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1. Bouffet E, Capra M, Bartels U: Salvage chemotherapy for metastatic and recurrent ependymoma of childhood. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Oct;25(10):1293-301
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  • [Title] Salvage chemotherapy for metastatic and recurrent ependymoma of childhood.
  • At the time of recurrence, the role of chemotherapy is also ill defined and the choice of chemotherapeutic agents is often arbitrary, based on anecdotal data and personal experience.
  • DISCUSSION: The disappointing response rate with single agents (12.9%) and combinations (17.4%) emphasizes the need to re-evaluate the current chemotherapeutic approach of intracranial ependymoma, and biological studies are needed to identify targets that may be considered for clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Humans. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19360417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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2. Cavazos CM, Keir ST, Yoshinari T, Bigner DD, Friedman HS: Therapeutic activity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor J-107088 [6-N-(1-hydroxymethyla-2-hydroxyl) ethylamino-12,13-dihydro-13-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) -5H-indolo[2,3-a]-pyrrolo[3,4-c]-carbazole-5,7(6H)-dione]] against pediatric and adult central nervous system tumor xenografts. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2001 Sep;48(3):250-4
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  • PURPOSE: The in vivo antitumor activity of a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, J-107088, was tested in athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous or intracranial pediatric and adult malignant CNS tumor-derived xenografts.
  • METHODS: J-107088 was administered to animals on days 1-5 and 8-12 via intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 54 mg/kg (162 mg/m2) per day in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide in 0.9% saline.
  • The xenografts evaluated were derived from a childhood glioblastoma multiforme (D-456 MG), a childhood medulloblastoma (D-341 MED), an adult anaplastic astrocytoma (D-54 MG), an adult glioblastoma multiforme (D-245 MG), and a procarbazine-resistant subline of D-245 MG [D-245 MG (PR)].
  • J-107088 also produced an 83% increase in survival in mice bearing intracranial D-456 MG (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These results indicate that J-107088 may be active in the treatment of childhood and adult malignant brain tumors and provide the rationale for initiation of clinical trials with this agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carbazoles / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Glucosides / therapeutic use. Indoles. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Child. Female. Humans. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Heterologous. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11592348.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2RO1-NS30245-12; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS-20023-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11898; etc
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carbazoles; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Glucosides; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 1V8X590XDP / edotecarin
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3. Hurwitz CA, Strauss LC, Kepner J, Kretschmar C, Harris MB, Friedman H, Kun L, Kadota R: Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jun-Jul;23(5):277-81
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study.
  • All patients had previous histologic confirmation of a primary intracranial or spinal cord tumor with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography documentation of unequivocally measurable progressive or recurrent disease.
  • The lack of a significant number of patients with measurable disease regression, however, precludes it from being identified as an active agent when administered as a single agent by 24-hour continuous infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Drug Hypersensitivity / prevention & control. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11464982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15525; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Grill J, Pascal C, Chantal K: Childhood ependymoma: a systematic review of treatment options and strategies. Paediatr Drugs; 2003;5(8):533-43
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  • [Title] Childhood ependymoma: a systematic review of treatment options and strategies.
  • Childhood intracranial ependymoma have a dismal prognosis, especially in young children and when a gross total resection cannot be performed.
  • Cisplatin, at a dose of 120 mg/m(2) (cumulated response rate of 34% [95% CI 19-54%]) is the only single agent that has reproducibly shown some efficacy in ependymoma.
  • Despite some combinations showing efficacy in the adjuvant setting, childhood intracranial ependymomas can, in general, be considered as chemoresistant.
  • As the use of chemotherapy with current agents is questionable, phase II studies with new agents and combinations are necessary.
  • Since the main problem of this disease is local relapse, it may not be necessary to irradiate the whole posterior fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12895136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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5. Badruddoja MA, Keir ST, King I, Zeidner J, Vredenburgh JJ, Muhlbaier LH, Bigner DD, Friedman HS: Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Jul;9(3):240-4
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  • VNP40101M, or 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-choloroethyl)-2-(methylamino)carbonylhydrazine (Cloretazine), is a bifunctional prodrug that belongs to a class of DNA-modifying agents-the sulfonylhydrazines-that has been synthesized and been shown to have activity against a wide spectrum of xenografts.
  • The results demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) growth delays of 15.0, 8.3, 51.0, 60+, 60+, and 60+ days in subcutaneous xenografts derived from childhood glioblastoma multiforme (D-456 MG), childhood ependymoma (D-528 EP and D-612 EP), childhood medulloblastoma (D-425 MED), and adult malignant glioma (D-245 MG and D-54 MG), respectively, with corresponding tumor regressions in 10 of 10, 4 of 10, 8 of 10, 9 of 10, 9 of 10, and 10 of 10 treated mice, respectively.
  • Delayed toxicity was seen more than 60 days after treatment, with 23 deaths in 100 treated animals, despite a median weight loss of only 0.06%.
  • In mice bearing intracranial D-245 MG xenografts, treatment with VNP40101M at a dose of 18 mg/kg daily for five days produced a 50% increase in median survival compared with controls.

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  • (PMID = 17522334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS20023-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Sulfonamides; 14J2G0U3NQ / laromustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1907418
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6. Reiss K: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor - a potential therapeutic target in medulloblastomas. Expert Opin Ther Targets; 2002 Oct;6(5):539-44
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  • Medulloblastomas represent nearly 25% of all paediatric intracranial neoplasms.
  • Taken together, these observations prompt the investigation of different strategies to impair the function of IGF-IR as a potential therapeutic tool, which by compromising growth and survival of medulloblastoma cells could supplement conventional therapeutic regiments against these malignant neoplasms of childhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Animals. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. JC Virus / pathogenicity. Mice. Polyomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Virus Infections / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12387677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7631
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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7. Keir ST, Hausheer F, Lawless AA, Bigner DD, Friedman HS: Therapeutic activity of 7-[(2-trimethylsilyl)ethyl)]-20 (S)-camptothecin against central nervous system tumor-derived xenografts in athymic mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2001 Jul;48(1):83-7
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  • PURPOSE: Camptothecins have emerged as an important new class of antitumor drugs.
  • METHODS: Xenografts evaluated were derived from childhood high-grade gliomas (D-212 MG, D-456 MG), adult high-grade gliomas (D-54 MG, D-245 MG), medulloblastomas (D-341 MED, D-487 MED), and ependymomas (D-528 EP, D-612 EP), as well as sublines with demonstrated resistance to procarbazine (D-245 MG (PR)) and busulfan (D-456 (BR)).
  • In replicate experiments, karenitecin was given at 1.0 mg/kg per dose via intraperitoneal injection for a period of 10 consecutive days, which is the dosage lethal to 10% of treated animals.
  • Karenitecin also produced statistically significant (P < or = 0.001) increases in survival of animals bearing D-341 MED intracranial xenografts (69% increase) and those bearing D-456 MG xenografts (62% increase).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / pharmacology. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 11488529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 24R60NVC41 / cositecan; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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