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1. Arevalo I, Ward B, Miller R, Meng TC, Najar E, Alvarez E, Matlashewski G, Llanos-Cuentas A: Successful treatment of drug-resistant cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans by use of imiquimod, an immunomodulator. Clin Infect Dis; 2001 Dec 1;33(11):1847-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of drug-resistant cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans by use of imiquimod, an immunomodulator.
  • Imiquimod (Aldara; 3M Pharmaceuticals) is a novel immune response-activating compound, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, that is currently used to treat cervical warts and has been shown to activate macrophage killing of Leishmania species.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance. Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Meglumine / therapeutic use. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11692295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 6HG8UB2MUY / Meglumine; 75G4TW236W / meglumine antimoniate; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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2. Green KL, Gaston K: Development of a topical protein therapeutic for human papillomavirus and associated cancers. BioDrugs; 2006;20(4):209-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of several disease states, including genital warts and cervical cancer.
  • There are around 500 million cases of genital warts per annum worldwide and around 450,000 cases of cervical cancer.
  • Although HPV vaccines should eventually reduce the incidence of these diseases, new and effective treatments are still urgently required.
  • The E2 (early) proteins from some HPV types induce growth arrest and apoptosis, and these proteins could be used as therapeutics for HPV-induced disease.
  • Another possible solution is to use purified E2 proteins or E2 fusion proteins.
  • The herpes simplex virus VP22 protein is one of a small number of proteins that have been shown to cross the cell membrane with high efficiency.
  • VP22-E2 fusion proteins produced in bacterial cells are able to enter mammalian cells and induce apoptosis.
  • This suggests that VP22-E2 fusion proteins could be topically applied as a treatment for HPV-induced diseases, most probably post-surgery.
  • In this review, we discuss this and other approaches to the topical delivery of selective therapeutic agents against HPV-associated conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / therapeutic use. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / therapeutic use. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Tumor Virus Infections / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Cell Transformation, Viral. Drug Design. Female. Genital Diseases, Female / drug therapy. Genital Diseases, Female / virology. Humans. Models, Biological. Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16831020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-8804
  • [Journal-full-title] BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BioDrugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E2, Human papillomavirus type 1
  • [Number-of-references] 142
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3. Albarran Y Carvajal A, de la Garza A, Cruz Quiroz BJ, Vazquez Zea E, Díaz Estrada I, Mendez Fuentez E, López Contreras M, Andrade-Manzano A, Padilla S, Varela AR, Rosales R: MVA E2 recombinant vaccine in the treatment of human papillomavirus infection in men presenting intraurethral flat condyloma: a phase I/II study. BioDrugs; 2007;21(1):47-59
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  • [Title] MVA E2 recombinant vaccine in the treatment of human papillomavirus infection in men presenting intraurethral flat condyloma: a phase I/II study.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent for warts and cervical cancer.
  • In Mexico, the death rate from cervical cancer is extremely high, and statistical data show that since 1990 the number of deaths is increasing.
  • Approaches to this include preventative vaccines such as Gardasil, and therapeutic vaccines to treat established infections in both men and women.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate the potential use of the recombinant vaccinia viral vaccine MVA E2 (composed of modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA] expressing the E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus) to treat flat condyloma lesions associated with oncogenic HPV in men.
  • Fifty male patients with flat condyloma lesions were treated with either MVA E2 therapeutic vaccine or fluorouracil (5-fluorouracil).
  • Thirty men received the therapeutic vaccine, at a total of 10(6) virus particles per dose, administered directly into the urethra once every week over a 4-week period.
  • These patients showed complete elimination of flat condyloma in the urethra and no acetowhite spots were detected over the prepuce.
  • In two other patients the acetowhite spots and flat condyloma did not diminish.
  • All patients developed antibodies against the MVA E2 vaccine and E2 protein, and generated a specific cytotoxic response against papilloma-transformed cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic vaccination with MVA E2 proved to be very effective in stimulating the immune system against papillomavirus, and in generating regression of flat condyloma lesions in men.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use. Vaccinia virus / genetics. Viral Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17263589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-8804
  • [Journal-full-title] BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BioDrugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2 protein, Bovine papillomavirus; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic; 0 / Viral Proteins
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4. Bushby SA, Chauhan M: Management of internal genital warts: do we all agree? A postal survey. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Jun;19(6):367-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of internal genital warts: do we all agree? A postal survey.
  • A postal survey was undertaken to determine whether there was any consensus of opinion regarding the management of internal genital warts in genitourinary medicine clinics in the UK.
  • The majority of clinics would refer patients with cervical warts for colposcopy especially if the patient was over the age of 25 or HIV-positive.
  • Proctoscopy or anoscopy was performed in 60% of clinics for patients with perianal warts to determine the presence of warts within the anal canal or rectum.
  • Only 24% of patients with intra-anal warts are referred directly to surgery for biopsy, increasing to 61% if the patient has HIV infection.
  • Cryotherapy is the main treatment for all types of internal warts.
  • Our findings suggest there is no consensus and we recommend that all HIV-positive patients with anal or cervical condyloma should be investigated for evidence of intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Health Surveys. Tumor Virus Infections / diagnosis


5. Doorbar J, Griffin H: Intrabody strategies for the treatment of human papillomavirus-associated disease. Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2007 May;7(5):677-89
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with a variety of epithelial lesions, including benign genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Both cause significant morbidity in the general population, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia progressing to cervical cancer in a subset of women who cannot resolve their infection.
  • At present, there are no antiviral agents for the treatment of genital HPV infections, with many lesions requiring surgical intervention.
  • Although other approaches are available for the treatment of genital warts, HPV infection cannot usually be cured and lesion recurrence is often a problem.
  • A growing understanding of the molecular biology of HPV infection has identified several viral protein functions that may serve as drug targets.
  • Among these are the HPV E1 and E2 proteins, which are necessary for viral genome replication and partitioning, and the E6 and E7 proteins, which are necessary for cell proliferation and apoptotic inhibition.
  • With the exception of E1, these proteins lack enzymatic activity and achieve their effects by interacting with cellular proteins.
  • Protein-protein interactions are in general quite difficult to inhibit using conventional small molecule drugs, but are amenable to inhibition using intracellular antibodies or intrabodies, which bind the viral proteins and sterically inhibit their association with cellular partners.
  • The lack of homology between viral and cellular proteins, and the fact that HPV infections can be treated topically, makes them particularly well suited to the intrabody approach.
  • The clinical utility of the approach is considered alongside the general difficulties of using protein molecules as intracellular therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Viral / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Design. Female. Humans. Papillomavirus E7 Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17477805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7682
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Biol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U117584278
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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6. Varela JA, Otero L, Junquera ML, Melón S, del Valle A, Vázquez F: [Research on sexually transmitted infections in asymptomatic heterosexual males whose partners have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Jun;97(5):319-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Research on sexually transmitted infections in asymptomatic heterosexual males whose partners have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Investigación de infecciones de transmisión sexual en varones heterosexuales asintomáticos pareja de mujeres con neoplasia cervical intraepitelial.
  • INTRODUCTION: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiological agents of genital warts and of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and they are sexually transmitted.
  • The same diagnostic protocol was used in all cases: clinical exam, genitoscopy and the taking of samples for bacterial, fungus and Trichomonas cultures, as well as samples for the genomic detection of Chlamydia, and syphilis, HIV and viral hepatitis serology.
  • By order of greatest prevalence, these were: urethritis from Ureaplasma urealyticum (35/181; 19.3 %), genital warts (31/181; 17.1 %), Haemophilus spp. (12 de 181; 6.6 %) and mycotic balanoposthitis (10/181; 5.5 %).
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms


7. Stewart D, Kazemi S, Li S, Massimi P, Banks L, Koromilas AE, Matlashewski G: Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of the E6 proteins of human papillomavirus types 11 and 18. J Gen Virol; 2004 Jun;85(Pt 6):1419-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of the E6 proteins of human papillomavirus types 11 and 18.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are aetiological agents for genital warts and cervical cancer, the different pathologies of which are dependent on the type of HPV infection.
  • Oncogenic HPV types associated with cancer are carcinogens by virtue of their oncogene products, which target key regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis.
  • The viral E6 protein from oncogenic HPV types plays a central role in carcinogenesis by exploiting the cellular proteasome degradation pathway in order to mediate the degradation of cellular proteins, most notably the prototype tumour suppressor protein p53.
  • Much less is known about the cellular targets of E6 from the non-oncogenic HPV types associated with genital warts.
  • It is also unclear what factors influence the level and stability of the viral E6 proteins in cells.
  • This report demonstrates that both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV E6 proteins (from types 18 and 11, respectively) are ubiquitinated and targeted for degradation by the 26S proteasome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysteine Endopeptidases / physiology. DNA-Binding Proteins. Multienzyme Complexes / physiology. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / metabolism. Ubiquitin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Green Fluorescent Proteins. Humans. Luminescent Proteins / metabolism. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex

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  • (PMID = 15166424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1317
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 11; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Ubiquitin; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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8. Tedeschi SK, Savani BN, Jagasia M, Engelhardt B, Anasetti C, Barrett AJ, Lee S: Time to consider HPV vaccination after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2010 Aug;16(8):1033-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In June 2006, a quadrivalent HPV vaccine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for females aged 9 to 26 years to prevent cervical warts and vulvar, vaginal, and cervical cancer.
  • FDA approval was granted in October 2009 for males aged 9 to 26 years to prevent genital warts.
  • The quadrivalent HPV vaccine is now available for off-label use, and may be beneficial to patients after allo-SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 20302962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6536
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HL006105-01; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HL006105-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS502459; NLM/ PMC3750708
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9. Dunne EF, Markowitz LE: Genital human papillomavirus infection. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Sep 1;43(5):624-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HPV infection is the cause of anogenital warts and cervical cancer, as well as a proportion of other anogenital and head and neck cancers.
  • Data from clinical trials have resulted in recommendations that support the use of an HPV test in the context of cervical cancer screening and management.
  • Prophylactic HPV vaccine trials have demonstrated high efficacy, and an HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer precursors, cervical cancer, and anogenital warts caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 was licensed for use in girls and women aged 9-26 years by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2006.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / prevention & control. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology. Viral Vaccines / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16886157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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10. Buates S, Matlashewski G: Identification of genes induced by a macrophage activator, S-28463, using gene expression array analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2001 Apr;45(4):1137-42
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  • Imiquimod-containing cream is an effective clinical treatment against cervical warts caused by human papillomavirus infection.
  • The major target cells of S-28463 and imiquimod are macrophages.
  • This experimental approach defines the mechanism of action of this clinically relevant compound in the induction of microbicidal activity in macrophages and also potentially identifies novel genes associated with microbicidal activity in this cell type.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / pharmacology. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Gene Expression Profiling. Macrophage Activation / drug effects. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Female. Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-1 / genetics. Macrophages / drug effects. Macrophages / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Models, Biological. Nitric Oxide Synthase / biosynthesis. Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 11257027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S 28463; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nos2 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC90436
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11. Baulon E, Vautravers A, Rodriguez B, Nisand I, Baldauf JJ: [Imiquimod and immune response modifiers in gynaecology]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Feb;35(2):149-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The first drug in this therapeutic class, Immiquimod (Aldara), has been shown to be effective in treating lesions induced by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) such as genital warts or cervical and vulvar dysplasia, by stimulating the immune system of an infected individual.
  • Thanks to its ease of use and its few side effects, Imiquimod would appear to be, in the future, the treatment of choice for these types of viral infections, alone or in association with therapeutic vaccines or physical abative therapies as a prevention of relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17300975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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12. Urman CO, Gottlieb AB: New viral vaccines for dermatologic disease. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Mar;58(3):361-70
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  • [Title] New viral vaccines for dermatologic disease.
  • Two new viral vaccines have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is intended to reduce infection with the most common HPV types that cause anogenital disease, including cervical cancer and genital warts.
  • Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is intended to prevent shingles and its complications.
  • The use of these two vaccines will immediately begin to impact dermatologic practice throughout the world and will reduce the healthcare burden associated with the diseases caused by the two viruses.
  • The following review summarizes the relevant pathophysiology and epidemiology of genital warts, cervical neoplasia, and herpes zoster and describes the recent trials that have demonstrated efficacy and safety of the HPV and HZ vaccines.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Following the completion of this learning activity, the participant will be able to describe the mechanisms of HPV and varicella zoster virus infection as well as pathogenesis, identify key aspects of the immune system involved in clearing the infection, and prescribe HPV and HZ vaccines for prevention of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / prevention & control. Condylomata Acuminata / prevention & control. Dermatology / trends. Herpes Zoster / prevention & control. Herpes Zoster Vaccine / therapeutic use. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


13. Lembo D, Donalisio M, Rusnati M, Bugatti A, Cornaglia M, Cappello P, Giovarelli M, Oreste P, Landolfo S: Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives as wide-range inhibitors of genital types of human papillomavirus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2008 Apr;52(4):1374-81
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  • Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively.
  • Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine.
  • In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Bacterial Capsules / chemistry. Bacterial Capsules / pharmacology. Escherichia coli / metabolism. Human papillomavirus 16 / drug effects. Human papillomavirus 18 / drug effects. Human papillomavirus 6 / drug effects. Sulfates / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Heparin / metabolism. Humans. Surface Plasmon Resonance. Virion / drug effects. Virion / metabolism. Virion / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 18250186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Sulfates; 42615-44-1 / capsular polysaccharide K5; 9005-49-6 / Heparin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2292566
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14. Olsen J, Jepsen MR: Human papillomavirus transmission and cost-effectiveness of introducing quadrivalent HPV vaccination in Denmark. Int J Technol Assess Health Care; 2010 Apr;26(2):183-91
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  • First, an agent-based transmission model was developed that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination.
  • The results of prevalence estimates of HPV, genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1-3), and cervical cancer in the model simulations before and after introduction of HPV vaccination were extrapolated to the Danish population figures.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / immunology. Immunization Programs / economics. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Infections / transmission. Papillomavirus Vaccines / economics

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  • (PMID = 20392322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-6348
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of technology assessment in health care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Technol Assess Health Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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15. Ragin CC, Edwards RP, Jones J, Thurman NE, Hagan KL, Jones EA, Moss CM, Smith AC, Akers A, Gollin SM, Heron DE, Andraos-Selim C, Bondzi C, Robertson L, Taioli E: Knowledge about human papillomavirus and the HPV vaccine--a survey of the general population. Infect Agent Cancer; 2009 Feb 10;4 Suppl 1:S10
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  • [Title] Knowledge about human papillomavirus and the HPV vaccine--a survey of the general population.
  • BACKGROUND: The United States (US) Food & Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with the purpose of reducing the risk of cervical cancers caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18.
  • It is important that the general population be educated about HPV and the HPV vaccine in order to make the appropriate decision whether or not to vaccinate against this virus.
  • Participants from the adult US general population of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and Hampton, Virginia, USA (18+ years old) were surveyed to determine their knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine, and to evaluate their perception of the vaccine efficacy and safety.
  • Although the majority of participants knew that HPV caused cervical cancer (84%), Whites were more informed than Black participants (91% vs. 73%, p = 0.044).
  • Eighty-seven percent (87%) of participants had heard of the HPV vaccine (Pittsburgh: 92% and Hampton: 74%, p = 0.029); a higher proportion of Whites were aware of the vaccine when compared with Blacks (93% vs. 76%, p = 0.031).
  • However, only 18% of the population knew that the current FDA-approved vaccine protected against genital warts and most cervical cancer (20% of Blacks and 16% of Whites, p > 0.1).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that although the general population might be aware of HPV and the HPV vaccine, knowledge of the benefits of the HPV vaccination may not be apparent.
  • Knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine could result in a likely choice of HPV vaccination and would subsequently reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19208201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024154; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA132385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA130596; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2638455
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16. Winder DM, Ball SL, Vaughan K, Hanna N, Woo YL, Fränzer JT, Sterling JC, Stanley MA, Sudhoff H, Goon PK: Sensitive HPV detection in oropharyngeal cancers. BMC Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;9:440
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  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the aetiological agents of certain benign and malignant tumours of skin and mucosae; the most important of which is cervical cancer.
  • Also, the incidence of ano-genital warts, HPV-anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancers are rising.
  • METHODS: We compared PGMY09/11, MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers sets in PCRs of 34 clinically diagnosed samples of genital warts, cervical brushings (with associated histological diagnosis) and vulval biopsies.
  • RESULTS: PGMY09/11 primers detected HPV presence in more cervical brushing (100%) and genital wart (92.9%) samples compared to MY09/11 (90% and 64.3%) and GP5+/6+ (80% and 64.3%) primer sets, respectively.
  • MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ may be used (particularly for cervical samples) but demonstrate lower detection rates.

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  • (PMID = 20003490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803197
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17. Howett MK, Kuhl JP: Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Curr Pharm Des; 2005;11(29):3731-46
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  • This is a multi-factorial problem resulting in part from:.
  • 3) an emergence of new and mutated forms of pathogens with increased capabilities to cause infections and for which there are no available vaccines or therapies; and, 4) at risk populations in developing countries who are susceptible to these pathogens while having societal infrastructures that lack basic health education and proper access to healthcare.
  • These include human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with over 42 million current cases of infection, 20 million deaths to date, and an estimated 500,000 deaths per year; human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, the causative agents of genital warts and cervical cancer, with approximately 1 in 4 women harboring virus DNA in genital epithelium, 1-3 percent of women showing symptoms of infection and 250,000 deaths per year in women worldwide from cervical cancer; and numerous others.
  • Topical microbicides have been proposed as agents to break the chain of transmission in these infections by providing chemical, biological, and/or physical barriers to infection by blocking and/or inactivating pathogens at the mucosal surface where infection can occur.
  • For many sexually transmitted infections, vaccines do not exist, and therapeutic agents are only partially effective, expensive, and difficult to distribute.
  • Space precludes a complete description of all of the agents and their mechanisms of action.
  • We will also put forth the argument for alkyl sulfate microbicides, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), agents that are in active development in our laboratories.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / transmission
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Outbreaks. Female. Humans. Male. Nonoxynol / therapeutic use. Surface-Active Agents / therapeutic use. Vagina / drug effects. Vagina / metabolism. Vagina / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 16305508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 26027-38-3 / Nonoxynol
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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18. Georgala S, Katoulis AC, Georgala C, Bozi E, Mortakis A: Oral isotretinoin in the treatment of recalcitrant condylomata acuminata of the cervix: a randomised placebo controlled trial. Sex Transm Infect; 2004 Jun;80(3):216-8
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  • [Title] Oral isotretinoin in the treatment of recalcitrant condylomata acuminata of the cervix: a randomised placebo controlled trial.
  • The use of a systemic agent may more effectively control the virus.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of low dose oral isotretinoin in recalcitrant condylomata acuminata (RCA) of the cervix.
  • 60 women, aged 21-43 years, with RCA of the cervix, refractory to at least one conventional therapy, were randomly assigned to receive either isotretinoin, 0.5 mg/kg daily for 12 weeks (group 1), or placebo (group 2).
  • Isotretinoin may represent an efficacious and safe alternative systemic form of therapy for RCA of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Isotretinoin / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15170007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1744851
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