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1. Williams DM, Hobson R, Imeson J, Gerrard M, McCarthy K, Pinkerton CR, United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood: analysis of 72 patients treated on The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group chemotherapy regimens. Br J Haematol; 2002 Jun;117(4):812-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood: analysis of 72 patients treated on The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group chemotherapy regimens.
  • From June 1990 to June 1998, 72 patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) were treated with short intensive multi-agent regimens [non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) 9000 and 9602].
  • For stage II, III and non-central nervous system (CNS) stage IV, two COPADM (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, prednisolone, methotrexate, vincristine), two CYM (cytarabine methotrexate) and a COPADM was given.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12060115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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2. Mora J, Filippa DA, Thaler HT, Polyak T, Cranor ML, Wollner N: Large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of childhood: Analysis of 78 consecutive patients enrolled in 2 consecutive protocols at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Cancer; 2000 Jan 1;88(1):186-97
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  • [Title] Large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of childhood: Analysis of 78 consecutive patients enrolled in 2 consecutive protocols at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors report a study of pediatric patients with advanced diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) who were treated with 2 consecutive regimens, LSA2-L2 and LSA4, over a 25-year-period at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
  • They also describe a comparative analysis of two subgroups retrospectively identified as having CD30 positive (+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and CD30 negative (-) DLCL.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this study represents the longest follow-up on the largest series of uniformly treated pediatric DLCL patients reported to date.
  • METHODS: A total of 78 consecutive patients were treated for Stage III/IV DLCL.
  • Immunophenotypic data were obtained retrospectively for 52 patients using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against CD30, CD15, CD45, CD45Ro, CD43, epithelial membrane antigen, CD5, BCL-2, cyclin-D, and p53.
  • The recurrence rate was significantly higher in the CD30+ ALCL subgroup (33%) than in the CD30- DLCL group (0.04%).
  • Of 52 patients for whom immunophenotypic data were available, 28 had disease of B-cell lineage, 24 had disease of T-cell/null phenotype, 19 were CD30+ (36.
  • 5%), 18 had disease of T-cell phenotype, and 1 had disease of B-cell lineage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The CD30- DLCL cases mostly were of B-cell lineage, had a small risk of treatment failure, and did not develop a recurrence off therapy.
  • A distinct clinical pattern was identified for the CD30+ ALCL group; although these tumors were of T-cell lineage and had a significantly higher rate of late recurrences (median follow-up of 24 months) they all were salvageable.
  • Based on the findings of the current study, the authors propose that T-cell CD30+ ALCL be addressed in the future according to equal dose intensity regimens in induction therapy, as is done for B-cell lymphomas; prolonged periods of maintenance chemotherapy, as is done for T-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas; and no central nervous system prophylaxis beyond the induction period unless other recognized risk factors are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


3. Küpeli S, Varan A, Demir H, Aydin B, Yüce A, Büyükpamukçu M: Association of Helicobacter pylori and childhood lymphoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 May;29(5):301-4
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  • [Title] Association of Helicobacter pylori and childhood lymphoma.
  • We aimed to estimate the frequency of association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with abdominal, gastric, or intestinal involvement and Helicobacter pylori in childhood.
  • Between February 2003 and June 2006, we evaluated 15 children with newly diagnosed NHL who were diagnosed and treated at the Pediatric Oncology Department of Hacettepe University.
  • Six had stage IV characteristics, whereas another 9 patients had stage III disease.
  • Ten had high-grade B-cell lymphoma.
  • First patient had T-cell lymphoma and stage IV disease with involvement in stomach, mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow.
  • The second one had anaplastic large cell lymphoma exclusively in abdominal lymph nodes.
  • Last patient had Burkitt lymphoma and stage IV disease, with primary tumor localization in abdominal lymph nodes, liver, and kidneys.
  • Preliminary results of our study suggest that H. pylori may not be the responsible agent for NHL involved the abdomen in childhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Helicobacter Infections / epidemiology. Helicobacter pylori / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, B-Cell / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome. Turkey / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17483706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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4. Cesaro S, Pillon M, Visintin G, Putti MC, Gazzola MV, D'Amore E, Scarzello G, Zanesco L, Messina C, Rosolen A: Unrelated bone marrow transplantation for high-risk anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric patients: a single center case series. Eur J Haematol; 2005 Jul;75(1):22-6
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  • [Title] Unrelated bone marrow transplantation for high-risk anaplastic large cell lymphoma in pediatric patients: a single center case series.
  • OBJECTIVES: The use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in NHL patients is not yet clearly defined, especially in children and adolescents, but this option offers the advantages of a tumor-free graft and the possible induction of a graft-vs.-tumor effect.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the results of four consecutive pediatric patients affected by anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increasing number of volunteer bone marrow donors and the reduced toxicity of unrelated stem cell transplantation, especially in children, make this therapeutic option worth more extensive investigation in the treatment of high-risk failure ALCL, although more data is needed to evaluate the long-term benefits.
  • In this regard, the presence of factors predictive of worst outcome such as an early relapse (within 12 months from diagnosis), a refractory or relapsing ALCL and the persistent detection on blood or bone marrow of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein (NPM-ALK) transcript may help select the patients eligible to allogeneic related or unrelated stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antilymphocyte Serum / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Graft vs Leukemia Effect / drug effects. Graft vs Leukemia Effect / radiation effects. Histocompatibility Testing. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Secondary Prevention. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous. Whole-Body Irradiation


5. Attarbaschi A, Mann G, Dworzak M, Trebo M, Urban C, Fink FM, Horcher E, Reiter A, Riehm H, Gadner H, Austrian Cooperative Study Group: Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of childhood and adolescence in Austria--therapy results between 1986 and 2000. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2002 Dec 30;114(23-24):978-86
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  • [Title] Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of childhood and adolescence in Austria--therapy results between 1986 and 2000.
  • Between 1986 and 2000 183 Austrian children and adolescents with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and mature B-cell acute leukemia (B-ALL) were enrolled in 3 consecutive studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) Group.
  • In the succeeding studies NHL-BFM 90 and 95, treatment stratification was additionally based on the speed of tumor response to therapy and for children with B-cell NHL/B-ALL also on the pre-therapeutic serum lactic dehydrogenase level.
  • Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma (mainly with T-cell phenotypes) had an excellent prognosis with an ALL-type chemotherapy regimen (n = 49; relapse, n = 1), whereas an intensive, short-pulse therapy delivered within a 2- to 4-month period was found to be highly efficacious in children with B-cell NHL/B-ALL (n = 114; relapse, n = 6; progression, n = 5).
  • Patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) who were treated with similar alternating short courses of multi-agent chemotherapy had a less good outcome (n = 20; relapse, n = 6, progression, n = 3).
  • Children with B-cell NHL and B-ALL who failed initial therapy also had a dismal prognosis (10/11 patients died).
  • Local radiotherapy as a part of lymphoma therapy was completely abandoned in study NHL-BFM 90 and surgical interventions were confined to specific situations such as complete resection in localized B-cell NHL and ALCL, diagnostic biopsy and second-look operation.
  • In conclusion, our results showed that the BFM treatment strategy for lymphoblastic lymphoma and B-cell NHL/B-ALL was highly successful in the majority of patients; however, optimal treatment for children with ALCL has not yet been defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12635465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Kelleher FC, McDermott R: The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Sep;46(13):2357-68
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  • [Title] The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.
  • The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue.
  • This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered.
  • In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system.
  • This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4).
  • Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Drug Synergism. Gene Amplification. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / genetics. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / therapy. Mutation / genetics. Neuroblastoma / genetics. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20451371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / GSK 1838705A; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Pyrroles; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
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7. Vermeer MH, Bekkenk MW, Willemze R: Should primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood be treated with multiple-agent chemotherapy? J Am Acad Dermatol; 2001 Oct;45(4):638-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Should primary cutaneous Ki-1(CD30)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in childhood be treated with multiple-agent chemotherapy?
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Child. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission, Spontaneous. Skin Ulcer / etiology. Skin Ulcer / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 May;40(5 Pt 2):857-61 [10321635.001]
  • (PMID = 11568767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30
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8. Le Deley MC, Rosolen A, Williams DM, Horibe K, Wrobel G, Attarbaschi A, Zsiros J, Uyttebroeck A, Marky IM, Lamant L, Woessmann W, Pillon M, Hobson R, Mauguen A, Reiter A, Brugières L: Vinblastine in children and adolescents with high-risk anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: results of the randomized ALCL99-vinblastine trial. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Sep 1;28(25):3987-93
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  • [Title] Vinblastine in children and adolescents with high-risk anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: results of the randomized ALCL99-vinblastine trial.
  • PURPOSE: The impact of adding vinblastine to a 4-month chemotherapy regimen, based on the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster 90 protocol, in childhood high-risk anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) was assessed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2011 Feb 1;29(4):e90-1; author reply e92-3 [21172896.001]
  • (PMID = 20679620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine
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9. Muto A, Nakagawa A, Shimomura Y, Kitagawa Y, Tsurusawa M: Antineoplastic agents for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Vinblastine is the most effective in vitro. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Oct;46(10):1489-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antineoplastic agents for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Vinblastine is the most effective in vitro.
  • Anti-neoplastic effects of a total of 11 agents (adriamycin, briplatin, cytarabine, dexamethasone, etoposide, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, 4-hydroperoxyifosphamide, methotrexate, predonisolone, vinblastine, vincristine) were tested on 4 cell lines (DEL, Ki-JK, SR-786, SU-DHL-1) established from pediatric ALCL cases.
  • The individual cell lines were treated with those agents at different concentrations (0.01 microM/L, 0.1 microM/L, 1 microM/L, 10 microM/L, 100 microM/L) for 1 h or 24 h, and their cellular growths were measured by the microculture tetrozolium (MTT) assay.
  • Of those anti-neoplastic agents, methotrexate, vinblastine, and vincristine were highly effective on the cell growth inhibition in all these cell lines with time- and dose-dependent manner.
  • Among them, vinblastine was found to be the most effective in 3 cell lines (DEL, Ki-JK, SR786) with 50% effective doses (ED50, concentrations causing 50% cell survival after treatment) ranging from 0.0016 to 1.27 microM/L for the 1-h treatment and 0.0002 - 0.59 microM/L for the 24-h treatment.
  • Further experiments demonstrated that vinblastine treatment induced cellular apoptosis and caused severe disruption in mitotic spindle formation on these cell lines.
  • The results support the protocol of ALCL 99 study, which uses vinblastine as one of the first-line anti-neoplastic agents for the high-risk ALCL patients in the pediatric age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology. Vinblastine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Humans. Tubulin / metabolism


10. Cairo MS, Raetz E, Lim MS, Davenport V, Perkins SL: Childhood and adolescent non-Hodgkin lymphoma: new insights in biology and critical challenges for the future. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Nov;45(6):753-69
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  • [Title] Childhood and adolescent non-Hodgkin lymphoma: new insights in biology and critical challenges for the future.
  • Pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a common and fascinating group of diseases with distinctive underlying genetic events that characterize the major histologic subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • The similarities and differences between adult and childhood presentations of disease, and whether or not some subtypes of NHL and leukemia are the same or different disease entities, are interesting questions that will be addressed with advances in our understanding of the molecular and genetic bases of these diseases.
  • As is the case with other pediatric malignancies, growing emphasis is now being placed on the development of less toxic, targeted therapeutic approaches, and this review highlights some of the biological discoveries that will potentially open these avenues.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Drug Delivery Systems. Forecasting. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / drug effects


11. Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Schrappe M, Yakisan E, Simonitsch I, Janka-Schaub G, Dörffel W, Zimmermann M, Mann G, Gadner H, Parwaresch R, Riehm H, Reiter A: Short-pulse B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma-type chemotherapy is efficacious treatment for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group Trial NHL-BFM 90. Blood; 2001 Jun 15;97(12):3699-706
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short-pulse B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma-type chemotherapy is efficacious treatment for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group Trial NHL-BFM 90.
  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) accounts for approximately 10% of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • Previous experience from NHL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) trials indicated that the short-pulse B-NHL-type treatment strategy may also be efficacious for ALCL.
  • The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of this protocol for treatment of childhood ALCL in a large prospective multicenter trial and to define risk factors.
  • Immunophenotype was T-cell in 40 patients, B-cell in 5, null in 31, and not determined in 13.
  • Stages were as follows: I, n = 8; II, n = 20; III, n = 55; IV, n = 6.
  • After a cytoreductive prephase, treatment was stratified into 3 branches: patients in K1 (stage I and II resected) received three 5-day courses (methotrexate [MTX] 0.5 g/m(2), dexamethasone, oxazaphorins, etoposide, cytarabine, doxorubicin, and intrathecal therapy); patients in K2 (stage II nonresected and stage III) received 6 courses; patients in K3 (stage IV or multifocal bone disease) received 6 intensified courses including MTX 5 g/m(2), high-dose cytarabine/etoposide.
  • It was concluded that short-pulse chemotherapy, stratified according to stage, is effective treatment for pediatric ALCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Male. Prospective Studies. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure






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