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1. Patwardhan G, Gupta V, Huang J, Gu X, Liu YY: Direct assessment of P-glycoprotein efflux to determine tumor response to chemotherapy. Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Jul 1;80(1):72-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multidrug resistance is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy.
  • The overproduced P-glycoprotein that extrudes anticancer drugs from cells, is the most common mechanism detected in multidrug-resistant cancers.
  • Direct measurement of cellular efflux of tumors in vivo, rather than estimation of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein levels in samples stored or embedded, can functionally characterize the mechanism of drug resistance and determine the choice of anticancer drugs for cancer patients.
  • Employing Flutax-2 (Oregon green-488 paclitaxel) and fluorescence spectrophotometry, this method has successfully measured cellular transportability including efflux and accumulation in diverse cancer cell lines, tumors and other tissues with high reproducibility.
  • With this method, we have quantitatively determined cellular efflux that is correlated with P-glycoprotein levels and the reversal effects of agents in cell lines of breast, ovarian, cervical and colon cancers, and in tumor-bearing mice.
  • This direct and quick functional assessment has a potential to determine drug resistance in different types of cancers after surgical resection.
  • Further validation of this method in clinic settings for the diagnosis of drug resistance purpose is needed.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20298675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016456; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016456-085644; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016456-066973; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR16456; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016456-076138; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016456-076138; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016456-085644; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016456-066973
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Flutax 2; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Taxoids
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS188299; NLM/ PMC2860649
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2. McClain KL, Natkunam Y, Swerdlow SH: Atypical cellular disorders. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2004;:283-96
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  • [Title] Atypical cellular disorders.
  • The atypical cellular disorders discussed here all bear some similarities in that abnormal proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages or dendritic cells result in lymphadenopathy, skin rashes, bone lesions and infiltrations of nearly any other organ system.
  • CD was described fifty years ago and for one subtype has the most clearly defined etiology (HHV-8 infection) of the three atypical cellular disorders discussed here.
  • Yasodha Natkunam reviews the features of SHML, which most often presents as painless cervical lymphadenopathy, although many patients can have extranodal involvement as well.
  • The diagnosis rests on finding intact lymphocytes in the cytoplasm of activated macrophages as well as accumulation of mature plasma cells.
  • An intriguing finding of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 viral proteins in SHML has been reported in several patients, but needs further study.
  • Localized cases are divided into the hyaline vascular type and plasma cell type.
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 expression is increased in the plasma cell type.
  • Multicentric CD of the plasmablastic type is most often found in HIV-positive patients with coincident HHV-8 infection.
  • Other cases of multicentric CD are also most like the plasma cell type, however, with disseminated disease and constitutional symptoms.
  • A wide variety of anti-neoplastic drugs, radiation therapy, anti-IL-6 and rituximab or atlizumab have been used with varying success in patients with multicentric CD.

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  • (PMID = 15561688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4391
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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3. Wadler S, Levy D, Frederickson HL, Falkson CI, Wang Y, Weller E, Burk R, Ho G, Kadish AS, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group: A phase II trial of interleukin-12 in patients with advanced cervical cancer: clinical and immunologic correlates. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1E96. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Mar;92(3):957-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II trial of interleukin-12 in patients with advanced cervical cancer: clinical and immunologic correlates. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1E96.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were required to have measurable metastatic, recurrent or inoperable cervical carcinoma.
  • Treatment consisted of IL-12 administered at 250 ng/kg IV as a rapid push in the outpatient setting daily x 5 every 21 days.
  • Whole blood samples were acquired twice before treatment then approximately every 3 weeks to assess lymphoproliferative response in vitro to HPV type 16 (HPV 16) E4, E6, and E7 peptides.
  • There was no correlation between change in lymphoproliferative response to any peptide with age, performance status, race, prior chemotherapy, time from diagnosis to treatment, or with overall survival.
  • This is the first clinical trial to demonstrate induction of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to specific antigens (peptides) following treatment with IL-12 in women with cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Repressor Proteins. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / immunology. Papillomavirus E7 Proteins. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14984966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21076; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75405
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E4, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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4. Mulshine JL, Cuttitta F, Tockman MS, De Luca LM: Lung cancer evolution to preinvasive management. Clin Chest Med; 2002 Mar;23(1):37-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lung cancer evolution to preinvasive management.
  • Cancer screening measures generally are accepted for cervical, breast, and colon cancer.
  • With prostate cancer screening, the practice is used broadly, but the evidence for this approach is not established clearly.
  • The aggregate clinical experience with these screening procedures provides a useful precedent to consider in designing a new approach to lung cancer screening.
  • For instance, formidable logistic issues exist in responsibly evaluating the vast at-risk population for lung cancer.
  • In the field of cervical cancer screening, recent developments in automated image analysis highlight the potential for improving the precision of diagnosis by moving beyond traditional manual cytomorphologic evaluation.
  • The authors have outlined how the overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1 was associated significantly with the eventual development of lung cancer, as corroborated by several independent studies.
  • In discussing this marker, they reviewed several issues with relevance to the general challenge in using biomarkers as screening tools for lung cancer.
  • The experience with cervical cancer screening informs the development of a cellular diagnostic screening platform for lung cancer.
  • Issues such as optimized cell preparation, reproducibility, and assay precision are fundamental to the success of the platform for lung cancer detection.
  • The recent Institute of Medicine study of health care delivery provides an excellent point of departure in outlining the global infrastructure that will be necessary in the evolution of a prevention-oriented lung cancer care system.
  • The power of early detection in saving lives from cancer is reflected in the fact that more people die from a single cancer without any validated screening tool (i.e., lung cancer) than die from the aggregate of the four other major cancers, including breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer cases--which all have more established early detection approaches.
  • New technologies may provide an opportunity to engage lung cancer routinely at a fundamentally early stage in its natural history, which may provide an opportunity for clinicians to reconsider what may be the best way to manage lung cancer.
  • Further sustained efforts will be required to define the true value of these new approaches through clinical trials as the specialty moves responsibly to routine preventative care of individuals at risk for lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Aerosols. Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11901918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-5231
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in chest medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chest Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols; 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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5. Bovicelli A, D'Andrilli G, Giordano A: Multidisciplinary International Conference on Gynecologic Cancer, Bologna, Italy, June 8-12, 2005. J Cell Physiol; 2006 Jul;208(1):1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multidisciplinary International Conference on Gynecologic Cancer, Bologna, Italy, June 8-12, 2005.
  • The first "Multidisciplinary International Conference on Gynecologic Cancer" which was held in Bologna on June 8-12, 2005, addressed some of the most crucial topics in gynecologic oncology, presented the latest achievements and, at the same time, designed the guidelines for future developments in the field.
  • The scientific committee strongly believed in the "multidisciplinary approach" towards medicine and particularly towards patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Crk-Associated Substrate Protein / physiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16557531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9541
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCAR1 protein, human; 0 / Crk-Associated Substrate Protein
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6. Battaglia A, Buzzonetti A, Martinelli E, Fanelli M, Petrillo M, Ferrandina G, Scambia G, Fattorossi A: Selective changes in the immune profile of tumor-draining lymph nodes after different neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Apr;76(5):1546-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective changes in the immune profile of tumor-draining lymph nodes after different neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess how neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens modulate the immune system state in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN), in the setting of advanced cervical cancer.
  • Conversely, compared with NI-TDLN, HD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an impaired antitumor response, namely a significantly inverted CD4/CD8 cell ratio, a higher Nrp1(+)Treg frequency, and a higher frequency of CCR4(+)Treg, a Treg subset facilitated in migrating out from TDLN to suppress the immune response against distant cancer cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even minor differences in radiation dose in neoadjuvant regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer are crucial for determining the balance between a tolerogenic and an efficacious antitumor immune response in TDLN.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / immunology. T-Lymphocytes. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. B-Lymphocytes / radiation effects. Female. Humans. Immune System / drug effects. Immune System / immunology. Immune System / radiation effects. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Immunity, Cellular / radiation effects. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphopenia / diagnosis. Lymphopenia / immunology. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods


7. von Knebel Doeberitz M: [Aspects of molecular pathogenesis of cervical cancer in establishing new tumor markers for early detection and diagnosis]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2001 Apr;123(4):186-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Aspects of molecular pathogenesis of cervical cancer in establishing new tumor markers for early detection and diagnosis].
  • The mortality rates of cervical cancer could be drastically reduced by the implementation of population wide cytological screening test for women (Pap-Test).
  • High risk human papillomaviruses were identified as the causal agents of cervical cancer.
  • As consequence of the expression of E7 a cellular marker protein (p16) is increasingly expressed in dysplastic cells.
  • In advanced preneoplastic lesions HPV genomes are often integrated into cellular chromosomes.
  • These findings will allow to establish highly sensitive, but specific and cost efficient new cancer early detection assays.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Amplification. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics. RNA, Viral / analysis. Vaginal Smears


8. Ajit D, Gavas S, Jagtap S, Chinoy RF: Cytodiagnostic problems in cervicovaginal smears from symptomatic breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy. Acta Cytol; 2009 Jul-Aug;53(4):383-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytodiagnostic problems in cervicovaginal smears from symptomatic breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on cervicovaginal epithelium, identify tamoxifen-related changes that mimic cancer and detennine the morphologic features differentiating the 2 changes.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cervicovaginal smears from 153 conventionally treated primary breast cancer patients presenting with gynecologic symptoms were studied.
  • Tamoxifen-associated cellular changes can mimic morphologic features of cancer.
  • To avoid diagnostic errors, cervicovaginal smears should be repeated after discontinuing tamoxifen treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vagina / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


9. Klostergaard J, Parga K, Raptis RG: Current and future applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to breast and ovarian cancer patient management. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Sep;29(3):223-31
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  • [Title] Current and future applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to breast and ovarian cancer patient management.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is occupying an increasing niche in the clinical diagnostic workup of several cancers, including breast cancers.
  • Despite the high level of implementation of mammography, it has become apparent that MRI can play at least a complementary role in the imaging and diagnosis of primary breast cancers, including ductal carcinoma in situ, the earliest stage of breast cancer that is associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer.
  • This can also be said of inflammatory breast cancer, of low incidence but with high impact on overall breast cancer mortality rates, and for which mammography is not ideal due to the typically diffused nature of this disease.
  • Much of the value of breast MRI is dependent on its high sensitivity, resulting from the use of contrast agent enhancement in the detection of breast cancer.
  • Regarding ovarian and other gynecological cancers, MRI has already demonstrated value in the evaluation of patients with ovarian masses, uterine leiomyoma, endometrioma, and cervical cancer.
  • Although a role for MRI has yet to be established in this initial setting or in staging, some studies have shown that high sensitivity may be achieved with contrast agent-enhanced MRI for detection of recurrent disease, including demonstration of macroscopic intraabdominal dissemination and the hallmark omental "cake".
  • Efforts in recent years have been focused on design of MRI contrast agents (MRI-CAs), which either target biomarkers, or take advantage of the different physiology of cancerous cells.
  • This review will focus on the recent progress in the application of MRI to the imaging of breast and ovarian cancers, and present a possible role for molecularly-targeted contrast agents in enriching the context for MRI-based diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / trends. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis


10. Pillai MR, Chacko P, Kesari LA, Jayaprakash PG, Jayaram HN, Antony AC: Expression of folate receptors and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 in women with human papillomavirus mediated transformation of cervical tissue to cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2003 Aug;56(8):569-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of folate receptors and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 in women with human papillomavirus mediated transformation of cervical tissue to cancer.
  • AIMS: Folate receptors (FRs) mediate cellular uptake of folates in many cancer cells and in folate deficiency heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) mediates translational upregulation of FR in cultured cervical cancer cells. hnRNP-E1 can also interfere with human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) viral capsid protein synthesis (and thereby HPV proliferation) in vitro.
  • This study aimed to evaluate prospectively the relevance of FR and hnRNP-E1 expression in the normal cervix, cervical dysplasia, and cancer.
  • METHODS: Cervical tissues from 12 women with normal histology and 69 consecutive women with varying grades of cervical dysplasia and cancer were prospectively evaluated for immunohistochemical expression of FR, hnRNP-E1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and HPV.
  • There were 22 women with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), 22 with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), and 25 with invasive cervical carcinoma.
  • FR expression decreased from 91% in LGSIL to 68% and 64% in women with HGSIL and cancer, respectively.
  • Similarly, hnRNP-E1 expression decreased from 86% in LGSIL to 68% and 40% in HGSIL and cancer, respectively.
  • There was a highly significant positive correlation between the extent of FR and hnRNP-E1 expression, and an inverse correlation between HPV infection and hnRNP-E1 expression during progression of cervical dysplasia to cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with a hypothesis that reduced hnRNP-E1 expression may be permissive for HPV proliferation and progression to cervical cancer, and support the need for prospective longitudinal studies of hnRNP-E1 expression in HPV-16 infected women.

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  • (PMID = 12890803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA058919; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD039295; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA58919; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01HD39295
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored; 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / PCBP1 protein, human; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770025
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