-131; P < 0.001) when measured after discharge from the intensive care unit.
  • The mean CrCl in the intensive care unit while not receiving CPP therapy was 150 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI, 134-167; P = 0.03).
  • The mean time to reach peak CrCl while receiving active treatment was 4.7 days (95% CI, 3.0-6.4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Augmented CrCls are common in TBI patients receiving active management of CPP and persist even after discontinuation of such therapy.
  • Further work is needed to clarify the impact of such clearances on renally excreted drugs in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / administration & dosage. Brain Injuries / therapy. Creatinine / urine. Fluid Therapy. Norepinephrine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / urine. Female. Humans. Intensive Care Units. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Queensland. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21048095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-7598
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesia and analgesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesth. Analg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Biomarkers; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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44. Steiner T, Pilz J, Schellinger P, Wirtz R, Friederichs V, Aschoff A, Hacke W: Multimodal online monitoring in middle cerebral artery territory stroke. Stroke; 2001 Nov;32(11):2500-6
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with large middle cerebral artery infarction and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) who are undergoing invasive intensive care therapy require technical monitoring.
  • Furthermore, the effects of what is considered to be standard antiedema medical treatment are not fully understood.
  • METHODS: ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and partial brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbrO(2)) were continuously measured within the white matter of the frontal lobe unilaterally or bilaterally.
  • We analyzed the effects of antiedema drugs and looked for pattern changes in the PbrO(2) before transtentorial herniation in patients in whom this could not be prevented.
  • A total of 297 antiedema drug administrations were analyzed in 11 patients.
  • Hyper-HAES and mannitol were most often associated with an increase in CPP and PbrO(2), whereas the use of thiopental and tromethamine led to negative or contrary effects, although ICP was decreased in every case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal monitoring can be used to monitor antiedema drug effects.
  • Furthermore, this method might help to optimize the timing of invasive therapy in space-occupying infarction.
  • [MeSH-major] Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / drug therapy. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Online Systems
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Edema / drug therapy. Feasibility Studies. Frontal Lobe / chemistry. Frontal Lobe / physiopathology. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Oxygen / analysis. Partial Pressure

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  • (PMID = 11692007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4628
  • [Journal-full-title] Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stroke
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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45. Koos B, Paulsson J, Jarvius M, Sanchez BC, Wrede B, Mertsch S, Jeibmann A, Kruse A, Peters O, Wolff JE, Galla HJ, Söderberg O, Paulus W, Ostman A, Hasselblatt M: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression and activation in choroid plexus tumors. Am J Pathol; 2009 Oct;175(4):1631-7
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  • [Title] Platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression and activation in choroid plexus tumors.
  • Choroid plexus tumors are intraventricular neoplasms predominantly affecting young children.
  • In contrast to choroid plexus papillomas, choroid plexus carcinomas progress frequently, necessitating the development of adjuvant treatment concepts.
  • The finding of PDGF receptor expression in choroid plexus tumors prompted us to elucidate PDGF receptor activation state using a novel method, in situ proximity ligation assay, on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, archival samples of 19 choroid plexus tumors.
  • As assessed by in situ proximity ligation assay, the proportion of phosphorylated PDGF receptor alpha was low in choroid plexus papillomas and choroid plexus carcinomas, whereas phosphorylated PDGF receptor beta was found to be significantly higher in choroid plexus carcinomas.
  • In the immortalized choroid plexus epithelial cell line Z310 expressing PDGF receptor beta, PDGF-BB exhibited a time- and dose-dependent proliferative response, which was significantly attenuated by imatinib (gleevec).
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDGF receptor beta is functionally involved in the biology of choroid plexus tumors and may represent a molecular target for therapy.
  • In addition, this study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of in situ proximity ligation assay for monitoring receptor tyrosine kinase activation in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, archival tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / pharmacology. Rats

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  • (PMID = 19717644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2751559
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46. Vottero A, Pedori S, Verna M, Pagano B, Cappa M, Loche S, Bernasconi S, Ghizzoni L: Final height in girls with central idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and oxandrolone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1284-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: GnRH analogs (GnRHa) are considered the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of oxandrolone (Ox) may affect the height outcome of patients with CPP and growth deceleration during GnRHa treatment.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with CPP and marked growth deceleration during GnRHa treatment were studied.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Treatment consisted of GnRHa (Leuprorelina, 3.75 mg im every 28 d) alone (10 patients) or in combination with Ox (0.06 mg/kg.d by mouth) (10 patients).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined GnRHa and Ox therapy is a viable treatment option for children with CPP and marked growth deceleration during treatment with GnRHa alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anabolic Agents / therapeutic use. Body Height / drug effects. Oxandrolone / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Development / physiology. Child. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Growth / drug effects. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Luteinizing Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16449342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anabolic Agents; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7H6TM3CT4L / Oxandrolone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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47. El-Gaidi MA, Eissa EM: Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(4):272-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical features and outcomes of infantile intracranial neoplasms, the second most common neoplasm in infants.
  • RESULTS: Out of 451 patients with primary intracranial neoplasms (age 0-14 years), 21 infants (<1 year) underwent surgery, representing 4.7% of total cases.
  • The most common tumor was choroid plexus papilloma (23.8%), followed by teratoma (19%) then astrocytoma and ependymoma (14.3% each).
  • Three patients received chemotherapy, but none received radiotherapy.
  • The statistically significant predictors of prognosis were the extent of resection and tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the prognosis for infantile intracranial neoplasms is worse than for older children, an overall promising outcome with low operative morbidity and mortality was achieved using gross total excision and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / mortality. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Egypt / epidemiology. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Morbidity. Neurilemmoma / drug therapy. Neurilemmoma / mortality. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21160236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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48. Nishiyama T, Yokoyama T, Matsukawa T, Hanaoka K: Continuous nicardipine infusion to control blood pressure after evacuation of acute cerebral hemorrhage. Can J Anaesth; 2000 Dec;47(12):1196-201
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  • PURPOSE: To explore the long-term effects of the calcium antagonist, nicardipine, on cerebral hemodynamics in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, we investigated the effects of nicardipine infusion on intracranial pressure (ICP), middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocity (Vmca) , and computed tomographical (CT) findings of bleeding and edema.
  • Blood pressure, heart rate, conscious level, Vmca, pulsatility index (PI, using transcranial Doppler), ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and platelet counts were monitored.
  • CT examination was also performed to detect the changes of bleeding (hematoma) and/or brain edema.
  • The CPP decreased at 24 hr (75 +/- 14 mmHg, P = 0.026) and 72 hr (73 +/- 15 mmHg, P = 0.024) from the baseline (99 +/- 17 mmHg).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, nicardipine infusion to decrease blood pressure by 20 to 30% had no effect on Vmca, ICP, cerebral bleeding and edema, but decreased CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Pressure / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology. Nicardipine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Edema / drug therapy. Brain Edema / physiopathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Female. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Middle Cerebral Artery / physiology. Platelet Count. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11132741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0832-610X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Anaesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; CZ5312222S / Nicardipine
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49. Lampit M, Golander A, Guttmann H, Hochberg Z: Estrogen mini-dose replacement during GnRH agonist therapy in central precocious puberty: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Feb;87(2):687-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen mini-dose replacement during GnRH agonist therapy in central precocious puberty: a pilot study.
  • During GnRH agonist therapy of patients with central precocious puberty (CPP), growth is sometimes suppressed to subnormal velocity.
  • The working hypotheses were that estrogen levels are suppressed by GnRH agonist therapy below normal prepubertal levels, that such suppression is responsible for the slow growth of girls with CPP during GnRH agonist therapy, and that a mini-dose of estrogen replacement will normalize growth.
  • The present pilot study examined growth and bone maturation over 2 yr in 13 patients with CPP and compared therapy with a combination of GnRH agonist and 8 microg conjugated equine estrogen (group 1) to therapy with GnRH agonist alone (group 2).
  • Both groups had adequate suppression of gonadotropins, and E2 levels were below detection levels of our assay throughout the study period.
  • In group 1 patients the ratio of the change in bone age/change in chronological age decreased from 1.2 +/- 0.7 to 0.75 +/- 0.3, and in group 2 patients it decreased to 0.6 +/- 0.3 and 0.4 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05) during the first and second years of therapy, respectively.
  • It is concluded on a pilot basis that estrogen suppression is responsible for the slow growth of girls with CPP during GnRH agonist therapy and that a mini-dose of estrogen replacement is safe and effective for at least 24 months in maintaining normal prepubertal growth without acceleration of bone maturation or pubertal development.
  • The current pilot results do not suggest an indication or provide a justification for such therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / administration & dosage. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Determination by Skeleton. Aging / physiology. Animals. Body Height / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Growth. Horses. Humans. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 11836305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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50. Johnston AJ, Steiner LA, O'Connell M, Chatfield DA, Gupta AK, Menon DK: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dopamine and norepinephrine in critically ill head-injured patients. Intensive Care Med; 2004 Jan;30(1):45-50
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  • PATIENTS: Eight patients with a head injury, requiring dopamine or norepinephrine infusions to support cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP).
  • INTERVENTION: Patients received in randomised order, either dopamine or norepinephrine to achieve and maintain a CPP of 70 mmHg, and then, following a 30-min period of stable haemodynamics, a CPP of 90 mmHg.
  • However, there was a significant quadratic relationship between the infusion rate of dopamine and cardiac index (r2=0.431), and systemic vascular resistance index (r2=0.605), with a breakpoint (at which cardiac index reduced and SVRI increased) at a dopamine plasma level of approximately 50 nM/l (corresponding to an infusion rate of approximately 15 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)).
  • [MeSH-major] Craniocerebral Trauma / drug therapy. Dopamine. Norepinephrine. Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cardiotonic Agents / metabolism. Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology. Catecholamines / blood. Critical Illness / therapy. Cross-Over Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Monitoring. Female. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Linear Models. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Vascular Resistance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 14586494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0342-4642
  • [Journal-full-title] Intensive care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intensive Care Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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51. Głab E, Barg E, Wikiera B, Grabowski M, Noczyńska A: Influence of GnRH analog therapy on body mass in central precocious puberty. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab; 2009;15(1):7-11
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  • [Title] Influence of GnRH analog therapy on body mass in central precocious puberty.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to evaluate the body mass index (BMI) changes in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with a GnRH analog (GnRHa) and to analyse the factors affecting BMI.
  • The treatment was initiated at the age of 7.5+/-2.1 year and continued for 3.3+/-2.2 year until the age of 11.4+/-0.9 year.
  • RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between BMI SD score before initiation of therapy and at the end of therapy (p=0.49).
  • 9.8% of the cohort were overweight and 22.0% were obese before treatment.
  • At the end of the therapy 18.6% children were overweight and 14.0% obese.
  • There was no significant correlation between overweight and obesity at the end of treatment and the duration of the therapy (r=-0.17) and with the duration of CPP before introduction of GnRH therapy (r= -0.11).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 1.Overweight and obesity are not related to long term pituitary-gonadal suppression due to GnRH analogue treatment.
  • 2. The rate of overweight and obesity among children with CPP is higher than in the general population.
  • Thus detailed evaluation of metabolic status of overweight children with CPP should be performed in order to prevent complications of the metabolic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Mass Index. Overweight / epidemiology. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / epidemiology. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Height / drug effects. Child. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Obesity / epidemiology. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 19454183.001).
  • [ISSN] 2081-237X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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52. Crookes BA, Cohn SM, Bonet H, Burton EA, Nelson J, Majetschak M, Varon AJ, Linden JM, Proctor KG: Building a better fluid for emergency resuscitation of traumatic brain injury. J Trauma; 2004 Sep;57(3):547-54
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  • [Title] Building a better fluid for emergency resuscitation of traumatic brain injury.
  • Three series of experiments were designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HEX+/-ATL-146e for emergency resuscitation from traumatic brain injury (TBI) + hemorrhagic hypotension.
  • In Series 1, resuscitation consisted of unlimited crystalloid (n = 8) or HEX (n = 8) to correct systolic arterial pressure >100 mm Hg and heart rate <100 bpm for the first 60 minutes ("emergency phase"), and then maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) > 70 mm Hg for 60-240 minutes.
  • In Series 2 (n = 31), resuscitation consisted of a 1 L bolus of HEX + ATL-146e (10 ng/kg/min, n = 10) or HEX +placebo (n = 10) followed by crystalloid to the same endpoints.
  • Upon resuscitation, these values corrected but intracranial pressure progressively rose from <5 mm Hg to 15-20 mm Hg.
  • Series 1: With HEX (n = 8) versus crystalloid (n = 8), CPP was less labile, acid/base was maintained, and the fluid requirement was reduced by 60% (all p < 0.05) Series 2: With ATL-146e (n = 10) versus placebo (n = 10), stroke volume and cardiac output were improved by 40-60%, and the fluid requirement was reduced by 30% (all p < 0.05).
  • An adenosine A2A agonist combined with 1 L of HEX safely and effectively counteracted a decrease in cardiac performance noted after TBI+hemorrhage without causing hypotension or bradycardia.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / therapy. Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids / therapeutic use. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / therapeutic use. Plasma Substitutes / therapeutic use. Purines / therapeutic use. Resuscitation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cardiac Output / drug effects. Female. Male. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy. Stroke Volume / drug effects. Swine

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  • (PMID = 15454801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATL 146e; 0 / Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids; 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Plasma Substitutes; 0 / Purines
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53. Khanna S, Davis D, Peterson B, Fisher B, Tung H, O'Quigley J, Deutsch R: Use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med; 2000 Apr;28(4):1144-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension in pediatric traumatic brain injury.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of prolonged infusion of 3% hypertonic saline (514 mEq/L) and sustained hypernatremia on refractory intracranial hypertension in pediatric traumatic brain injury patients.
  • PATIENTS: We present ten children with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) resistant to conventional therapy (head elevation at 30 degrees, normothermia, sedation, paralysis and analgesia, osmolar therapy with mannitol, loop diuretic, external ventricular drainage in five patients), controlled hyperventilation (Pco2, 28-35 mm Hg), and barbiturate coma.
  • We continuously monitored ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, serum sodium concentrations, serum osmolarity, and serum creatinine.
  • INTERVENTIONS: A continuous infusion of 3% saline on a sliding scale was used to achieve a target serum sodium level that would maintain ICP <20 mm Hg once the conventional therapy and barbiturate coma as outlined above failed to control intracranial hypertension.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The mean duration of treatment with 3% saline was 7.6 days (range, 4-18 days).
  • There was a steady increase in serum sodium versus time zero that reached statistical significance at 24, 48, and 72 hrs (p < .01).
  • There was a statistically significant increase in CPP versus time zero at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs (p < .01).
  • There was a statistically significant increase in serum osmolarity versus time zero at 12 hrs (p < .05) and at 24, 48, and 72 hrs (p < .01).
  • Two patients developed acute renal failure and required continuous veno-venous hemodialysis; these were concurrent with an episode of sepsis and multisystem organ dysfunction.
  • Both recovered full renal function with no electrolyte abnormalities at the time of discharge.
  • CONCLUSION: An increase in serum sodium concentration significantly decreases ICP and increases CPP.
  • Sustained hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity are safely tolerated in pediatric patients with traumatic brain injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Hypertonic Solutions / administration & dosage. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Male. Prospective Studies. Sodium / blood. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7):1489 [11445722.001]
  • [CommentIn] Crit Care Med. 2000 Apr;28(4):1245-6 [10809326.001]
  • (PMID = 10809296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3493
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Care Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypertonic Solutions; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium
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54. Llena C, Forner L, Baca P: Anticariogenicity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: a review of the literature. J Contemp Dent Pract; 2009;10(3):1-9
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  • AIM: This review of the literature examines the role of the natural components of saliva in maintaining tooth mineralization and the role of different casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate-based (CPP-ACP) compounds in controlling demineralization/remineralization and their clinical applications.
  • BACKGROUND: A group of peptides, known as CPP, have been shown to stabilize calcium and phosphate preserving them in an amorphous or soluble form known as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP).
  • Calcium and phosphate are essential components of enamel and dentine and form highly insoluble complexes, but in the presence of CPP they remain soluble and biologically available.
  • This CPP-ACP complex applied to teeth by means of chewing-gum, toothpaste, lozenges, mouth rinses, or sprays is able to adhere to the dental biofilm and enamel hydroxyapatite providing bioavailable calcium and phosphate ions.
  • REVIEW RESULTS: Significantly high levels of calcium and phosphate have been found in both biofilm and subsurface incipient caries lesions and in lower level demineralization of enamel or dentine surfaces previously treated with CPP-ACP based compounds.
  • When placed on the surface of a tooth with early carious lesions, pastes with CPP-ACP complexes can prevent tooth demineralization and improve enamel remineralization and enhance fluoride activity.
  • CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Use of CPP-ACP based compounds offers a potential for use in the prevention of dental caries.
  • [MeSH-major] Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use. Caseins / therapeutic use. Dental Caries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Biofilms. Calcium / pharmacokinetics. Dental Enamel / metabolism. Dental Plaque / chemistry. Dentin / metabolism. Humans. Phosphates / pharmacokinetics. Saliva / physiology. Tooth Erosion / prevention & control. Tooth Remineralization / methods. Xerostomia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19430620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of contemporary dental practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Dent Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cariostatic Agents; 0 / Caseins; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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55. Ciccocioppo R, Economidou D, Fedeli A, Massi M: The nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP receptor system as a target for treatment of alcohol abuse: a review of recent work in alcohol-preferring rats. Physiol Behav; 2003 Jun;79(1):121-8
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  • [Title] The nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP receptor system as a target for treatment of alcohol abuse: a review of recent work in alcohol-preferring rats.
  • Studies aimed at the pharmacological characterization of the receptor, which mediates the effect, have shown that the C-terminal 13 amino acid sequence is crucial for activity and that the selective NOP receptor antagonist [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) blocks the effect of N/OFQ on ethanol drinking.
  • In place conditioning studies, N/OFQ abolishes the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by ethanol in msP rats, or by morphine in nonselected Wistar rats; these findings suggest that N/OFQ is able to abolish the rewarding properties of ethanol and morphine.
  • Together, these findings suggest that N/OFQ and its receptor may represent an interesting target for pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Association Learning / drug effects. Association Learning / physiology. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Conditioning, Classical / physiology. Ethanol / pharmacology. Humans. Injections, Intraventricular. Mice. Morphine / pharmacology. Morphine Dependence / physiopathology. Motivation. Rats. Social Environment. Stress, Psychological / complications. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12818717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9384
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alcohol Deterrents; 0 / Opioid Peptides; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 0 / nociceptin orphanin FQ(1-17)OH; 0 / nociceptin receptor; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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56. Stocchetti N, Rossi S, Zanier ER, Colombo A, Beretta L, Citerio G: Pyrexia in head-injured patients admitted to intensive care. Intensive Care Med; 2002 Nov;28(11):1555-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • (b) to elucidate the relationships between pyrexia and neurological severity, length of stay in the ICU, intracranial hypertension, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP); and (c) to describe the effects of antipyretic therapy on temperature, intracranial pressure (ICP) and CPP.
  • PATIENTS: 110 patients with traumatic brain injury.
  • Various antipyretic therapies were used in 66 patients.
  • Pharmacological treatment was slightly effective (mean temperature reduction 0.58+/-0.7 degrees C) but caused a significant drop in CPP (6.5+/-12.5 mmHg).
  • Its incidence is higher in more severe cases and is correlated with a longer ICU stay.
  • It may affect ICP, but its contribution is difficult to assess when other major causes of increased intracranial volume are present.
  • Antipyretic therapy is poorly effective for controlling body temperature and may be deleterious for CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / therapeutic use. Craniocerebral Trauma / complications. Fever / drug therapy. Fever / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Intensive Care Units / statistics & numerical data. Intracranial Pressure. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 12415441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0342-4642
  • [Journal-full-title] Intensive care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intensive Care Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
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57. Fishbain DA, Lewis JE, Cole B, Cutler B, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS: Lidocaine 5% patch: an open-label naturalistic chronic pain treatment trial and prediction of response. Pain Med; 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):135-42
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  • [Title] Lidocaine 5% patch: an open-label naturalistic chronic pain treatment trial and prediction of response.
  • OBJECTIVE: There have been a few open-label nonplacebo reports on the successful use of lidocaine 5% patch (L5P) for other types of pain besides postherpetic neuralgia, such as chronic low back pain.
  • The purpose of this report was to describe the results of a retrospective review of this open-label naturalistic L5P chronic pain treatment trial and to attempt to delineate predictors of perceived clinical response.
  • DESIGN: Consecutive CPPs were selected for this clinical trial according to the following inclusion criteria: the CPPs with pain greater than 6-month duration and either a hyperalgesic pain area or trigger point, which could be covered by one L5P, were offered a 3-day L5P naturalistic treatment trial.
  • The senior author also completed a baseline information tool on each CPP entering this naturalistic trial.
  • The apparent CPP perceived clinical improvement was not associated with any particular useful clinical indicator.
  • As such, at present, no variable can be recommended for use in selecting CPPs for such a naturalistic L5P clinical treatment trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Lidocaine / administration & dosage. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Chronic Disease / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Clinics. Pain Measurement. Pain Threshold / drug effects. Pain Threshold / physiology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16634726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2375
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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58. Malhotra AK, Schweitzer JB, Fox JL, Fabian TC, Proctor KG: Cerebral perfusion pressure directed therapy following traumatic brain injury and hypotension in swine. J Neurotrauma; 2003 Sep;20(9):827-39
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  • [Title] Cerebral perfusion pressure directed therapy following traumatic brain injury and hypotension in swine.
  • There is a paucity of studies, clinical and experimental, attesting to the benefit of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) directed pressor therapy following traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • The current study evaluates this therapy in a swine model of TBI and hypotension.
  • After 1 h, all animals were resuscitated with 0.9% sodium chloride equal to three times the shed blood volume.
  • The experimental group (PHE) received phenylephrine to maintain CPP > 80 mm Hg; the control group (SAL) did not.
  • Outcomes in the first phase (n = 33) of the study were as follows: cerebro-venous oxygen saturation (S(cv)O(2)), cerebro-vascular carbon dioxide reactivity (DeltaS(cv)O(2)), and brain structural damage (beta-amyloid precursor protein [betaAPP] immunoreactivity).
  • In the second phase (n = 12) of the study, extravascular blood free water (EVBFW) was measured in the brain and lung.
  • After resuscitation, intracranial and mean arterial pressures were >15 and >80 mm Hg, respectively, in both groups.
  • CPP declined to 64 +/- 5 mm Hg in the SAL group, despite fluid supplements.
  • CPP was maintained at >80 mm Hg with pressors in the PHE group.
  • Brain EVBFW was higher in SAL animals; however, lung EVBFW was higher in PHE animals.
  • In this swine model of TBI and hypotension, CPP directed pressor therapy improved brain oxygenation and maintained cerebro-vascular CO(2) reactivity.
  • Brain edema was lower, but lung edema was greater, suggesting a higher propensity for pulmonary complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Hypotension / drug therapy. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Phenylephrine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Swine

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  • (PMID = 14577861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurotrauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurotrauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1WS297W6MV / Phenylephrine
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59. Langford CF, Udvari Nagy S, Ghoniem GM: Levator ani trigger point injections: An underutilized treatment for chronic pelvic pain. Neurourol Urodyn; 2007;26(1):59-62
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  • [Title] Levator ani trigger point injections: An underutilized treatment for chronic pelvic pain.
  • AIMS: We conducted this study to examine the role of trigger point injections in females with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) of at least 6 months duration and specific levator ani trigger points.
  • METHODS: This prospective study included 18 consecutive female patients with CPP and specific palpable levator ani trigger points.
  • CONCLUSION: In the management of CPP, a non-surgical office-based therapy such as trigger point injections can be effective in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Anus Diseases / complications. Bupivacaine / administration & dosage. Myofascial Pain Syndromes / drug therapy. Pelvic Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Chronic Disease. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Lidocaine / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Palpation. Prospective Studies. Spasm / diagnosis. Spasm / drug therapy. Spasm / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Triamcinolone / administration & dosage. Vagina

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17195176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-2467
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurourology and urodynamics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurourol. Urodyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 1ZK20VI6TY / Triamcinolone; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine; Y8335394RO / Bupivacaine
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60. Adan Y, Goldman Y, Haimovitz R, Mammon K, Eilon T, Tal S, Tene A, Karmel Y, Shinitzky M: Phenotypic differentiation of human breast cancer cells by 1,3 cyclic propanediol phosphate. Cancer Lett; 2003 May 8;194(1):67-79
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  • We have recently shown that 1,3 cyclic propanediol phosphate (1,3 cPP), an analog of 1,3 cyclic glycerophosphate (1,3 cGP), can promote morphological, neuronal-like differentiation in pheochromocytoma-12 cells in vitro.
  • In view of this observation, we tested the potential of 1,3 cPP to elevate the state of cellular differentiation of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ER(+)) and HCC1954 (ER(-)), as characterized by the expression of steroid receptors, casein kinase, lipid droplet histology and signal-transduction gene profiles.
  • In the range of 5-100 microM 1,3 cPP the in vitro expression of ER-alpha, PR and casein kinase increased by approximately 2-fold while the mRNA transcription increased by 2-6-fold.
  • Moreover, following 9-12 days of incubation with 1,3 cPP, HCC1954 cells exhibited a significant increase in the production of lipid droplets as observed by Oil Red O staining.
  • After 4 biweekly i.p. injections of 0.5 mg 1,3 cPP per mouse, tumors in the 1,3 cPP treated virtually did not grow at all while the tumors in the control group grew rapidly.
  • Based on these findings, we propose that this novel differentiating compound has the potential to transform the malignant tumor phenotype into a near-normal phenotype, as well as to sensitize the tumor cells to anti-estrogen therapy via upgrading the status of steroid hormone receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Propylene Glycols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Azo Compounds / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Casein Kinases. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Division. Coloring Agents / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Estrogen Receptor alpha. Exons. Female. Humans. Lipid Metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phenotype. Protein Kinases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12706860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,3-cyclic propanediol phosphate; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 1320-06-5 / oil red O; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Casein Kinases
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61. Soustiel JF, Mahamid E, Chistyakov A, Shik V, Benenson R, Zaaroor M: Comparison of moderate hyperventilation and mannitol for control of intracranial pressure control in patients with severe traumatic brain injury--a study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Aug;148(8):845-51; discussion 851
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of moderate hyperventilation and mannitol for control of intracranial pressure control in patients with severe traumatic brain injury--a study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the respective effects of established measures used for management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRGlc) and lactate (CMRLct).
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were prospectively evaluated.
  • Intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure (ICP, CPP), CBF and arterial jugular differences in oxygen, glucose and lactate contents were measured for calculation of CMRO2, CMRGlc and CMRLct.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / therapy. Brain Injuries / complications. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Hyperventilation / metabolism. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Mannitol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Ischemia / etiology. Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Brain Ischemia / therapy. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Cerebral Cortex / physiopathology. Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glycolysis / drug effects. Glycolysis / physiology. Humans. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Prospective Studies. Respiration, Artificial / adverse effects. Respiration, Artificial / standards. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16763735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics, Osmotic; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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62. Meybohm P, Renner J, Boening A, Cavus E, Gräsner JT, Grünewald M, Scholz J, Bein B: Impact of norepinephrine and fluid on cerebral oxygenation in experimental hemorrhagic shock. Pediatr Res; 2007 Oct;62(4):440-4
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  • Few data exist regarding resuscitation of hypovolemic shock in infants, and alternative strategies such as vasopressor therapy merit further evaluation.
  • Norepinephrine was titrated to achieve baseline mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and cerebral oxygenation was determined by brain tissue Po2 (Ptio2) and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived tissue oxygen index (TOI).
  • Following norepinephrine, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) could be restored immediately, whereas TOI and Ptio2 did not increase significantly.
  • In conclusion, while norepinephrine increased CPP immediately, cerebral oxygenation as reflected by TOI and Ptio2 could not be improved by norepinephrine, but only by retransfusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Blood Transfusion, Autologous. Brain / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Hypovolemia / complications. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Oxygen / metabolism. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Heart Rate / drug effects. Partial Pressure. Resuscitation. Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared. Swine. Vascular Resistance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17667840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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63. Miller BS, Shukla AR: Sterile abscess formation in response to two separate branded long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Clin Ther; 2010 Sep;32(10):1749-51
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  • BACKGROUND: Long-acting forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists are commonly used for the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP).
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report an adverse drug reaction in a child with sterile abscess formation following treatment with 2 different branded long-acting forms of GnRH agonists.
  • CASE SUMMARY: An otherwise healthy 8-year-old white female (weight, 40.7 kg; height, 140.1 cm) with documented CPP and no known drug allergies developed a sterile abscess at the site of the monthly intramuscular injection of 15 mg of leuprolide acetate.
  • At the time of the removal of the second insert, Gram stain and swab culture of the purulent wound discharge were negative.
  • The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Causality Score was 10 (definite, ≥9).
  • CONCLUSION: This report describes a case of sterile abscess formation definitely associated with 2 different forms of long-acting GnRH agonist treatment in a child.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Implants. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Nafarelin / administration & dosage. Nafarelin / therapeutic use. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21194598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-114X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 1X0094V6JV / Nafarelin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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64. Lottes AE, Rundell AE, Geddes LA, Kemeny AE, Otlewski MP, Babbs CF: Sustained abdominal compression during CPR raises coronary perfusion pressures as much as vasopressor drugs. Resuscitation; 2007 Dec;75(3):515-24
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  • [Title] Sustained abdominal compression during CPR raises coronary perfusion pressures as much as vasopressor drugs.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sustained abdominal compression as a means to improve coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and compared the resulting CPP augmentation with that achieved using vasopressor drugs.
  • METHOD: During electrically induced ventricular fibrillation in anesthetized, 30kg juvenile pigs, Thumper CPR was supplemented at intervals either by constant abdominal compression at 100-500mmHg using an inflated contoured cuff or by the administration of vasopressor drugs (epinephrine, vasopressin, or glibenclamide).
  • CPP before and after cuff inflation or drug administration was the end point.
  • RESULTS: Sustained abdominal compression at >200mmHg increases CPP during VF and otherwise standard CPR by 8-18mmHg.
  • The effect persists over practical ranges of chest compression force and duty cycle and is similar to that achieved with vasopressor drugs.
  • Constant abdominal compression also augments CPP after prior administration of epinephrine or vasopressin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: During CPR noninvasive abdominal compression with the inflatable contoured cuff rapidly elevates the CPP, sustains the elevated CPP as long as the device is inflated, and is immediately and controllably reversible upon device deflation.
  • Physical control of peripheral vascular resistance during CPR by abdominal compression has some advantages over pharmacological manipulation and deserves serious reconsideration, now that the limitations of pressor drugs during CPR have become better understood, including post-resuscitation myocardial depression and the need for intravenous access.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods. Coronary Circulation / drug effects. Coronary Circulation / physiology. Vascular Resistance / physiology. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Pressure. Sus scrofa. Ventricular Fibrillation / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17630090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] Resuscitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Resuscitation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / NGAR21EB001540
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents
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65. Li SX, Wang ZR, Li J, Peng ZG, Zhou W, Zhou M, Lu L: Inhibition of Period1 gene attenuates the morphine-induced ERK-CREB activation in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum in mice. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse; 2008;34(6):673-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Recent studies demonstrated that the Period1 gene (Per1) is involved in behavioral alterations induced by addictive drugs.
  • We explored the effects of inhibiting expression in brain of Per1 on morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and morphine-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in mice.
  • After testing CPP, mice were sacrificed and phosphorylated ERK and CREB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Mice pretreated with DRz164 did not acquire morphine CPP.
  • We suggested that per1 gene may be a potential treatment target for drug addition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / drug effects. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / drug effects. Morphine / pharmacology. Nuclear Proteins / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Conditioning, Operant / drug effects. Corpus Striatum / metabolism. DNA, Catalytic / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Frontal Lobe / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Hippocampus / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Morphine Dependence / physiopathology. Period Circadian Proteins. Phosphorylation / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reward

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  • (PMID = 18850497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-9891
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / DNA, Catalytic; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Per1 protein, mouse; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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66. Russo SJ, Festa ED, Fabian SJ, Gazi FM, Kraish M, Jenab S, Quiñones-Jenab V: Gonadal hormones differentially modulate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in male and female rats. Neuroscience; 2003;120(2):523-33
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  • In the present study, conditioned place preference (CPP), a measure of non-contingent reward, was used to determine the effects of endogenous gonadal hormones and of estrogen and progesterone replacement on cocaine reward.
  • Although both intact and gonadectomized male and female rats showed a significant CPP for cocaine, ovariectomy attenuated the magnitude of CPP.
  • These alterations coincided with a decrease in serum levels of corticosterone.
  • In ovariectomized rats, pretreatment with progesterone inhibited cocaine CPP while estrogen plus progesterone potentiated the magnitude of CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Cocaine / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Estrogens / pharmacology. Progesterone / pharmacology. Sex Characteristics
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Anesthetics, Local / pharmacology. Animals. Behavior, Animal. Biogenic Monoamines / metabolism. Cesarean Section / methods. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / instrumentation. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Corticosterone / blood. Drug Interactions. Exploratory Behavior / drug effects. Exploratory Behavior / physiology. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / physiology. Nucleus Accumbens / drug effects. Nucleus Accumbens / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay / methods. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reaction Time. Reward. Time Factors. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12890521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA12136; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM60654; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-41073; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-03037
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Biogenic Monoamines; 0 / Estrogens; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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67. Velázquez-Sánchez C, Ferragud A, Hernández-Rabaza V, Nácher A, Merino V, Cardá M, Murga J, Canales JJ: The dopamine uptake inhibitor 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane reduces cocaine-induced early-gene expression, locomotor activity, and conditioned reward. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2009 Nov;34(12):2497-507
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  • Benztropine (BZT) analogs, a family of high-affinity dopamine transporter ligands, are molecules that exhibit pharmacological and behavioral characteristics predictive of significant therapeutic potential in cocaine addiction.
  • Here, we examined in mice the effects of 3 alpha-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)metoxy]-tropane (AHN-1055) on motor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and c-Fos expression in the striatum.
  • Interaction assays showed that cocaine's ability to stimulate locomotor activity was decreased by AHN-1055 treatment, but not by treatment with D-amphetamine.
  • Remarkably, the BZT analog dose-dependently blocked cocaine-induced CPP without producing CPP when given alone, and blocked in conditioned mice cocaine-stimulated early-gene activation in the nucleus accumbens and dorsomedial striatum.
  • These observations provide evidence that AHN-1055 does not behave as a classical psychomotor stimulant and that some of its properties, including attenuation of cocaine-induced striatal c-Fos expression, locomotor stimulation, and CPP, support its candidacy, and that of structurally related molecules, as possible pharmacotherapies in cocaine addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Benztropine / analogs & derivatives. Cocaine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Motor Activity / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Cocaine / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mice. Nomifensine / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Reward. Space Perception / drug effects. Stereotyped Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19606084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-634X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / N-methyl-3-(bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy)tropane; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 1LGS5JRP31 / Nomifensine; 1NHL2J4X8K / Benztropine; I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
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68. Karim A, Fowler M, McLaren B, Cardenas R, Patwardhan R, Nanda A: Concomitant choroid plexus papillomas involving the third and fourth ventricles: A case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Sep;108(6):586-9
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  • [Title] Concomitant choroid plexus papillomas involving the third and fourth ventricles: A case report and review of the literature.
  • Choroid plexus papillomas (CPP) are histopathologically benign and rare central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms arising from the epithelium of the choroid plexus.
  • Third ventricular CPP are uncommon.
  • In this study, we present a case of a 66-year-old woman with complaints of progressive confusion, lethargy, and weakness who was found to have concomitant third and fourth ventricular masses on imaging studies.
  • Pathology from the biopsy and both resections was benign CPP.
  • Multifocal concomitant CPP is rare.
  • Concomitant CPPs may be secondary to mere coincidental tumor occurrence or to biologic seeding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a primary CPP despite otherwise benign histopathology.
  • The primary treatment for CPP is surgical resection.
  • Post-operative chemotherapy or radiation for CPP is of controversial benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Fourth Ventricle. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Third Ventricle

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  • (PMID = 15963638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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69. Cui Q, Jiang W, Wang Y, Lv C, Luo J, Zhang W, Lin F, Yin Y, Cai R, Wei P, Qian C: Transfer of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 by an oncolytic adenovirus induces potential antitumor activities in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology; 2008 Jan;47(1):105-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, we explored whether restoration of SOCS3 by oncolytic adenoviral vectors could inhibit the constitutive activation of the Janus kinase/STAT pathway and suppress tumor growth.
  • Our data showed that SOCS3 was down-expressed in all liver tumor cell lines.
  • The incorporation of SOCS3 or SOCS3 fused with cell-penetrating peptides (cpp-SOCS3) did not alter adenoviral replication selectively in liver tumor cells.
  • The infection of cells with adenovirus CN305 (AdCN305)-SOCS3 and AdCN305-cpp-SOCS3 resulted in dramatic cytotoxicity in liver tumor cells.
  • Infection of liver tumor cells with AdCN305-SOCS3 and AdCN305-cpp-SOCS3 resulted in nearly complete inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and Bcl-xL.
  • Treatment of the established tumor by AdCN305-SOCS3 and AdCN305-cpp-SOCS3 caused significant suppression of tumor growth.
  • The suppression of tumor growth was due to the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation and induction of tumor cell death.
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that transfer of SOCS3 by an oncolytic adenovirus represents a potent approach for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Oncolytic Virotherapy / methods. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Line. Gene Expression. Genetic Vectors. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Phosphorylation. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Virus Replication


70. Fishbain DA, Lewis JE, Gao J, Cole B, Rosomoff RS: Alleged breaches of "standards of medical care" in a patient overdose death possibly related to chronic opioid analgesic therapy, application of the controlled substances model guidelines: case report. Pain Med; 2009 Apr;10(3):565-72
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  • [Title] Alleged breaches of "standards of medical care" in a patient overdose death possibly related to chronic opioid analgesic therapy, application of the controlled substances model guidelines: case report.
  • 1) to present details of a chronic pain patient (CPP) who was placed on chronic opioid analgesic therapy (COAT), and subsequently overdosed on multiple drugs, some of which were not prescribed by his COAT physician;.
  • METHODS: This is a case report of a CPP treated by a pain physician.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Some CPPs may withhold information critical to their COAT treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / poisoning. Malpractice / legislation & jurisprudence. Pain / drug therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Anxiety Agents / poisoning. Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / poisoning. Diazepam / poisoning. Doxepin / poisoning. Drug Overdose. Female. Heroin Dependence / complications. Heroin Dependence / drug therapy. Humans. Hydrocodone / poisoning. Methadone / therapeutic use. Nordazepam / poisoning. Pain Measurement. Shoulder / injuries. Shoulder / pathology. Temazepam / poisoning

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  • [CommentIn] Pain Med. 2009 Apr;10(3):562-3; discussion 564 [19416441.001]
  • [CommentIn] Pain Med. 2010 Jun;11(6):981; author reply 982-3 [20624246.001]
  • (PMID = 18992043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4637
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic; 1668-19-5 / Doxepin; 67220MCM01 / Nordazepam; 6YKS4Y3WQ7 / Hydrocodone; CHB1QD2QSS / Temazepam; Q3JTX2Q7TU / Diazepam; UC6VBE7V1Z / Methadone
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71. Dhanikula AB, Lamontagne D, Leroux JC: Rescue of amitriptyline-intoxicated hearts with nanosized vesicles. Cardiovasc Res; 2007 Jun 1;74(3):480-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: Amitriptyline, one of the most prescribed antidepressants, is reported to claim a large number of human lives due to drug overdose related cardiac arrest.
  • Vesicles bearing an internal pH of 3.0 or 7.4 were then infused into amitriptyline pre-intoxicated isolated rat hearts, and changes in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), the first derivative of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt max) and heart rate were monitored.
  • RESULTS: Based on the recoveries in CPP observed, the efficacies of the formulations were ranked as follows: control=pH 7.4-spherulites<pH 3.0-spherulites; whereas the ranking for the recoveries in heart rate was: control<pH 7.4-spherulites<pH 3.0-spherulites.
  • The significantly faster and higher recoveries in pH 3.0- vs. 7.4-spherulite-treated hearts demonstrated the importance of pH-gradient formulation for efficient extraction of tissue-bound amitriptyline.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that spherulites have a protective effect against acute cardiovascular failure following intoxication with amitriptyline and possibly other cardiotoxic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Amitriptyline / toxicity. Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / toxicity. Heart Arrest / chemically induced. Heart Arrest / therapy. Lipids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Heart / drug effects. Lipid Metabolism. Male. Nanoparticles. Perfusion. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 17359955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-6363
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic; 0 / Lipids; 1806D8D52K / Amitriptyline
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72. Beaumont A, Hayasaki K, Marmarou A, Barzo P, Fatouros P, Corwin F: Contrasting effects of dopamine therapy in experimental brain injury. J Neurotrauma; 2001 Dec;18(12):1359-72
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  • [Title] Contrasting effects of dopamine therapy in experimental brain injury.
  • Management of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is thought to be important for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • Vasopressors have been advocated as a method of increasing mean arterial blood pressure (mABP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the face of rising intracranial pressure (ICP).
  • There are unresolved issues and theoretical risks about this therapy.
  • This study therefore examined the effects of dopamine on physiological and MRI/MRS parameters in (1) a rodent model of rapidly rising intracranial pressure, caused by diffuse injury with secondary insult and (2) a model of cortical contusion.
  • Dopamine was capable of restoring CPP in the model of rapidly rising ICP.
  • This CPP restoration was associated with a partial restoration of CBF.
  • MRI assessed tissue water content was increased four hours after injury and dopamine increased cerebral water content in both subgroups of injury; significantly in the group with a persistently low ADCw (p < 0.01).
  • This occurred in the absence of ADCw changes, except in the contralateral hippocampus, where both water content and ADCw values rose with treatment, suggesting extracellular accumulation of water.
  • In conclusion, although dopamine is capable of partially restoring CBF after injury, situations exist in which dopamine therapy worsens the swelling process.
  • It is possible therefore that subgroups of patients exist who experience adverse effects of vasopressor treatment, and consequently the effects of vasopressor therapy in the clinical setting need to be more carefully evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Dopamine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Edema / chemically induced. Brain Edema / drug therapy. Brain Edema / physiopathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 11780866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurotrauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurotrauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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73. Yu LL, Wang XY, Zhao M, Liu Y, Li YQ, Li FQ, Wang X, Xue YX, Lu L: Effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant in consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine reward memory in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2009 Jun;204(2):203-11
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  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether rimonabant, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, would disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine-related reward memory, using conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Separate groups of male Kunming mice were trained to acquire methamphetamine CPP.
  • Vehicle or rimonabant (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at different time points: immediately after each CPP training session (consolidation), 30 min before the reactivation of CPP (retrieval), or immediately after the reactivation of CPP (reconsolidation).
  • Methamphetamine CPP was retested 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after rimonabant administration.
  • RESULTS: Rimonabant at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the consolidation of methamphetamine CPP.
  • Only high-dose rimonabant (3 mg/kg) disrupted the retrieval and reconsolidation of methamphetamine CPP.
  • Rimonabant had no effect on methamphetamine CPP in the absence of methamphetamine CPP reactivation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play a major role in methamphetamine reward memory, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may be a potential pharmacotherapy to manage relapse associated with drug-reward-related memory.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology. Memory / drug effects. Methamphetamine / pharmacology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mice. Reward

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  • (PMID = 19148622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2072
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 44RAL3456C / Methamphetamine; RML78EN3XE / rimonabant
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74. El-Andaloussi S, Johansson HJ, Holm T, Langel U: A novel cell-penetrating peptide, M918, for efficient delivery of proteins and peptide nucleic acids. Mol Ther; 2007 Oct;15(10):1820-6
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  • We present a novel CPP, M918, that efficiently translocates various cells in a non-toxic fashion.
  • Our data demonstrate that M918 is a novel CPP that can be used to translocate different cargoes inside various cells efficiently.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Endocytosis. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. HeLa Cells. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. RNA Splicing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17622242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0016
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / Peptide Nucleic Acids; 0 / Proteins
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75. Takamatsu Y, Yamanishi Y, Hagino Y, Yamamoto H, Ikeda K: Differential effects of donepezil on methamphetamine and cocaine dependencies. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1074:418-26
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  • Donepezil, a choline esterase inhibitor, has been widely used as a medicine for Alzheimer's disease.
  • Recently, a study showed that donepezil inhibited addictive behaviors induced by cocaine, including cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor sensitization to cocaine.
  • In counterbalanced CPP tests, the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 3 mg/kg donepezil prior to 2 mg/kg METH i.p. failed to inhibit METH CPP, whereas pretreatment with 3 mg/kg donepezil abolished the CPP for cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.).
  • [MeSH-minor] Amphetamine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Cocaine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Conditioning (Psychology). Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Motor Activity / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17105940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indans; 0 / Piperidines; 8SSC91326P / donepezil
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76. Han Y, Li CS: [Effects of hypertension state induced by norepinephrine on liver in a swine model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue; 2010 Feb;22(2):89-92
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  • At the same time, the animals of two groups received normal saline at the speed of 10 ml * kg(-1) * h(-1).
  • RESULTS: The heart rate (HR), MAP, cardiac output (CO) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were obviously higher, while the oxygen extraction ratio was lower in the HT group than in the NP group.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Arrest / therapy. Hypertension / chemically induced. Liver / drug effects. Norepinephrine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Male. Swine. Ventricular Fibrillation / pathology. Ventricular Fibrillation / physiopathology. Ventricular Fibrillation / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20170612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0603
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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77. Català-Temprano A, Claret Teruel G, Cambra Lasaosa FJ, Pons Odena M, Noguera Julián A, Palomeque Rico A: Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure as risk factors in children with traumatic brain injuries. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jun;106(6 Suppl):463-6
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  • [Title] Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure as risk factors in children with traumatic brain injuries.
  • OBJECT: The authors evaluated the initial intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) as prognostic factors in severe head injury in children and tried to determine the optimal CPP range.
  • METHODS: The authors performed a 9-year retrospective review of all patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) who required invasive ICP monitoring and were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit at their institution between January 1995 and December 2003.
  • An unfavorable outcome was observed in more than 60% of patients with an initial CPP lower than 40 mm Hg.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Initial ICP and CPP measurements were useful as prognostic factors in pediatric patients with severe TBIs: patients with initial CPPs between 40 and 70 mm Hg were found to have a better neurological prognosis than those with CPPs either higher or lower than that range.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Pressure. Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Intracranial Pressure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Glasgow Coma Scale. Glasgow Outcome Scale. Humans. Infant. Intracranial Hypertension / drug therapy. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Trauma Severity Indices. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17566403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Earle SA, de Moya MA, Zuccarelli JE, Norenberg MD, Proctor KG: Cerebrovascular resuscitation after polytrauma and fluid restriction. J Am Coll Surg; 2007 Feb;204(2):261-75
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  • BACKGROUND: There are few reproducible models of blast injury, so it is difficult to evaluate new or existing therapies.
  • We developed a clinically relevant polytrauma model to test the hypothesis that cerebrovascular resuscitation is optimized when intravenous fluid is restricted.
  • After 120 minutes, mannitol (1g/kg) and phenylephrine were administered to manage cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) > 70 mmHg, plus additional NS was given to maintain central venous pressure (CVP) > 12 mmHg.
  • In group 2 (n=5), MAP and CPP targets were the same, but the CVP target was>8 mmHg.
  • Group 3 (n=5) received 1 L of NS followed only by CPP management.
  • Group 4 (n=5) received Hextend (Abbott Laboratories), instead of NS, to the same MAP and CPP targets as group 2.
  • Additional NS (total of 36+/-1 mL/kg/h and 17+/-6 mL/kg/h, in groups 1 and 2, respectively) correlated with increased intracranial pressure to 38+/-4 mmHg (group 1) and 26+/-4 mmHg (group 2) versus 22+/-4 mmHg in group 3 (who received 5+/-1 mL/kg/h).
  • CPP was maintained only after mannitol and phenylephrine.
  • By 5 hours, brain tissue PO(2) was>20 mmHg in groups 1 and 2, but only 6+/-1 mmHg in group 3.
  • In contrast, minimal Hextend (6+/-3 mL/kg/h) was needed; the corrections in MAP and CPP were immediate and sustained, intracranial pressure was lower (14+/-2 mmHg), and brain tissue PO(2) was> 20 mmHg.
  • Neuropathologic changes were consistent with traumatic brain injury, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After polytrauma and resuscitation to standard MAP and CPP targets with mannitol and pressor therapy, we concluded that intracranial hypertension was attenuated and brain oxygenation was maintained with intravenous fluid restriction; cerebrovascular resuscitation was optimized with Hextend versus NS; and longer term studies are needed to determine neuropathologic consequences.
  • [MeSH-major] Blast Injuries / therapy. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Fluid Therapy / methods. Multiple Trauma / therapy. Resuscitation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use. Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blood Pressure / physiology. Central Venous Pressure / drug effects. Craniocerebral Trauma / physiopathology. Critical Care. Disease Models, Animal. Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use. Emergency Medical Services. Emergency Service, Hospital. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / therapeutic use. Hypoventilation / physiopathology. Mannitol / therapeutic use. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Phenylephrine / therapeutic use. Plasma Substitutes / therapeutic use. Sodium Chloride. Swine. Thoracic Injuries / physiopathology


79. Jacka MJ, Zygun D: Survey of management of severe head injury in Canada. Can J Neurol Sci; 2007 Aug;34(3):307-12
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine: 1. the degrees of consensus and disagreement among Canadian critical care clinicians regarding the appropriateness (benefit exceeding risk) of common therapeutic manoeuvres in patients with severe closed head injury (CHI), and 2. the frequency with which clinicians employed these manoeuvres.
  • In a scenario of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), clinicians agreed strongly that fever reduction, early enteral feeding, intensive glucose control, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-directed management were appropriate.
  • The appropriateness ratings of the interventions considered in the scenario of an intracranial contusion mirrored the DAI scenario.
  • The correlation between CPP-guided therapy and the use of the EVD was weak.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This survey has described current practice with regard to treatment of patients with severe CHI.
  • Suggested priorities for evaluation include the use of osmotic diuretics, anticonvulsants, and intracranial manometry.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / therapy. Critical Care / methods. Head Injuries, Closed / therapy. Health Care Surveys. Neurology / methods. Neurosurgery / methods. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Canada / epidemiology. Diffuse Axonal Injury / drug therapy. Diffuse Axonal Injury / physiopathology. Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use. Female. Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial / drug therapy. Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial / physiopathology. Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial / surgery. Humans. Hypothermia, Induced / utilization. Intensive Care Units. Intracranial Hypertension / diagnosis. Intracranial Hypertension / prevention & control. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Male. Malnutrition / prevention & control. Malnutrition / therapy. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 17803027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Diuretics, Osmotic
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80. Follis F, Blisard K, Varvitsiotis PS, Pett SB Jr, Temes T, Wernly JA: Competitive NMDA receptor antagonists and spinal-cord ischemia. J Invest Surg; 2000 Mar-Apr;13(2):117-21; discussion 123-4
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  • Accordingly, we investigated the protective effect during spinal cord ischemia of two competitive antagonists, 4-(3-phosphonopropyl)-2-piperazine-carboxylic acid (CPP) and cis-4-(phosphonomethyl)-2-piperidine-carboxylic acid (CGS).
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent intrathecal administration of 10 microL saline, CGS, and CPP 10 mM solutions, in a randomized blinded fashion, and were subjected to balloon occlusion of the thoracic aorta.
  • In the acute protocol, 21 rats divided in 3 groups of 7 (saline, CPP, and CGS) were used to calculate the aortic occlusion time (AOT) resulting in paraplegia in 50% of animals (P50).
  • In the chronic study, 24 rats divided in 4 groups of 6 (saline, CPP, CGS, sham) underwent 12-min occlusion.
  • In the acute study, the P50 of CGS (10 min 48 s) and CPP (11 min 11 s) was longer than saline (10 min 27 s).
  • In the chronic groups, analysis of variance of neurologic (p = .66) and histologic (p = .66) scores did not disclose differences between CGS, CPP, and saline.
  • In conclusion, blockade of NMDA receptors with CPP or CGS may afford some protection for durations of occlusion around the P50, but it is not beneficial when ischemic injury is more protracted.
  • [MeSH-major] Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Pipecolic Acids / pharmacology. Piperazines / pharmacology. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Spinal Cord Ischemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Animals. Arterial Occlusive Diseases / drug therapy. Chronic Disease. Disease Models, Animal. Male. Paraplegia / drug therapy. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Spinal Cord / blood supply. Spinal Cord / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 10801049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1939
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Invest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Pipecolic Acids; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 100828-16-8 / 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid; 4VGJ4A41L2 / selfotel
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81. Takamatsu Y, Yamamoto H, Ogai Y, Hagino Y, Markou A, Ikeda K: Fluoxetine as a potential pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence: studies in mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1074:295-302
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  • [Title] Fluoxetine as a potential pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine dependence: studies in mice.
  • The monoamine transporters are the main targets of psychostimulant drugs, including methamphetamine (METH) and cocaine.
  • Interestingly, the rewarding effects of cocaine are retained in dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) mice, while serotonin transporter (SERT) and DAT double KO mice do not exhibit conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine.
  • ) CPP and locomotor sensitization to 1 mg/kg METH (i.p.) in C57BL/6J mice.
  • Fluoxetine treatment before both the conditioning and preference tests abolished METH CPP.
  • A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that METH CPP tended to be lower in mice pretreated with fluoxetine before the preference test than in control mice pretreated with saline before the preference test.
  • These results suggest that fluoxetine, a widely used medication for depression, may be also a useful tool for treating METH dependence.
  • [MeSH-major] Amphetamine-Related Disorders / drug therapy. Dopamine Agents / toxicity. Fluoxetine / therapeutic use. Methamphetamine / toxicity. Motor Activity / drug effects. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17105925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA11946
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agents; 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; 01K63SUP8D / Fluoxetine; 44RAL3456C / Methamphetamine
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82. Hu L, Chu NN, Sun LL, Zhang R, Han JS, Cui CL: Electroacupuncture treatment reverses morphine-induced physiological changes in dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area. Addict Biol; 2009 Sep;14(4):431-7
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  • [Title] Electroacupuncture treatment reverses morphine-induced physiological changes in dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area.
  • These transient morphological changes are accompanied by a reduced sensitivity of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) after chronic exposure to the drug.
  • In this study we examined alterations in the firing rate of DAergic neurons by means of extracellular recording following chronic morphine exposure and applied 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) treatment to reverse the reduced firing rate of these neurons.
  • In the first set of experiments we show that in rats, which received chronic morphine treatment for 14 days, a small dose of morphine was not able to induce a CPP response anymore.
  • However, the sensitivity to morphine was reinstated by consecutive EA treatment for 10 days.
  • Our findings suggest that 100 Hz EA is a potential therapy for the treatment of opiate addiction by normalizing the activity of VTA DA neurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology. Dopamine / metabolism. Electroacupuncture / methods. Morphine / pharmacology. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / metabolism. Ventral Tegmental Area / drug effects. Ventral Tegmental Area / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Choice Behavior. Drug Administration Schedule. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Substantia Nigra / drug effects. Substantia Nigra / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19489751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-1600
  • [Journal-full-title] Addiction biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Addict Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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83. Biala G, Staniak N, Budzynska B: Effects of varenicline and mecamylamine on the acquisition, expression, and reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol; 2010 Apr;381(4):361-70
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  • [Title] Effects of varenicline and mecamylamine on the acquisition, expression, and reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats.
  • In the present study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to investigate the establishment, extinction, reinstatement, and cross-reinstatement of nicotine-induced place conditioning in rats.
  • Once established, nicotine CPP was extinguished by repeated testing.
  • These priming injections of both drugs induced a marked preference for the compartment previously paired with nicotine.
  • Furthermore, given the important role of alpha4beta2 (a4b2) nicotinic receptor subtype in the acquisition and maintenance of nicotine dependence, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of varenicline, a partial a4b2 nicotinic receptor agonist (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.
  • ), a non-selective nicotinic receptor antagonist, in blocking nicotine-induced CPP as well as reinstatement of nicotine CPP provoked by nicotine and morphine.
  • It was shown that both nicotinic receptor ligands attenuated the acquisition and expression of nicotine CPP as well as the expression of reinstatement of nicotine CPP provoked by both drugs.
  • Our results indicate similar cholinergic mechanisms, probably through the a4b2 receptors involved in the rewarding effects of nicotine and morphine in rats and may suggest that nicotinic receptors could be a potential target for developing pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat and prevent nicotine and/or opioid addiction and relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Nicotine / administration & dosage. Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacology. Nicotinic Antagonists / pharmacology. Receptors, Nicotinic / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzazepines / administration & dosage. Benzazepines / pharmacology. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mecamylamine / administration & dosage. Mecamylamine / pharmacology. Morphine / administration & dosage. Morphine / pharmacology. Quinoxalines / administration & dosage. Quinoxalines / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reward. Tobacco Use Disorder / physiopathology. Varenicline

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  • (PMID = 20217050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1912
  • [Journal-full-title] Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzazepines; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Nicotinic Antagonists; 0 / Quinoxalines; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 0 / nicotinic receptor alpha4beta2; 6EE945D3OK / Mecamylamine; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; W6HS99O8ZO / Varenicline
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84. Szendei G, Hernádi Z, Dévényi N, Csapó Z: Is there any correlation between stages of endometriosis and severity of chronic pelvic pain? Possibilities of treatment. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;21(2):93-100
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  • [Title] Is there any correlation between stages of endometriosis and severity of chronic pelvic pain? Possibilities of treatment.
  • We report herein findings on 181 patients, suffering from pelvic endometriosis confirmed by histology, whose main symptom was chronic pelvic pain (CPP).
  • The short form of the McGill pain questionnaire was used for the evaluation of CPP.
  • After the first operative intervention, therapy with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog was given for 6 months.
  • Second-look laparoscopy was performed 8-10 weeks after the end of GnRH-analog treatment, which was followed by a non-conventionally administered, monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) treatment.
  • In the long term, 118 patients received the non-conventionally administered, monophasic OC treatment, which contained a third-generation progestogen, to be taken continuously for at least 6 months.
  • The other 63 patients who did not receive OC treatment for one reason or another were evaluated as a control group.
  • We analyzed data on CPP before the first surgical intervention, then following therapy with the GnRH analog at the second-look operation, and then after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months.
  • We also reviewed potential causes of CPP, especially focused on endometriosis.
  • No correlation was found between the stage of endometriosis according to R-AFS score and the severity of CPP.
  • At the 24-month follow-up after second-look laparoscopy, the non-conventionally administered monophasic OC treatment was found not only to significantly reduce pain scores, but also the required radical operative solution (hysterectomy plus bilateral adnexectomy) for CPP by OC users.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / therapeutic use. Endometriosis / drug therapy. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Pelvic Pain / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Dysmenorrhea / drug therapy. Dyspareunia / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Pain Measurement. Secondary Prevention

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  • (PMID = 16109595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Combined; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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85. Meltzer-Brody SE, Zolnoun D, Steege JF, Rinaldi KL, Leserman J: Open-label trial of lamotrigine focusing on efficacy in vulvodynia. J Reprod Med; 2009 Mar;54(3):171-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects 15% of women and has a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity.
  • Vulvodynia, a vulvar pain syndrome that includes vulvar vestibulitis, is the most common subtype of CPP.
  • This study examined the efficacy of lamotrigine for the treatment of CPP using an open-label design.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Forty-three women with CPP were recruited from a specialty pelvic pain clinic.
  • Of these, 31 completed 8 weeks of active treatment.
  • In particular, women with vulvodynia-type CPP (N = 17) had robust reductions in pain and mood symptoms.
  • CONCLUSION: CPP is a heterogeneous disorder, with psychiatric comorbidity and poor treatment response.
  • This open-label study suggests that treatment with lamotrigine in women with the vulvodynia subtype of CPP may be helpful in addressing both the pain and mood symptoms associated with this disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Pelvic Pain / drug therapy. Pelvic Pain / psychology. Triazines / therapeutic use. Vulvar Diseases / drug therapy. Vulvar Diseases / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anxiety / drug therapy. Anxiety / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Depression / drug therapy. Depression / epidemiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Pain Measurement / psychology. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19370903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K23 HD053631
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Triazines; U3H27498KS / lamotrigine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS580758; NLM/ PMC4676413
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86. Esmaeili B, Basseda Z, Dehpour AR: Antagonism of muscarinic M1 receptors by dicyclomine inhibits the consolidation of morphine-associated contextual memory. Brain Res Bull; 2008 Jul 1;76(4):380-7
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  • M1 muscarinic receptor has been shown to be involved in cognitive functions of the brain.
  • Conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm involves memory for the association between environmental stimuli and the rewarding properties produced by a treatment.
  • Using a balanced CPP design, we studied the possible involvement of M1 muscarinic receptors on the acquisition, expression and consolidation of morphine place conditioning in male mice.
  • Subcutaneous administration of morphine sulphate-induced CPP in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Using a 6-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that dicyclomine, an M1 muscarinic antagonist, significantly reduced the time spent by mice in the morphine compartment when given immediately, but not 6h, after each conditioning session (consolidation).
  • It had no effect when administered 30 min before each conditioning session during CPP training period (acquisition) or 30 min before testing for place preference in the absence of morphine (expression).
  • It is concluded that M1 muscarinic receptors may play a time-dependent role in the consolidation of reward-related memory of morphine.
  • [MeSH-major] Dicyclomine / pharmacology. Learning / drug effects. Memory / drug effects. Morphine / pharmacology. Receptor, Muscarinic M1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions / physiology. Male. Mice. Morphine Dependence / drug therapy. Morphine Dependence / metabolism. Muscarinic Antagonists / pharmacology. Narcotics / pharmacology. Reward. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18502314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Muscarinic Antagonists; 0 / Narcotics; 0 / Receptor, Muscarinic M1; 4KV4X8IF6V / Dicyclomine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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87. Valencak J, Dietrich W, Raderer M, Dieckmann K, Prayer D, Hainfellner JA, Marosi C: Evidence of therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent choroid plexus papilloma. J Neurooncol; 2000 Sep;49(3):263-8
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  • [Title] Evidence of therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent choroid plexus papilloma.
  • A pregnant 33-year old woman developed nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia.
  • A tumor in the roof of the fourth ventricle was diagnosed.
  • The tumor was subtotally removed using microneurosurgical techniques.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was choroid plexus papilloma (CPP).
  • Twenty-one months later, the tumor recurred and was reoperated.
  • Histologically the tumor displayed now increased mitotic activity and pleomorphism.
  • Radiation therapy of the neuroaxis was performed.
  • Within 59 months, the CPP recurred 3 more times with neuroradiological evidence of extensive spinal seeding.
  • After several palliative irradiations, including 2 gamma-knife boosts, the patient was referred to chemotherapy.
  • The course of disease in our patient provides evidence for therapeutic efficacy of CCNU in recurrent CPP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Papilloma / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Seeding. Pregnancy. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 11212906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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88. Antoniazzi F, Arrigo T, Cisternino M, Galluzzi F, Bertelloni S, Pasquino AM, Borrelli P, Osio D, Mengarda F, De Luca F, Tatò L: End results in central precocious puberty with GnRH analog treatment: the data of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2000 Jul;13 Suppl 1:773-80
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  • [Title] End results in central precocious puberty with GnRH analog treatment: the data of the Italian Study Group for Physiopathology of Puberty.
  • We report some end results with GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in central precocious puberty (CPP), in terms of final height (FH), ovarian function, peak bone mass, body composition and psychological problems.
  • Study L Growth data were analyzed of three groups of patients: treated with i.n. spray buserelin, i.m. triptorelin and untreated.
  • Both GnRHa administration modes were effective in arresting pubertal development and all girls had complete recovery of the reproductive axis after therapy.
  • Treated patients showed an improvement in final height in comparison with untreated patients and compared to predicted height at the start of treatment with both agonist treatments.
  • In a retrospective evaluation of the outcome in 71 girls with idiopathic CPP treated with triptorelin, we found that FH fell within the population norm and the target range in 87.3% and 90% of the patients respectively.
  • The tallest FH was recorded in the patients who started therapy at less than 6 years of age and in those who discontinued treatment at a bone age of 12.0-12.5 yr.
  • Finally, we and other groups have recently found normal values of bone mineral density in girls at the end of GnRHa treatment in the great majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aerosols. Body Height / drug effects. Bone Density. Bone Development. Buserelin / administration & dosage. Buserelin / therapeutic use. Child. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10969920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; PXW8U3YXDV / Buserelin
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89. Le Foll B, Sokoloff P, Stark H, Goldberg SR: Dopamine D3 receptor ligands block nicotine-induced conditioned place preferences through a mechanism that does not involve discriminative-stimulus or antidepressant-like effects. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2005 Apr;30(4):720-30
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  • Environmental stimuli previously paired with drug taking appear to play a critical role in nicotine dependence.
  • Converging anatomical, pharmacological, and behavioral evidence implicates dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) in the mechanisms underlying stimulus-controlled drug-seeking behavior.
  • This study assessed the effects of BP 897, a D3R partial agonist and ST 198, a D3R antagonist, on nicotine-induced conditioned place preferences (CPPs), used as a measure of drug-seeking behavior, on food-maintained responding and on discrimination performance under a two-lever-choice nicotine discrimination procedure.
  • BP 897 and ST 198 both blocked the expression of nicotine-induced CPP at doses selective for D3R.
  • They had no effect on locomotor activity in the CPP apparatus and no significant effect on nicotine discrimination performance or food-maintained responding under the discrimination procedure.
  • Involvement of antidepressant actions in the effects of BP 897 and ST 198 on CPP is unlikely, since we found no effect of D3R blockade with BP 897 or genetic depletion of D3Rs in a forced swimming test, used as a behavioral test for antidepressant activity.
  • This suggests that D3R ligands reduce the motivational effects of nicotine by a mechanism distinct from those of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion, the two currently used aids for smoking cessation in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agents / pharmacology. Nicotine / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / agonists. Spatial Behavior / drug effects. Tobacco Use Disorder / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / pharmacology. Animals. Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Conditioning (Psychology) / drug effects. Conditioning (Psychology) / physiology. Discrimination (Psychology) / drug effects. Discrimination (Psychology) / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Drug Interactions / physiology. Female. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Ligands. Limbic System / drug effects. Limbic System / metabolism. Limbic System / physiopathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Piperazines / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Dopamine D3

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  • (PMID = 15562293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ((E)-N-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)butyl)-3-phenylacrylamide; 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / BP 897; 0 / Dopamine Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Drd3 protein, mouse; 0 / Drd3 protein, rat; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D3; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
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90. Braun K, Ehemann V, Wiessler M, Pipkorn R, Didinger B, Mueller G, Waldeck W: High-resolution flow cytometry: a suitable tool for monitoring aneuploid prostate cancer cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle treatment. Int J Med Sci; 2009;6(6):338-47
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  • [Title] High-resolution flow cytometry: a suitable tool for monitoring aneuploid prostate cancer cells after TMZ and TMZ-BioShuttle treatment.
  • If metastatic prostate cancer gets resistant to antiandrogen therapy, there are few treatment options, because prostate cancer is not very sensitive to cytostatic agents.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) as an orally applicable chemotherapeutic substance has been proven to be effective and well tolerated with occasional moderate toxicity especially for brain tumors and an application to prostate cancer cells seemed to be promising.
  • Unfortunately, TMZ was inefficient in the treatment of symptomatic progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • The reasons could be a low sensitivity against TMZ the short plasma half-life of TMZ, non-adapted application regimens and additionally, the aneuploid DNA content of prostate cancer cells suggesting different sensitivity against therapeutical interventions e.g. radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • The modular-composed carrier consists of a transmembrane transporter (CPP), connected to a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) cleavably-bound, which in turn was coupled with TMZ.
  • The NLS-sequence allows an active delivery of the TMZ into the cell nucleus after transmembrane passage of the TMZ-BioShuttle and intra-cytoplasm enzymatic cleavage and separation from the CPP.
  • This TMZ-BioShuttle could contribute to improve therapeutic options exemplified by the hormone refractory prostate cancer.
  • The high-resolution flow cytometric analysis showed to be an appropriate system for a better detection and distinction of several cell populations dependent on their different DNA-indices as well as changes in proliferation of cell populations after chemotherapeutical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Flow Cytometry / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19946604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1449-1907
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2781174
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flow Cytometry / Prostate Cancer Cells / TMZ-BioShuttle
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91. Himmelseher S, Pfenninger E: [Neuroprotection in neuroanesthesia: current practices in Germany]. Anaesthesist; 2000 May;49(5):412-9
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  • Since the questions concerning "neuroprotective therapy" were linked to a general survey on clinical neuroanesthesia performed by the scientific neuroanesthesia working group of the DGAI, the only departments that were assessed were those which had participated in an earlier study on neuroanesthesia in 1991.
  • Therapy varied considerably between departments.
  • Following head trauma 69% of injured patients were managed with enhanced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) within the range of 70-90 mmHg.
  • If necessary, CPP increase was induced by vasopressors (exogenous supply of catecholamines in 100% of instances) and the administration of fluids (97% of instances).
  • The most commonly used therapeutic approaches to treat intracranial hypertension were mannitol (95% of instances), hyperventilation (91% of instances), cerebrospinal fluid drainage (89% of instances), and barbiturates (86% of instances).
  • Tris (hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane was administered in almost 49%, mild hypothermia in 37%, and hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions in 28% of patients treated for an increase in intracranial pressure.
  • Following intracranial aneurysm surgery "triple-H" therapy was used in 74% of patients, applied as hemodilution in 94% and as hypervolemia and hypertension in 87% of instances.
  • It was used in 83% of patients during perioperative care and in 52% of patients during intensive care therapy.
  • Specific neuroprotective drugs were applied in 68% of departments, with barbiturates (38% of instances), nimodipine (23% of instances), and corticosteroids (10% of instances) as the main agents named.
  • These brain-protective medications were administered especially in intracranial hypertension in 30%, in intracranial aneurysms in 21%, and in subarachnoid hemorrhages subsequent to head trauma in 18% of instances described.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotective therapy administered in anesthesiological departments in Germany is not yet standardized, i.e., there is a wide variation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure / physiology. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Craniocerebral Trauma / surgery. Data Collection. Germany. Humans. Hypothermia, Induced. Intracranial Aneurysm / surgery. Intracranial Hypertension / prevention & control. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Respiration, Artificial. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 10883355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2417
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Anaesthesist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesthesist
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuroprotective Agents
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92. Stubbe HD, Greiner C, Westphal M, Rickert CH, Aken HV, Eichel V, Wassmann H, Daudel F, Hinder F: Cerebral response to norepinephrine compared with fluid resuscitation in ovine traumatic brain injury and systemic inflammation. Crit Care Med; 2006 Oct;34(10):2651-7
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  • [Title] Cerebral response to norepinephrine compared with fluid resuscitation in ovine traumatic brain injury and systemic inflammation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury is frequently accompanied by a systemic inflammatory response.
  • The present study investigated the cerebral effects of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management performed by either fluid resuscitation or vasopressor treatment of low CPP induced by systemic inflammation.
  • At hour 10, one group (n = 6) was infused with hydroxyethyl starch until CPP reached 60-70 mm Hg.
  • A second group (n = 6) received norepinephrine for CPP elevation.
  • Head trauma increased intracranial pressure and decreased brain tissue oxygen tension.
  • Endotoxemia induced a hyperdynamic cardiovascular response with increased internal carotid blood flow in the presence of systemic hypotension and decreased CPP.
  • Hydroxyethyl starch infusion further increased internal carotid blood flow from (mean +/- sd) 247 +/- 26 (hour 10) to 342 +/- 42 mL/min (hour 13) and intracranial pressure from 20 +/- 4 (hour 10) to a maximum of 25 +/- 3 mm Hg (hour 12) but did not significantly affect brain tissue oxygen tension, sinus venous oxygen saturation and oxygen extraction fraction.
  • Norepinephrine increased internal carotid blood flow from 268 +/- 19 to 342 +/- 58 mL/min and intracranial pressure from 22 +/- 11 to 24 +/- 11 mm Hg (hour 10 vs. hour 13) but significantly increased sinus venous oxygen saturation from 49 +/- 4 (hour 10) to a maximum of 59 +/- 6 mm Hg (hour 12) and decreased oxygen extraction fraction.
  • The increase in brain tissue oxygen tension during norepinephrine treatment was not significant.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that despite identical carotid blood flows, only CPP management with norepinephrine reduced the cerebral oxygen deficit in this model.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / therapy. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Fluid Therapy. Norepinephrine / therapeutic use. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Intracranial Pressure / drug effects. Sheep

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  • [CommentIn] Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct;34(10):2697-8 [16983278.001]
  • (PMID = 16932232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3493
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Care Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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93. Iwasaki K, Mishima K, Egashira N, Al-Khatib IH, Ishibashi D, Irie K, Kobayashi H, Egawa T, Fujiwara M: Effect of nilvadipine on the cerebral ischemia-induced impairment of spatial memory and hippocampal apoptosis in rats. J Pharmacol Sci; 2003 Oct;93(2):188-96
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  • However, mRNA expression of the apoptosis-related early oncogene bax and CPP 32 (caspase-3) was observed after 24 h.
  • In these rats, nilvadipine, but not amlodipine, significantly improved memory, concomitantly decreased hippocampal apoptosis, and suppressed both bax and CPP 32 expression.
  • These results suggest that nilvadipine improved the memory impairment in repeated ischemia by reducing bax and CPP 32 expression and suppressing the induction of apoptosis in the hippocampus.
  • Nilvadipine may have a neuroprotective effect and could be a useful pharmacotherapeutic agent for cerebrovascular dementia.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Ischemia / psychology. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Hippocampus / cytology. Memory Disorders / drug therapy. Memory Disorders / psychology. Nifedipine / pharmacology. Space Perception / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Calibration. Genes, bcl-2 / genetics. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / genetics. Male. Maze Learning / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 14578587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-8613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0214FUT37J / nilvadipine; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine
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94. Biala G, Budzynska B, Staniak N: Effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats. Behav Brain Res; 2009 Sep 14;202(2):260-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned place preference by drug priming in rats.
  • Drug addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by a relatively high rate of relapse even after long period of abstinence.
  • In the present study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to investigate the establishment, extinction, reinstatement and cross-reinstatement of nicotine-induced place conditioning in rats.
  • Nicotine produced a place preference to the initially less-preferred compartment paired with its injections during conditioning (0.5mg/kg, i.p., three drug sessions).
  • Once established, nicotine CPP was extinguished by repeated testing.
  • Following this extinction phase, the reinstatement of CPP was investigated.
  • These priming injections of both drugs induced a marked preference for the compartment previously paired with nicotine.
  • Furthermore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (0.5, 1 and 2mg/kg, i.p.) in blocking the reinstatement of nicotine-induced CPP provoked by nicotine and morphine.
  • It was shown that rimonabant attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-conditioned response induced by both drugs.
  • The outcome of our studies may suggest that CB1 receptor antagonists may become a promising target for effective pharmacotherapy of tobacco addiction and polydrug abuse.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Agents / administration & dosage. Conditioning, Classical / drug effects. Morphine / administration & dosage. Nicotine / administration & dosage. Nicotinic Agonists / administration & dosage. Piperidines / administration & dosage. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Extinction, Psychological. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Spatial Behavior / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19463710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7549
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioural brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Agents; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 158681-13-1 / rimonabant; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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95. Dalpiaz O, Kerschbaumer A, Mitterberger M, Pinggera G, Bartsch G, Strasser H: Chronic pelvic pain in women: still a challenge. BJU Int; 2008 Nov;102(9):1061-5
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  • Chronic pelvic pain (CPP), a common condition particularly in reproductive-aged women, causes disability and distress, and significantly compromises quality of life and affects healthcare costs.
  • The pathogenesis of CPP is still poorly understood and consequently poorly managed.
  • Furthermore, the lack of a consensus on the definition of CPP greatly hinders epidemiological studies.
  • Other conditions, e.g. depression, anxiety and drug addiction, can also coexist.
  • The key to treating CPP is to treat it as the complex disease it is.
  • Treatment options range from conservative medical therapy to surgical intervention, and are primarily directed towards symptom relief.
  • Unsatisfactory results of treatment render this condition a frustrating problem for both patients and physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Pain / therapy. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18540938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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96. Groblewski PA, Lattal KM, Cunningham CL: Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction and reconditioning of ethanol-seeking behavior in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2009 May;33(5):772-82
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  • [Title] Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction and reconditioning of ethanol-seeking behavior in mice.
  • BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist, has been shown to enhance the extinction of both cocaine and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP).
  • Thus, the current experiments examined the effects of DCS on the extinction and subsequent reconditioning of ethanol-induced CPP in mice.
  • METHODS: Male DBA/2J mice received either 2 or 4 pairings of ethanol (2 g/kg) with a conditioned stimulus (CS+) floor cue (and an equal number of saline pairings with a CS- floor cue on alternate days) resulting in either a weak or strong ethanol CPP, respectively.
  • Following conditioning of a strong ethanol CPP mice received saline or 30 mg/kg DCS prior to each of the twelve 30-minute choice extinction trials administered at 48-hour intervals.
  • Mice that had received conditioning of a weak ethanol CPP received saline, 30 or 60 mg/kg DCS immediately before each of the six 30-minute choice extinction trials.
  • Following successful ethanol CPP extinction, mice received reconditioning trials similar to the initial conditioning trials.
  • A final experiment examined the effects 12 DCS pre-exposures (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) on initial conditioning of ethanol CPP.
  • RESULTS: First, we showed that 2 doses of DCS (30 and 60 mg/kg) did not have aversive properties that could confound the effects on extinction of CPP (Experiment 1).
  • Second, we showed that DCS (30 and 60 mg/kg) had no effect on the rate of extinction of either strong (Experiment 2) or weak (Experiment 3) ethanol-induced CPP.
  • Interestingly, DCS administered during extinction interfered with reconditioning of ethanol-induced CPP--an effect specific to reconditioning, as DCS pre-exposure did not influence initial ethanol CPP conditioning (Experiment 4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These experiments show that although DCS showed no effect on extinction behavior, when given during extinction it interfered with subsequent reconditioning of ethanol CPP.
  • The mechanisms of this effect were not, however, due to nonspecific interference with learning because repeated DCS pre-exposures did not impair initial conditioning of ethanol CPP.

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  • (PMID = 19298331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0277
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA007702-22; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA 007702; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA025922-02; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / T32 AA007468-20; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA025922-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH077111-04; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA007702-22; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 025922; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / T32 AA007468; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA025922; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R37 AA007702; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH077111; United St