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1. Iványi JL, Marton E, Plander M, Gyánó G, Czumbil L, Tóth C: [Therapeutic management of central nervous system lymphomas in a single hematological institute]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Oct 18;150(42):1937-44
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  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma is defined as an extranodal lymphoma arising in the central nervous system in the absence of systemic disease.
  • AIMS: In this retrospective survey we analyzed the result of combined treatment (systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy followed by consolidation radiotherapy) in patients with primary or relapsed central nervous system lymphomas diagnosed and treated in our hematological department between 1998-2009.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During this period (mean follow-up of 13.2 months) from 427 patients with newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 22 primary central nervous system lymphoma was diagnosed (5.15%, 16 cerebral and 6 spinal cord lymphoma cases).
  • All central nervous system lymphoma specimens taken with neurosurgical resection or stereotaxic biopsies were confirmed histopathologically.
  • All cerebral lymphoma cases proved to be diffuse large B-cell of origin, while in epidural lymphomas low grade subtypes also occurred.
  • In cerebral lymphoma (every patients had supratentorial localization) the following combined therapy protocol was used: up to three courses of high dose methotrexate (HD MTX 3g/m 2 in a single dose for 4 hours lasting drop-infusion) were given at 4-week intervals, followed by leucovorin-rescue 24 hours after MTX infusion.
  • RESULTS: Complete remission has been achieved in 9 patients with cerebral and in 4 patients with spinal cord lymphoma (13/22; 59.0%), however, one relapsed patient became resistant and later expired, despite salvage therapy.
  • Primarily 9 patients were not evaluable for response: 5 received only one or two HD MTX because of side effects, 4 patients died due to progression of the disease.
  • Mean of the overall survival (OS) in cerebral lymphoma was 19.5 (3-46, median of 10) months, in epidural group 14.1 (2-76, median of 5) months, whilst mean time to progression (TTP) was 4.5 (2-6.5, median of 4 months).
  • CONCLUSION: In primary central nervous system lymphoma, basic treatment HD methotrexate together with intrathecal combination of methotrexate + cytosin-arabinosid + dexamethasone followed by whole-brain irradiation of at least 30 Gy could produce a medium response rate in our study.
  • After therapy PET/CT was negative in five patients with prolonged disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Epidural Space. Female. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Rituximab. Salvage Therapy / methods. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYTARABINE .
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  • (PMID = 19812012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol
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2. Miyazaki Y, Tajima Y, Sudo K, Matsumoto A, Tashiro J, Kikuchi S, Sasaki H, Tashiro K: Hodgkin's disease-related central nervous system angiopathy presenting as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. Intern Med; 2004 Oct;43(10):1005-7
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  • [Title] Hodgkin's disease-related central nervous system angiopathy presenting as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy.
  • However, association with uncontrolled hypertension, renal failure, eclampsia, or immunosuppressive agents has been implicated (1).
  • We describe herein a case of Hodgkin's disease (HD)-related central nervous system (CNS) angiitis with neuroimaging finding suggestive of RPLS.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Vasculitis, Central Nervous System / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Angiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fever / etiology. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Kidney Diseases / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] Intern Med. 2004 Oct;43(10):900-1 [15575237.001]
  • (PMID = 15575257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Tirelli U, Spina M, Jaeger U, Nigra E, Blanc PL, Liberati AM, Benci A, Sparano JA: Infusional CDE with rituximab for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: preliminary results of a phase I/II study. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2002;159:149-53
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  • [Title] Infusional CDE with rituximab for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: preliminary results of a phase I/II study.
  • iCDE) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), with a complete remission rate of 46% and a median overall survival of 8.2 months (Sparano JA, Blood 1993; 81:2810).
  • Characteristics of 29 evaluable patients were: median age: 38 years (range 29-65 years); male sex 24/29; histology: DLCL 16 (55%), Burkitt 10 (35%), ALCL 2 (7%), unclassified 1 (3%); stage: I (35%), II (10%), III (10%), IV (45%); International Prognostic Index: 0, 1 (59%), 2 (24%), 3 (17%), 4, 5 (0); CD4 count: median 132/ mm3 (range 3-470/mm3).
  • Twenty-six of 29 patients received treatment as planned, while chemotherapy had to be discontinued in three patients (2 persistent thrombocytopenias, 1 cerebral hemorrhage).
  • Ten percent had progressive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11785839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; ACE protocol 1
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4. Vose JM, Link BK, Grossbard ML, Czuczman M, Grillo-Lopez A, Fisher RI: Long-term update of a phase II study of rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Nov;46(11):1569-73
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  • [Title] Long-term update of a phase II study of rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The present study aimed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of chimeric anti-CD 20 antibody rituxan (rituximab, Biogen IDEC, San Diego, CA, USA; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA) in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Of the 33 patients, 2 patients experienced disease progression and subsequently died of their disease, 2 patients experienced disease progression but were alive at last follow-up following additional therapy, and 2 patients died without experiencing disease progression: one due to a cerebral vascular accident at 9 months after therapy and a second patient due to small cell lung carcinoma at 55 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cause of Death. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16236611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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5. Stine KC, Saylors RL, Saccente CS, Becton DL: Treatment of deep vein thrombosis with enoxaparin in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost; 2007 Apr;13(2):161-5
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  • Diagnosis included B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n=three), T-ALL, Hodgkin's disease, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma (n=one each).
  • One patient presented with manifestations of a unilateral cerebral vascular accident without evidence of DVT.
  • [MeSH-major] Enoxaparin / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Venous Thrombosis / complications. Venous Thrombosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blood Coagulation Disorders / complications. Blood Coagulation Disorders / drug therapy. Blood Coagulation Disorders / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17456625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enoxaparin
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6. Becherer A, Jaeger U, Szabo M, Kletter K: Prognostic value of FDG-PET in malignant lymphoma. Q J Nucl Med; 2003 Mar;47(1):14-21
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of FDG-PET in malignant lymphoma.
  • Lymphomas have represented an indication for nuclear medicine investigations for 30 years.
  • Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been shown to be a valuable complementary method in Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma for detecting viable residual lesions after chemotherapy and for diagnosis of a relapse.
  • Thallium-201 is of interest in differentiating cerebral lymphomas from infectious lesions in AIDS patients but less useful in extra-cerebral lymphomas.
  • PET with fluorine-18-FDG is more accurate than 67Ga in lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Citrates. Gallium. Hodgkin Disease / radionuclide imaging. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Indium Radioisotopes. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thallium. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12714950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1125-0135
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Citrates; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 27905-02-8 / gallium citrate; 7791-12-0 / thallium chloride; AD84R52XLF / Thallium; CH46OC8YV4 / Gallium
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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7. Sparano JA: Clinical aspects and management of AIDS-related lymphoma. Eur J Cancer; 2001 Jul;37(10):1296-305
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  • [Title] Clinical aspects and management of AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is increased by approximately 100-fold in patients with advanced HIV infection.
  • Clinical presentations may include systemic lymphoma, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, and primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Systemic lymphoma is the most common presentation, is almost always of intermediate or high-grade histology and B-cell phenotype, and usually involves extranodal sites.
  • The disease is potentially curable with combination chemotherapy used for immunocompetent patients with lymphoma, although cure is achieved in only approximately 10-35% of patients.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma may be difficult to distinguish from cerebral infection.
  • Evidence suggests that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a decreased incidence of lymphoma, and that patients with systemic lymphoma treated in the post-HAART era have a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hematopoiesis. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous

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  • (PMID = 11423261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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8. Tamaki H, Kawakami M, Ikegame K, Iio K, Harada Y, Hatanaka K, Oka Y, Kawase I, Ogawa H: Successful treatment of tacrolimus (FK506)-related leukoencephalopathy with cerebral hemorrhage in a patient who underwent nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol; 2004 Oct;80(3):291-4
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of tacrolimus (FK506)-related leukoencephalopathy with cerebral hemorrhage in a patient who underwent nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation.
  • A 46-year-old woman with Hodgkin's disease who underwent nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation developed cortical blindness, seizures, and left hemiparesis on day 100 while receiving tacrolimus (FK506) and prednisone for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
  • However, 3 days after the episode, cerebral hemorrhage in the left occipital lobe with perforation to the left subdural space occurred.
  • Although FK506-induced leukoencephalopathy with cerebral hemorrhage is considered the more severe form of such leukoencephalopathy, the patient's neurological symptoms almost completely resolved and radiographic findings improved after discontinuation of FK506, tapering of methylprednisolone, and initiation of mycophenolate mofetil.
  • Although the symptoms usually subside after discontinuation of FK506, therapeutic intervention in many cases may result in severe complications, including GVHD and vascular disease.
  • We consider it important to use immunosuppressive agents without vascular endothelial toxicity for preventing the development of fatal GVHD after discontinuation of FK506.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / chemically induced. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Tacrolimus / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Remission Induction / methods. Transplantation Conditioning / methods

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  • (PMID = 15540907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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9. Kästner F, Paulus W, Deckert M, Schlegel P, Evers S, Husstedt IW: [Primary CNS lymphoma in azathioprine therapy for autoimmune diseases: review of the literature and case report]. Nervenarzt; 2007 Apr;78(4):451-6
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  • [Title] [Primary CNS lymphoma in azathioprine therapy for autoimmune diseases: review of the literature and case report].
  • We present a 31-year-old female patient with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS after immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Three months later the patient developed an epileptic seizure and multiple cerebral lesions were detected in CCT and MRI.
  • Although antibiotic therapy was started, the cerebral lesions showed no regression.
  • Stereotactic biopsy revealed immunochemical and histologic high-grade malignant B cell lymphoma.
  • The risk of primary CNS lymphoma under azathioprine treatment for an autoimmune disease with a possible congenital immunodeficiency is presented and the literature is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy. Azathioprine / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / chemically induced. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17375274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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