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1. Bese T, Simsek Y, Bese N, Ilvan S, Arvas M: Extensive pelvic endometriosis with malignant change in tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal women. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 May-Jun;13(3):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma who received tamoxifen therapy for 2 years was admitted with uterine bleeding.
  • Hysteroscopic polypectomy revealed a hyperplastic polyp.
  • The cervix, rectum, and the accompanying mass were resected.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometriosis involving cervix uteri and the rectal muscular wall.
  • The patient had two normal cervical smears within the last 3 years and no abnormal appearance was detected within the cervical canal in the hysteroscopic examination.
  • As cervical cancer occurred in a short period, it might be speculated that tamoxifen might have stimulated the proliferative and mitotic activity of cervical endometrial tissue which has progressed into invasive cancer in time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Adnexal Diseases / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced. Endometriosis / complications. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Pelvis. Postmenopause


2. Vessey M, Yeates D: Some minor female reproductive system disorders: findings in the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care; 2009 Apr;35(2):105-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This report fills the gap with regard to uterine polyp, cervicitis, cervical erosion, and vaginitis and vulvitis.
  • Information collected during follow-up included details of contraceptive use, cervical smears taken at the clinic, pregnancies and hospital referrals.
  • RESULTS: Oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with a reduction in first hospital referral for uterine polyp and for vaginitis and vulvitis, which became more marked with increasing duration of use.
  • Referral for cervical erosion was markedly increased in current and recent OC users (rate ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.4).
  • First hospital referral for both uterine polyp and cervical erosion showed a highly significant negative association with numbers of cigarettes smoked per day.
  • The apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking against uterine polyp and cervical erosion, even if valid, counts as nothing against the overwhelming adverse effects of smoking on health.

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  • (PMID = 19356282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1893
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of family planning and reproductive health care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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3. Hobson MA, Madsen EL, Frank GR, Jiang J, Shi H, Hall TJ, Varghese T: Anthropomorphic phantoms for assessment of strain imaging methods involving saline-infused sonohysterography. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2008 Oct;34(10):1622-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two anthropomorphic uterine phantoms were developed that allow assessment and comparison of strain imaging systems adapted for use with saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS).
  • TM fibroids are stiffer than the TM myometrium/cervix, and TM polyps are softer.
  • The first uterine phantom has 3-mm-diameter TM fibroids distributed randomly in TM myometrium.
  • The second uterine phantom has a 5-mm and 8-mm spherical TM fibroid, in addition to a 5-mm spherical and a 12.5-mm-long (medicine capsule-shaped) TM endometrial polyp protruding into the endometrial cavity; also, a 10-mm spherical TM fibroid projects from the serosal surface.
  • Results from the second uterine phantom show that, as expected, parts of inclusions projecting into the uterine cavity will appear very stiff, whether they are stiff or soft.

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  • (PMID = 18514999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB000459-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100373; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000459-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000459-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100373-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009206; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100373-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100373-01A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB000459-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100373-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01EB000459; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100373-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009206-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100373-04; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB000459-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA100373; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100373-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB000459-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009206-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100373-05; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB000459; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100373-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2-T32-CA-09206
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 8001-23-8 / Safflower Oil; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS72520; NLM/ PMC2711969
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4. Xia E, Xia E, Chen F: [Severe complications of hysteroscopic surgeries: an analysis of 35 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2001 Oct;36(10):596-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods of earlier diagnosis, treatment and precautions on the severe complications of hysteroscopic procedures.
  • METHODS: There were 12 921 cases of diagnostic hysteroscopy and 2 221 cases of operative hysteroscopy were performed.
  • For diagnostic hysteroscopy B ultrasonography were scaned meanwhile and fluid media were used to distend the uterus.
  • Foley catheter inserting, bleeding spots coagulating, uterine cavity tampon or hysterectomy were used to stop intraoperative and postoperative bleeding successfully.
  • Eleven cases of uterine perforation were treated by conservativetherapy, laparoscopy or hysterectomy.
  • Diuretic agent and saline infusion were used to treat 5 cases of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) syndrome effectively.
  • For 4 cases of post-ablationsterilization syndrome (PASS) dilating the cervix canal and expelling the hematometra, transcervical resection of adhesions or hysterectomy were managed effectively.
  • One case of endometrial adenocarcinoma stage I a was diagnosed 8 years after transcervical resection of endometrium (TCRE) & transcervical resection of polyp (TCRP), and radical hysterectomy plus selective pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Foley catheter insertion is a simple and efficient method to stop uterine bleeding.
  • Uterine adhesion is a high risk factor of uterine perforation.
  • Monitoring by B ultrasonography or laparoscopy could not prevent uterine perforation.
  • To intensify follow-up is the best method to detect PASS and uterine adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hysteroscopy. Intraoperative Complications. Postoperative Complications. Uterine Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Loss, Surgical. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Laparoscopy / methods. Ultrasonography / methods. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology. Uterine Hemorrhage / therapy. Uterus / injuries

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  • (PMID = 16134521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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5. Griffiths GJ: Exisulind Cell Pathways. Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2000 Nov;1(3):386-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cell Pathways has developed exisulind (Aptosyn), an oral apoptosis modulator and cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, for the potential treatment of several oncologic indications including precancerous adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), also known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), precancerous sporadic colonic polyps, cervical dysplasia and the prevention of tumor recurrence in prostate and breast cancer.
  • An NDA filing for the treatment of precancerous APC, for which the US FDA designated exisulind a Fast Track product in July 1998, was initially expected in March 1999 [291313].
  • After 6 months of treatment with exisulind, 25 patients who had previously been taking placebo experienced a 50% reduction in polyp formation.
  • The patients continuing treatment with exisulind exhibited a further 50% reduction from their already reduced rate of polyp formation [344991].
  • They had all experienced statistically significant reductions in polyp formation rates [344991].
  • All patients exhibited a trend of reduced new polyp formation when compared to placebo.
  • The patents describe the mechanism of action of Cell Pathways' SAANDs, including exisulind, and use of that knowledge in screening for new drugs [374888].
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Drugs, Investigational / pharmacology. Sulindac / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 11249724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; K619IIG2R9 / sulindac sulfone
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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6. Kaminski P, Bobrowska K, Pietrzak B, Bablok L, Wielgos M: Gynecological issues after organ transplantation. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2008 Dec;29(6):852-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The main problem focuses on preventing the graft from rejection with the use of immunosuppressive agents.
  • All invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures should be associated with the increase in dose of steroids and prophylactic antibiotics.
  • Most common abnormal uterine bleeding in graft recipient are: prolonged and profuse menstruation and inter-menstrual bleeding or spotting.
  • Among the underlying diseases are lesions of the uterus (fibroids, endometrial or cervical polyps), infections of sex organs or hormonal disturbances.
  • Higher rate of endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is reported in renal graft recipients.
  • Patients after organ transplantation have three to four-fold increased incidence of malignancy compared with general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraception / methods. Genital Diseases, Female / etiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Organ Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Hyperplasia / etiology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression. Menstruation Disturbances / chemically induced. Menstruation Disturbances / immunology. Transplantation Immunology / physiology. Uterine Diseases / etiology. Uterine Diseases / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19112398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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8. Revaux A, Ducarme G, Luton D: [Prevention of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 Mar;36(3):311-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The prevalence of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery is correlated to intrauterine pathology (myoma, polyp, or adhesions).
  • Few clinical trials have demonstrated the efficiency of barrier agents developed in order to prevent adhesions after operative hysteroscopy.
  • Adhesion barriers are mechanic agent (intrauterine device), fluid agents (Seprafilm, Hyalobarrier) and postoperative systemic treatment (estroprogestative treatment).
  • In this article, we evaluate the efficiency of these barrier agents for adhesion prevention in hysteroscopic surgery, undertaking a review of clinical trials published.
  • The most frequent published studies evaluate the anatomic efficiency of antiadhesion agents after hysteroscopic surgery in order to evaluate the fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / surgery. Hysteroscopy / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Tissue Adhesions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18308609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cellulose, Oxidized; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 9002-84-0 / Polytetrafluoroethylene; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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9. Ohwada M, Suzuki M, Hironaka M, Irie T, Sato I: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix showing polypoid growth and complicated by pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Apr;81(1):117-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix showing polypoid growth and complicated by pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an aggressive disease, and it rarely is complicated by pregnancy.
  • CASE: A polypoid tumor was found in the uterine cervix in a 27-year-old Japanese woman at 27 weeks of gestation.
  • No polyp had been detected at 14 weeks of gestation.
  • The polyp was excised and diagnosed as neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma by histological examination, including Grimelius, neuron-specific enolase, and chromogranin staining.
  • CONCLUSION: When a polypoid lesion is found, especially when it demonstrates rapid growth, it may be necessary to excise and histologically examine the polyp even during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Humans. Polyps / drug therapy. Polyps / pathology. Polyps / surgery. Pregnancy


10. Smaga A, Paszkowski T, Woźniak S, Walczak R: [Analysis of physiologic and abnormal pictures of uterine cervix by means of infrared thermography]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):847-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of physiologic and abnormal pictures of uterine cervix by means of infrared thermography].
  • RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: Diagnosis of the uterine cervix lesions remains a key element of the women's health care especially in the context of the cervical carcinoma prophylaxis.
  • The infrared mapping constitutes a new generation biophysical diagnostic method of potential application in medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The study was planned to analyze uterine cervix thermograms in both physiology and pathology of this organ.
  • In order to establish a physiologic standard, 14 thermograms of the normal cervix were analyzed in detail.
  • Furthermore, thermograms of such cervical lesions as endocervical polyp (3 patients), erosion (PAP II) (11 cases), CIN I-III (9 patients) and invasive cancer (6 patients) were studied.
  • The diagnosis was based on clinical, cytologic and colposcopic criteria as well as on the pathology report.
  • RESULTS: Comparisons between the studied groups revealed significant differences between invasive cervical cancer and benign lesions or healthy cervix.
  • The difference in mean whole portion temperature between the normal cervix and invasive planoepithelial cancer amounted to 1.4 degrees C while in comparison to other lesions it did not exceed 0.5 degree C.
  • Statistical analysis of the averaged profiles of cervical temperatures has also shown significant differences between invasive cancer and the remaining groups--by 1.5 degrees C in average.
  • The established thermographic mapping patterns of the normal cervix may form a basis for the future evaluation of the diagnostic application of computer thermography in gynecology.
  • 2. Statistically significant differences were found in thermographic profiles of the portion between the normal cervix and such cervical lesions as endocervical polyp, erosion (PAP II), CIN and invasive cancer.
  • 3. Invasive cervical cancer reveals thermographic pattern of relatively high specificity within the analyzed cervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Infrared Rays. Thermography / standards. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Temperature. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis






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