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1. Tejada-Berges T, Granai CO, Gordinier M, Gajewski W: Caelyx/Doxil for the treatment of metastatic ovarian and breast cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2002 Apr;2(2):143-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This, coupled with a small vesicular size, uniquely promotes the localization of Caelyx/Doxil at tumor sites and explains its altered toxicity profile.
  • Numerous investigations have focused on its use in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, as well as recurrent squamous cell cervical carcinoma, soft tissue sarcoma, squamous head and neck cancers, prostate cancers and malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy


2. Vaupel P, Mayer A: Hypoxia in cancer: significance and impact on clinical outcome. Cancer Metastasis Rev; 2007 Jun;26(2):225-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hypoxia, a characteristic feature of locally advanced solid tumors, has emerged as a pivotal factor of the tumor (patho-)physiome since it can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy.
  • Hypoxia represents a "Janus face" in tumor biology because (a) it is associated with restrained proliferation, differentiation, necrosis or apoptosis, and (b) it can also lead to the development of an aggressive phenotype.
  • Independent of standard prognostic factors, such as tumor stage and nodal status, hypoxia has been suggested as an adverse prognostic factor for patient outcome.
  • Studies of tumor hypoxia involving the direct assessment of the oxygenation status have suggested worse disease-free survival for patients with hypoxic cervical cancers or soft tissue sarcomas.
  • Technical limitations of the direct O(2) sensing technique have prompted the use of surrogate markers for tumor hypoxia, such as hypoxia-related endogenous proteins (e.g., HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, CA IX) or exogenous bioreductive drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17440684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-7659
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer metastasis reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Metastasis Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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3. Follen M, Levenback CF, Iyer RB, Grigsby PW, Boss EA, Delpassand ES, Fornage BD, Fishman EK: Imaging in cervical cancer. Cancer; 2003 Nov 1;98(9 Suppl):2028-38
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  • [Title] Imaging in cervical cancer.
  • Cervical cancer traditionally has been staged clinically.
  • Advances in imaging could improve the staging of cervical cancer by facilitating the detection of lymph node metastases and micrometastases in distant organs.
  • At the Second International Conference on Clinical Cancer (Houston, TX, April 11-14, 2002), a panel composed of gynecologic oncologists, radiation oncologists, and diagnostic radiologists reviewed relevant technologies.
  • Advances in lymphangiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and lymphatic mapping were reviewed, along with the impact of these advances on the diagnosis, treatment, and survival of patients with cervical cancer.
  • The roles of transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography in evaluating cervical cancer are expected to expand when new contrast agents increase the sensitivity of these techniques to parametrial invasion and lymph node metastases; meanwhile, ultrasonography's most significant contributions may involve the identification of uterine and cervical leiomyomas and the evaluation of urinary tract obstruction.
  • MRI, which is valuable because of its superior soft tissue contrast resolution, multiplanar capabilities, and cost-effectiveness, is used to determine the size of the cervix and to detect certain types of invasion, characteristics of lymph nodes, and the presence of disease in the ureter, lung, and liver.
  • PET with 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose has been found to detect abnormal lymph node regions better than CT does but PET can also be used in conjunction with CT to measure tumor dimensions.
  • Advances in imaging methods and in contrast agents, along with advances in the combined use of the two, are expected to make imaging technologies more valuable in cervical cancer assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphography / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


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4. Berezhnaya NM, Vinnichuk UD, Konovalenko VF, Vorobjova LI, Belova OB, Proskurnia LA: The sensitivity of chemioresistant human tumor explants to lysis by activated and nonactivated autological lymphocytes: a pilot study. Exp Oncol; 2005 Dec;27(4):303-7
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  • [Title] The sensitivity of chemioresistant human tumor explants to lysis by activated and nonactivated autological lymphocytes: a pilot study.
  • AIM: The comparative study of antitumor action of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymphokin-activated killer cells (LAK) on autologous cell of chemoresistant and chemosensitive human soft tissue sarcomas and tumors of epithelial origin.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor explants (15 samples of soft tissue sarcomas, 10 samples of cervical and ovarian carcinomas) were cultivated with autologous lymphocytes in double diffusion chambers.
  • RESULTS: The results have shown that in the patients with the resistant soft tissue sarcomas and carcinomas LAK possess more pronounced antitumor action, than non-activated lymphocytes, whilst PBL possess higher antitumor action on sensitive epithelial tumors than that on soft tissue sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / immunology. Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / immunology. Sarcoma / immunology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cells, Cultured. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Female. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation / immunology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Pilot Projects. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16404351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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5. Tanaka H, Kondo E, Kawato H, Kikukawa T, Toyoda N: Aortitis during intraarterial chemotherapy for cervical cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2002 Feb;7(1):62-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aortitis during intraarterial chemotherapy for cervical cancer.
  • A 76-year-old woman with stage IIb cervical cancer with a bulky tumor experienced aortitis during continuous intraarterial cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • At this level of the aortic wall, soft tissue density surrounded the aorta completely.
  • It was thought that the maldistribution of drugs and changes in the drug flow occurred due to the vertebral height movement of the catheter tip against the aortic blood flow, and there, flow to the vasa vasorum may have occurred.
  • Chemical vasculitis of the vasa vasorum due to the anticancer drugs was strongly suspected as a contributing factor of the aortitis.
  • Because of the long-term use of an intraarterial catheter, the maldistribution of drugs and changes in the drug flow occurred physically and biologically during the course of the chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Aortitis / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Catheterization / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / adverse effects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


6. Harrison L, Blackwell K: Hypoxia and anemia: factors in decreased sensitivity to radiation therapy and chemotherapy? Oncologist; 2004;9 Suppl 5:31-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hypoxia and anemia (which contributes to tumor hypoxia) can lead to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy resistance by depriving tumor cells of the oxygen essential for the cytotoxic activities of these agents.
  • Hypoxia may also reduce tumor sensitivity to radiation therapy and chemotherapy through one or more indirect mechanisms that include proteomic and genomic changes.
  • Investigations of the prognostic significance of pretreatment tumor oxygenation status have shown that hypoxia (oxygen tension [pO(2)] value < or =10 mmHg) is associated with lower overall and disease-free survival, greater recurrence, and less locoregional control in head and neck carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, and soft-tissue sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / complications. Anemia / etiology. Cell Hypoxia. Erythropoietin / pharmacology. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Hemoglobins. Humans. Radiation Tolerance


7. Buda A, Dell'Anna T, Signorelli M, Mangioni C: Role of ifosfamide in cervical cancer: an overview. Oncology; 2003;65 Suppl 2:63-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of ifosfamide in cervical cancer: an overview.
  • Ifosfamide, a cyclophosphamide analogue, has demonstrated a wide spectrum of activity against numerous neoplasms in different oncologic areas, including paediatric, haematological, breast, lung and testicular cancers, soft tissue sarcomas and gynaecological cancer.
  • In gynaecologic cancers in particular, evidence suggests activity in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer, cervical carcinoma, germ cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Cervical cancer has long been considered a poorly chemosensitive tumour and for several years the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of this tumour was confined to persistent or recurrent disease after failure of surgery and/or radiotherapy.
  • In the management of cervical cancer, chemotherapy has received increasing attention in the last two decades and is currently used in neoadjuvant regimens, as salvage treatment in patients with disseminated or recurrent disease, or as a radiosensitizer.
  • Over the past 30 years, several agents have been tested but cisplatin and ifosfamide are the agents that have attracted the greater attention.
  • Cisplatin represents the cornerstone of chemotherapy for cervical cancer.
  • Ifosfamide has been studied as a single agent or in combination with other drugs in different studies.
  • In this paper we reviewed the approach with systemic therapy and, in particular, the role of ifosfamide in advanced or recurrent, and less advanced cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy






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