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1. Gardner SL, Asgharzadeh S, Green A, Horn B, McCowage G, Finlay J: Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by high dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue in young children newly diagnosed with central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):235-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare tumors of childhood with a dismal prognosis.
  • Long term survival can be achieved in a subset of young children with CNS AT/RT following resection with the use of multi-drug chemotherapy including high dose methotrexate and myeloablative chemotherapy without radiation therapy (RT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18381756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Wolff JE, Finlay JL: High-dose chemotherapy in childhood brain tumors. Onkologie; 2004 Jun;27(3):239-45
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy in childhood brain tumors.
  • Since then, other drugs have been applied in conjunction with either autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells, including thiotepa, etoposide, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and busulfan.
  • The data suggest benefit in recurrent primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), in newly diagnosed young children with PNET and possibly in young children with newly diagnosed ependymoma, as a strategy not only to improve tumor-free survival but also to avoid exposure of the young brain to irradiation.
  • In other tumors such as recurrent ependymoma and newly diagnosed or recurrent brain stem glioma, high-dose chemotherapy remains ineffective.
  • New protocols under evaluation include new agents, multiple cycles of high-dose chemotherapy and allogeneic transplantation as immunotherapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / surgery. Practice Patterns, Physicians'


3. Yu CC, Chiou GY, Lee YY, Chang YL, Huang PI, Cheng YW, Tai LK, Ku HH, Chiou SH, Wong TT: Medulloblastoma-derived tumor stem-like cells acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jul;26(7):897-904
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma-derived tumor stem-like cells acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity.
  • OBJECTS: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most malignant primary brain tumor in early childhood that contains cellular and functional heterogeneity.
  • Recent evidence has demonstrated that the tumor stem cells (TSC) may explain the radiochemoresistance of brain tumors, including MB.
  • RESULTS: We enrich a subpopulation of MB-TSC cells using tumor spheroid formation approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / radiation effects. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Separation. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Colorimetry. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20179950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
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4. Fogarty MP, Emmenegger BA, Grasfeder LL, Oliver TG, Wechsler-Reya RJ: Fibroblast growth factor blocks Sonic hedgehog signaling in neuronal precursors and tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Feb 20;104(8):2973-8
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  • [Title] Fibroblast growth factor blocks Sonic hedgehog signaling in neuronal precursors and tumor cells.
  • Here, we examine the relationship between Shh and FGF signaling in granule cell precursors (GCPs), which are the most abundant neural progenitors in the cerebellum and the putative cell of origin for the childhood brain tumor medulloblastoma.
  • Finally, FGF promotes differentiation of GCPs in vitro and in vivo and halts proliferation of tumor cells from patched (ptc) mutant mice, a model for medulloblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 17299056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH067916-01A1; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH067916-04; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067916-05; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH067916-05; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067916-04; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH067916-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067916; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067916-01A1; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067916-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH 067916-03; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH067916-03; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH067916-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; 0 / patched receptors; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1815291
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5. Ishaqi MK, Jamil A, Khanani M, Baroudi M, Trad O, El-Hayek M, Bouffet E: Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome in a child after chemotherapy for medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2010 Mar;97(1):137-41
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  • Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (HSOS), the new name given to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver, is a well-known complication of high-dose chemotherapy employed with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but it has rarely been observed in children who receive conventional chemotherapy.
  • HSOS following standard chemotherapy has been reported in patients receiving vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide for the treatment of Wilms tumor and more rarely rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the second report of HSOS after standard dose chemotherapy for brain tumor in childhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease / chemically induced. Vincristine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19701718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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6. Ootsuka S, Asami S, Sasaki T, Yoshida Y, Nemoto N, Shichino H, Chin M, Mugishima H, Suzuki T: Analyses of novel prognostic factors in neuroblastoma patients. Biol Pharm Bull; 2007 Dec;30(12):2294-9
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  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common malignant solid tumor in childhood.
  • Moreover, we investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), p53, stem cell factor (SCF) and c-kit of its receptor with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 22 NBs and 4 other tumors (one malignant lymphoma, one malignant teratoma, and 2 rhabdomyosarcomas) samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Receptor, trkA / biosynthesis. Receptor, trkA / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stem Cell Factor / biosynthesis. Stem Cell Factor / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / biosynthesis. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18057715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA
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7. Endo H, Kumabe T, Kon H, Yoshimoto T, Nakasato Y: [A case of primary cerebellar glioblastoma in childhood]. No Shinkei Geka; 2002 Dec;30(12):1325-9
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  • [Title] [A case of primary cerebellar glioblastoma in childhood].
  • Primary cerebellar glioblastomas are exceedingly rare in childhood, with only 19 cases having been reported.
  • The tumor had compressed the fourth ventricle and caused obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Gross total resection of the left cerebellar tumor was performed.
  • Histological examination revealed nuclear atypia, mitoses, and necrosis, which satisfied the World Health Organizations histological criteria for grade IV astrocytoma.
  • She was treated with adjuvant therapies consisting of 60.2 Gy local irradiation to the posterior fossa, including the brain stem lesion, and chemotherapy using 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU).
  • The patient was treated with three-drug chemotherapy using ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide and 39.2 Gy of whole-brain irradiation.
  • However, her condition deteriorated gradually and she died 10 months after admission (6 months after the onset of tumor recurrence).

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  • (PMID = 12491584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Rood BR, Macdonald TJ, Packer RJ: Current treatment of medulloblastoma: recent advances and future challenges. Semin Oncol; 2004 Oct;31(5):666-75
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  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, yet it makes up only 1% of adult brain tumors.
  • Therapy for high-risk and relapsed MB has been positively affected by the advent of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue.
  • In addition, molecular targets are being elucidated and new therapeutic agents are being tested for safety and efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 15497120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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9. Rodini CO, Suzuki DE, Nakahata AM, Pereira MC, Janjoppi L, Toledo SR, Okamoto OK: Aberrant signaling pathways in medulloblastomas: a stem cell connection. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2010 Dec;68(6):947-52
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  • [Title] Aberrant signaling pathways in medulloblastomas: a stem cell connection.
  • Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system.
  • It represents the most frequent type of solid tumor and the leading cause of death related to cancer in early childhood.
  • Current treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may lead to severe cognitive impairment and secondary brain tumors.
  • New perspectives for therapeutic development have emerged with the identification of stem-like cells displaying high tumorigenic potential and increased radio- and chemo-resistance in gliomas.
  • Under the cancer stem cell hypothesis, transformation of neural stem cells and/or granular neuron progenitors of the cerebellum are though to be involved in medulloblastoma development.
  • From the clinical viewpoint, modulation of signaling pathways such as TGFβ, regulating neural stem cell proliferation and tumor development, might be attempted as an alternative strategy for future drug development aiming at more efficient therapies and improved clinical outcome of patients with pediatric brain cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neural Stem Cells / pathology. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta

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  • (PMID = 21243257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4227
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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10. Hargrave DR, Hargrave UA, Bouffet E: Quality of health information on the Internet in pediatric neuro-oncology. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Apr;8(2):175-82
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  • [Title] Quality of health information on the Internet in pediatric neuro-oncology.
  • The Internet is now the single largest source of health information and is used by many patients and their families who are affected by childhood brain tumors.
  • To assess the quality of pediatric neuro-oncology information on the Internet, we used search engines to look for information on five common tumor types (brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, low-grade glioma, and medulloblastoma).
  • Of 114 evaluated Web sites, the sources were as follows: institutional, 46%; commercial, 35%; charitable, 15%; support group, 2%; and alternative medicine, 2%.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Internet / standards. Medical Informatics / standards. Medical Oncology. Neurology


11. Spreafico F, Gandola L, Marchianò A, Simonetti F, Poggi G, Adduci A, Clerici CA, Luksch R, Biassoni V, Meazza C, Catania S, Terenziani M, Musumeci R, Fossati-Bellani F, Massimino M: Brain magnetic resonance imaging after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood brain tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 15;70(4):1011-9
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  • [Title] Brain magnetic resonance imaging after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood brain tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT.
  • RESULTS: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset.
  • Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-à-vis recurrent tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Brain. Brain Neoplasms. Glioma. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive. Thiotepa / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cognition / drug effects. Cognition / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Intelligence / drug effects. Intelligence / radiation effects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17904307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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12. Zimmerman MA, Goumnerova LC, Proctor M, Scott RM, Marcus K, Pomeroy SL, Turner CD, Chi SN, Chordas C, Kieran MW: Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):77-84
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  • [Title] Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly malignant lesions of childhood that carry a very poor prognosis.
  • In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of maximal surgical resection (including second look surgery), radiation therapy (focal and craniospinal), and multi-agent intravenous, oral and intrathecal chemotherapy, with or without high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue, only seven long-term survivors of CNS AT/RT have been reported, all in patients with newly diagnosed disease.
  • We now report on four children, two with newly diagnosed CNS AT/RT and two with progressive disease after multi-agent chemotherapy who are long term survivors (median follow-up of 37 months) using a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and intensive chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy component was modified from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS III) parameningeal protocol as three of the seven reported survivors in the literature were treated using this type of therapy.
  • More importantly, we report on the first two survivors after relapse with multi-agent intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy treated with this modified regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15803379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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13. Hayward RM, Patronas N, Baker EH, Vézina G, Albert PS, Warren KE: Inter-observer variability in the measurement of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Oct;90(1):57-61
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  • Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an invasive pediatric brainstem tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • Patients commonly enter investigational trials, many of which use radiographic response as an endpoint for assessing drug efficacy.
  • Results confirmed that there is wide variability in DIPG tumor measurements between readers for all image types.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / epidemiology. Glioma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18587536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010580-04; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010589-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS65973; NLM/ PMC2600617
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14. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Betanzos-Cabrera Y, Rocha-Moreno YG, Gascón-Lastiri G, Rivera-Márquez H, Wanzke-del-Angel V, Cerecedo-Díaz F, de la Cruz-Yañez H: Phase II study of metronomic chemotherapy with thalidomide, carboplatin-vincristine-fluvastatin in the treatment of brain stem tumors in children. Arch Med Res; 2008 Oct;39(7):655-62
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  • [Title] Phase II study of metronomic chemotherapy with thalidomide, carboplatin-vincristine-fluvastatin in the treatment of brain stem tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Brain stem tumors (BST) constitute 20% of all intracranial tumors.
  • Our objective was to determine tumor response to metronomic chemotherapy combined with an antiangiogenic drug and fluvastatin and to calculate the survival of pediatric patients with brain stem tumors.
  • There was a significant reduction in tumor volume and a significant increase in survival at 24 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metronomic treatment with carboplatin and vincristine associated with fluvastatin and thalidomide significantly increased survival of pediatric brain stem tumor patients.
  • Tumor volume showed a significant reduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / administration & dosage. Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Indoles / administration & dosage. Indoles / therapeutic use. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Quality of Life. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18760193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0188-4409
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; 0 / Indoles; 4L066368AS / fluvastatin; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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15. Liu Y, Li C, Lin J: STAT3 as a Therapeutic Target for Glioblastoma. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2010 Sep;10(7):512-9
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  • Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor.
  • Here we focused on the recent progresses regarding to the roles of STAT3 in glioblastoma and glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs), the dysregulation of STAT3 in glioblastoma, and targeting STAT3 for glioblastoma therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Molecular Targeted Therapy. STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Repair. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology. Signal Transduction


16. MacDonald TJ, Arenson EB, Ater J, Sposto R, Bevan HE, Bruner J, Deutsch M, Kurczynski E, Luerssen T, McGuire-Cullen P, O'Brien R, Shah N, Steinbok P, Strain J, Thomson J, Holmes E, Vezina G, Yates A, Phillips P, Packer R: Phase II study of high-dose chemotherapy before radiation in children with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytoma: final analysis of Children's Cancer Group Study 9933. Cancer; 2005 Dec 15;104(12):2862-71
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  • BACKGROUND: High-grade astrocytomas (HGA) carry a dismal prognosis and compose nearly 20% of all childhood brain tumors.
  • Patients were randomly assigned to one of three couplets of drugs: carboplatin/etoposide (Regimen A), ifosfamide/etoposide (Regimen B), or cyclophosphamide/etoposide (Regimen C).
  • The authors conclude that these commonly used HDCT regimens provide no additional clinical benefit to conventional treatment in HGA, regardless of the amount of measurable residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16315242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hurwitz CA, Strauss LC, Kepner J, Kretschmar C, Harris MB, Friedman H, Kun L, Kadota R: Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jun-Jul;23(5):277-81
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and define the toxicity of paclitaxel given at a dosage of 350 mg/m2 every 3 weeks as a 24-hour continuous infusion to children with recurrent or progressive primary brain tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three eligible patients, ages 4 months to 19 years, with progressive or recurrent primary brain tumors were treated according to a Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) phase II protocol with paclitaxel (POG 9330).
  • Tumor histologic strata included: astrocytoma (n = 4), malignant glioma (n = 13), medulloblastoma (n = 16), brain stem glioma (n = 15), ependymoma (n = 13), and miscellaneous histologies (n = 12).
  • All patients had previous histologic confirmation of a primary intracranial or spinal cord tumor with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography documentation of unequivocally measurable progressive or recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel is well tolerated in children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors at this dosage and schedule and may result in short-term disease stabilization in this patient population.
  • The lack of a significant number of patients with measurable disease regression, however, precludes it from being identified as an active agent when administered as a single agent by 24-hour continuous infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Drug Hypersensitivity / prevention & control. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11464982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15525; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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18. Kalifa C, Grill J: The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status? J Neurooncol; 2005 Dec;75(3):279-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status?
  • Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood [1].
  • Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients.
  • In addition, sequelae from tumor and its treatment are more severe at this age [2].
  • Thus, malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neuro-oncology.
  • Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group.
  • Since the end of the 80s, noninvasive imaging procedures produce accurate diagnosis of brain tumors and improvement in neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia and perioperative intensive care permit safe tumor resections or at least biopsies.
  • Consequently, the pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment.
  • Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors.
  • Different approaches have been explored: * Prolonged postoperative chemotherapy and delayed irradiation as designed in the POG (Pediatric Oncology Group).
  • * Postoperative chemotherapy without irradiation in the SFOP (Société Française d'Oncologie Pédiatrique) and in the GPO (German Pediatric Oncology) studies.
  • * The role of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cells transplantation was explored in different ways: High-dose chemotherapy given in all patients as proposed in the Head Start protocol.
  • In the earliest trials, the same therapy was applied to all histological types of malignant brain tumors and whatever the initial extension of the disease.
  • This attitude was justified by the complexity of the classification of all brain tumors that has evolved over the past few decades leading to discrepancy between the diagnosis of different pathologists for a same tumor specimen.
  • Furthermore, it has become increasingly obvious that the biology of brain tumors in very young children is different from that seen in older children.
  • However, in the analysis of these trials an effort was made to give the results for each histological groups, according to the WHO classification and after a central review of the tumor specimens.
  • All these collected data have brought to an increased knowledge of infantile malignant brain tumors in terms of diagnosis, prognostic factors and response to chemotherapy.
  • Prospective study of sequelae can bring information on the impact of the different factors as hydrocephalus, location of the tumor, surgical complications, chemotherapy toxicity and irradiation modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Newborn, Diseases. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Prognosis. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16195802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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