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1. Brandes AA, Pasetto LM, Monfardini S: The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Aug;26(4):233-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, or yolk sac tumour have the lowest survival rates; patients with germinoma or mature teratoma have longer survival rates.
  • Cisplatin is considered an indispensable drug, but it may cause renal damage, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy and sterility, while etoposide is associated with an excess frequency of second neoplasms.
  • Taking into account all of the published literature, the following therapeutic options are suggested: in pure germinoma tumours (GT) radiotherapy alone will usually ensure adequate control of the disease, and the long-term sequelae may be limited by reducing the dose delivered, as was proposed for germ cell testicular tumours, to 30 Gy to limited fields plus 25-30 Gy to the spinal axis if there is disseminated disease.
  • In our opinion, a higher dose of radiotherapy in cases in which chemotherapy does not achieve a radiological complete remission is not advisable, because very often the residual radiological abnormality does not represent biologically active tumour but differentiated forms such as mature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10913379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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2. Besse B, Grunenwald D, Fléchon A, Caty A, Chevreau C, Culine S, Théodore C, Fizazi K: Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: assessing the need for postchemotherapy contralateral pulmonary resection in patients with ipsilateral complete necrosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 Feb;137(2):448-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Pathologic findings in postchemotherapy residual masses included complete necrosis, teratoma, and viable cancer in 31%, 55%, and 14% of patients, respectively.
  • A single patient had necrosis only in the first lung and some teratoma in the contralateral lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Pneumonectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Necrosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19185168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Dimov ND, Zynger DL, Luan C, Kozlowski JM, Yang XJ: Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):955-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Inhibitors of topoisomerase II alpha (TopoIIalpha), an enzyme with a crucial role in DNA maintenance, are included in the chemotherapy protocols for testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • We analyzed TopoIIalpha expression in primary and metastatic testicular GCTs because this enzyme is a target for some antineoplastic agents.
  • The metastatic lesions from 11 of the patients with mixed GCTs included seven teratomas with mature components, five embryonal carcinomas, one yolk sac tumor, one choriocarcinoma, and one teratoma with immature components.
  • RESULTS: Most embryonal carcinoma (100%), yolk sac tumor (95%), seminoma (88%), and choriocarcinoma (62%) components of the GCTs were TopoIIalpha immunoreactive.
  • None of the teratoma specimens with mature elements expressed TopoIIalpha.
  • These findings imply that the variable chemoresponsiveness of testicular GCTs could have an underlying molecular basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / enzymology. Testicular Neoplasms / enzymology. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / enzymology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / enzymology. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / enzymology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sampling Studies. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / enzymology. Seminoma / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / enzymology. Teratoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17482942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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4. Mandoky L, Geczi L, Bodrogi I, Toth J, Bak M: Expression of HER-2/neu in testicular tumors. Anticancer Res; 2003 Jul-Aug;23(4):3447-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of HER-2/neu in testicular tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Although the overexpression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (EGFR-2, HER-2/neu, c-erbB-2) in malignancies might predict chemoresistance and poor prognosis, its clinical relevance has not been widely studied and determined in testicular tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Since teratomas are relatively chemoresistant tumors, we evaluated the HER-2/neu receptor status of 28 primary testicular tumors (7 pure teratomas, 21 mixed germ cell tumors containing teratomatous components) using a standardized immunohistochemical method (HercepTest Kit).
  • Three of the 5 choriocarcinoma components of mixed tumors overexpressed HER-2/neu.
  • In one case (teratoma + choriocarcinoma) both components showed HER-2/neu overexpression.
  • Further molecular investigations and clinicopathological studies are necessary to determine the correlation between HER-2/neu overexpression and clinical resistance of testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / metabolism. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome


5. Eid H, Mingfang L, Institoris E, Bodrogi I, Bak M: MRP expression of testicular cancers and its clinical relevance. Anticancer Res; 2000 Sep-Oct;20(5C):4019-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MRP expression of testicular cancers and its clinical relevance.
  • However, there is a lack of data regarding its expression in germ cell testicular tumors (GCTTs).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: MRP expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mouse monoclonal antibody (MRPm6) against human MRP in 56 testis cancer specimens.
  • RESULTS: All testis tumors, regardless of their histology, metastatic status and clinical stage gave positive signals.
  • Since germ cell tumors are very sensitive to chemotherapy, the role of MRP as mediator of drug resistance seems unconvincing in this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / analysis. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / surgery. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Testis / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 11268495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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6. Nakano A, Yoshida M, Harada T, Araki A, Pineda L, Iijima M, Sezer C, Zhou L, Maruyama R: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type occupying the whole testis accompanied by a small mature teratoma and metastatic choriocarcinoma and Sertoli cell-only tubules in the other testis. Pathol Int; 2003 Oct;53(10):726-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type occupying the whole testis accompanied by a small mature teratoma and metastatic choriocarcinoma and Sertoli cell-only tubules in the other testis.
  • A 19-year-old man with mild mental retardation was diagnosed as having metastatic choriocarcinoma and a testicular tumor.
  • Histopathological examination of the resected testis revealed the presence of a small lesion of mature teratoma but no trace of choriocarcinoma.
  • The remaining seminiferous tubules were atrophic and lined by large atypical germ cells, which were diagnosed as intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the unclassified type (IGCNU).
  • Immunohistological comparison of staining for several biological markers (Ki-67, c-kit and placental alkaline phosphatase) between cells in the atrophic tubules and those in the dilated tubules indicated a progression of the latter cells to cells with a more proliferative ability.
  • In the opposite testis, examined at autopsy after death due to metastatic choriocarcinoma, all seminiferous tubules were lined by Sertoli cells only.
  • It was therefore assumed that the germ cell tumor of the combined histological type had primarily arisen in the background of IGCNU, and that choriocarcinoma had spontaneously regressed.
  • The early onset of these testicular neoplastic lesions strongly indicates their occurrence under the genetic background of gonadal dysplasia, the Sertoli cell-only syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Seminiferous Tubules / pathology. Sertoli Cells / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Organ Size

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  • (PMID = 14516326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Maroto P, García del Muro X, Aparicio J, Paz-Ares L, Arranz JA, Guma J, Terrassa J, Barnadas J, Dorta J, Germà-Lluch JR: Multicentre risk-adapted management for stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1915-20
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  • Five (1.4%) patients died of their cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16126737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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