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1. Varras M, Polyzos D, Akrivis Ch: Effects of tamoxifen on the human female genital tract: review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2003;24(3-4):258-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It has been found that tamoxifen causes oestrogenic changes of the vaginal and cervical squammous epithelium and increases the incidence of cervical and endometrial polyps.
  • In cases where tamoxifen induces endometrial polyps and hyperplasia, the extensive fibrosis accounts for difficulties in obtaining endometrial biopsy or resecting the polyps.
  • Moreover, of note is the fact that the association of tamoxifen therapy with uterine mesenchymal neoplasms is higher than expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Hysteroscopy. Long-Term Care. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Prognosis. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 12807236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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2. Griffiths GJ: Exisulind Cell Pathways. Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2000 Nov;1(3):386-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cell Pathways has developed exisulind (Aptosyn), an oral apoptosis modulator and cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, for the potential treatment of several oncologic indications including precancerous adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), also known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), precancerous sporadic colonic polyps, cervical dysplasia and the prevention of tumor recurrence in prostate and breast cancer.
  • An NDA filing for the treatment of precancerous APC, for which the US FDA designated exisulind a Fast Track product in July 1998, was initially expected in March 1999 [291313].
  • After 6 months of treatment with exisulind, 25 patients who had previously been taking placebo experienced a 50% reduction in polyp formation.
  • The patients continuing treatment with exisulind exhibited a further 50% reduction from their already reduced rate of polyp formation [344991].
  • They had all experienced statistically significant reductions in polyp formation rates [344991].
  • All patients exhibited a trend of reduced new polyp formation when compared to placebo.
  • The patents describe the mechanism of action of Cell Pathways' SAANDs, including exisulind, and use of that knowledge in screening for new drugs [374888].
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Drugs, Investigational / pharmacology. Sulindac / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 11249724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; K619IIG2R9 / sulindac sulfone
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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3. Vessey M, Yeates D: Some minor female reproductive system disorders: findings in the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care; 2009 Apr;35(2):105-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This report fills the gap with regard to uterine polyp, cervicitis, cervical erosion, and vaginitis and vulvitis.
  • Information collected during follow-up included details of contraceptive use, cervical smears taken at the clinic, pregnancies and hospital referrals.
  • RESULTS: Oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with a reduction in first hospital referral for uterine polyp and for vaginitis and vulvitis, which became more marked with increasing duration of use.
  • Referral for cervical erosion was markedly increased in current and recent OC users (rate ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.4).
  • First hospital referral for both uterine polyp and cervical erosion showed a highly significant negative association with numbers of cigarettes smoked per day.
  • The apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking against uterine polyp and cervical erosion, even if valid, counts as nothing against the overwhelming adverse effects of smoking on health.

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  • (PMID = 19356282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1893
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of family planning and reproductive health care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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4. Kaminski P, Bobrowska K, Pietrzak B, Bablok L, Wielgos M: Gynecological issues after organ transplantation. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2008 Dec;29(6):852-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The main problem focuses on preventing the graft from rejection with the use of immunosuppressive agents.
  • All invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures should be associated with the increase in dose of steroids and prophylactic antibiotics.
  • Most common abnormal uterine bleeding in graft recipient are: prolonged and profuse menstruation and inter-menstrual bleeding or spotting.
  • Among the underlying diseases are lesions of the uterus (fibroids, endometrial or cervical polyps), infections of sex organs or hormonal disturbances.
  • Higher rate of endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is reported in renal graft recipients.
  • Patients after organ transplantation have three to four-fold increased incidence of malignancy compared with general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraception / methods. Genital Diseases, Female / etiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Organ Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Hyperplasia / etiology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression. Menstruation Disturbances / chemically induced. Menstruation Disturbances / immunology. Transplantation Immunology / physiology. Uterine Diseases / etiology. Uterine Diseases / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19112398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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5. Karimi Zarchi M, Behtash N, Sekhavat L, Dehghan A: Effects of tamoxifen on the cervix and uterus in women with breast cancer: experience with Iranian patients and a literature review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009 Oct-Dec;10(4):595-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of tamoxifen on the cervix and uterus in women with breast cancer: experience with Iranian patients and a literature review.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tamoxifen on the genital tract with particular attention to the uterus and cervix.
  • METHODS: We investigated the relationship between tamoxifen and cervical or uterine cancer in Iran, reviewing all the studies performed by the Vali-Asr Gynecology Oncology Clinic in Tehran.
  • Although as many as 121 referred to links between the drug and endometrial abnormalities (polyps or cancers), 55 articles studied the relationship with changes of pap smears, four of which indicated isolated cervical metastasis followed tamoxifen use in patients with breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: In spite of the significant relationship between tamoxifen and endometrial cancers, cervix is rarely involved in breast cancer patients.
  • However, vaginal bleeding or abnormal vaginal discharge has been reported in all cases before the diagnosis was made.
  • To rule out genital tract malignancy, it is necessary, therefore, to have an annual pelvic exam, pap smear and early endometrial with endocervical curettage for tamoxifen users following a breast cancer in those with abnormal uterine bleeding or persistent vaginal discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Iran / epidemiology. Papanicolaou Test. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Hemorrhage. Vaginal Smears






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