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1. Laskin JJ, Savage KJ, Voss N, Gascoyne RD, Connors JM: Primary paranasal sinus lymphoma: natural history and improved outcome with central nervous system chemoprophylaxis. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Dec;46(12):1721-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary paranasal sinus lymphoma: natural history and improved outcome with central nervous system chemoprophylaxis.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the paranasal sinus is an uncommon presentation of extranodal lymphoma.
  • Its natural history, treatment and prognosis have been infrequently characterized in the medical literature; however, a tendency to involve the central nervous system (CNS) has been noted.
  • In British Columbia (population 4 million), a central database for lymphomas has allowed us to accurately track cases of paranasal sinus lymphoma diagnosed since 1980.
  • A retrospective review was performed on the 44 patients who presented with primary paranasal sinus lymphoma (stage I or II) between 1980 and 1999.
  • Complete diagnostic and follow-up data including stage, treatment, response rates, sites of relapse and survival data were available for all patients.
  • The types of lymphoma found were: diffuse large B cell (including immunoblastic), n = 37 (84%); T/NK nasal type, n = 3 (8%); peripheral T cell, not otherwise classified, n = 2 (4%); and others, n = 2 (4%).
  • Beginning in May 1985, intrathecal chemotherapy was added to our standard treatment plan of multi-agent chemotherapy and local irradiation.
  • Following the institution of intrathecal chemotherapy, only 8% (3 of 39) of patients have developed CNS disease.
  • Primary paranasal sinus lymphoma is an uncommon presentation of lymphoma that carries the potential risk of spreading to the leptomeninges.
  • Treatment with combined modality chemotherapy and irradiation can cure many patients and the addition of intrathecal chemotherapy may reduce the risk of CNS relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoprevention. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / physiopathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / prevention & control. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16263574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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2. Luther N, Greenfield JP, Chadburn A, Schwartz TH: Intracranial nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: immunopathologically-confirmed case and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):185-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: immunopathologically-confirmed case and review of literature.
  • Advances in immunophenotypic profiling now permit characterization of natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma as distinct from other extranodal T- and B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • NK/T-cell lymphoma presents most commonly in the nasal cavity.
  • Disease progression to the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare phenomenon.
  • We present here, to our knowledge, the first immunophenotypically-confirmed case of direct extension of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma to the brain.
  • In addition, we review the literature with respect to NK/T-cell lymphoma metastasis to the CNS.
  • The overall prevalence of NK/T-cell lymphoma CNS metastasis is less than 3%.
  • Although rare, CNS invasion portends a poor prognosis, emphasizing the importance of early and accurate immunophenotype profiling and the need for novel, aggressive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / immunology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD3 / immunology. Antigens, CD4 / immunology. Antigens, CD56 / immunology. Craniotomy. Fatal Outcome. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / isolation & purification. Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects. Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16283442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD56
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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3. Corns R, Crocker M, Kumar A, Salisbury J, Tolias C, Sadler G, Hill M: Low grade cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: a novel response to treatment; a case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Jun;152(6):1075-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low grade cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: a novel response to treatment; a case report.
  • Low-grade primary T-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare.
  • Biopsy of this lesion revealed features of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with histochemical analysis confirming T-cell phenotype and a Ki67 proliferation index of only 1%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cerebellum / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurologic Examination. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19936608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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4. Hansen PB, Jensen MK: [Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the central nervous system. Still more questions than answers in the treatment?]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2007 Jun 4;169(23):2187-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the central nervous system. Still more questions than answers in the treatment?].
  • [Transliterated title] Primaere non-Hodgkin-lymfomer i centralnervesystemet. Stadig flere spørgsmål end svar i behandlingen?
  • The optimal treatment of primary non-Hodgkin"s lymphomas of the central nervous system is still under discussion.
  • Systemic treatment is compromised by the blood-brain barrier which is impermeable to several cytostatic agents.
  • For several years, the standard treatment has been methotrexate-based chemotherapy followed by CNS-radiotherapy.
  • Intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation is a new promising treatment approach without increased CNS-toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17592682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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5. Calderón EJ, Japón MA, Chinchón I, Soriano V, Capote FJ: Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system and HTLV-I infection. Haematologia (Budap); 2002;31(4):365-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system and HTLV-I infection.
  • Only a few cases of AIDS-related primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (CNS) show a T-cell phenotype.
  • We have recently studied two intravenous drug users with HIV infection who had primary CNS T-cell lymphomas.
  • In the first case, study by western-blot (WB) and specific PCR confirmed the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and serological study by EIA for HTLV of his mother was negative.
  • We speculate about the possibility that the horizontal transmission of HTLV-I infection could have facilitated the devepolment of a primary CNS T-cell lymphoma in these HIV patients, although they cannot be strictly considered as ATLL cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. HTLV-I Infections / complications. Lymphoma, T-Cell / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / complications

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  • (PMID = 12038521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6559
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologia (Budap)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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6. Guo HY, Zhao XM, Cao JN, Hu XC, Yin JL, Hong XN, Li J: [Prognosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Mar;30(3):200-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prognosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast (PNHLB).
  • RESULTS: Of these 45 patients, 37 patients had diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), patients with T cell or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma were 4, respectively.
  • Central nervous system involvement (RR = 1.107, P = 0.005) was a negative independent prognostic factor for PFS.
  • Most pathologic type was DLBCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms, Male / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18756936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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7. Harjunpää A, Wiklund T, Collan J, Janes R, Rosenberg J, Lee D, Grillo-López A, Meri S: Complement activation in circulation and central nervous system after rituximab (anti-CD20) treatment of B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Aug;42(4):731-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complement activation in circulation and central nervous system after rituximab (anti-CD20) treatment of B-cell lymphoma.
  • Rituximab (IDEC-C2B8, Mabthera, Rituxan), a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the B-cell specific CD20-antigen, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL).
  • Previous in vitro studies have shown that direct complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), ADCC and apoptosis are important in the rituximab-induced killing of lymphoma cells.
  • Therefore, we studied rituximab levels and complement (C) activation in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following intravenous rituximab therapy in a patient with relapsing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement.
  • Although a minor and delayed C activation response was seen in the CSF the treatment did not clear CD20-positive cells away from the CNS.
  • Thus, it appears that an intact blood-brain barrier restricts the entry of rituximab into the CNS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Complement Activation / drug effects. Complement C3a / analogs & derivatives. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Blood Circulation / immunology. Blood-Brain Barrier. Central Nervous System / immunology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / chemistry. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 11697503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / complement C3a, des-Arg-(77)-; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 80295-42-7 / Complement C3a
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8. Oertel SH, Riess H: Immunosurveillance, immunodeficiency and lymphoproliferations. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2002;159:1-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although there are some differences between these immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (IALD), they share several features: a tendency to present in extranodal sites, particularly the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, rapid clinical progression when untreated, diffuse large cell histology, B-cell origin and association with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • In the presence of disturbed T-cell function EBV may induce not only prolonged proliferation but also transformation of B-cells.
  • In patients with primary, congenital immunodeficiency the incidence of IALD ranges from 0.7% for patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia to 12-15% in patients with ataxia telangiectasia.
  • PT-LPD are often characterized by a polymorphic cell population.
  • Recent studies identified three categories: plasmacytic hyperplasia, polymorphic lymphoproliferation and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • The precise risk of lymphoma development in HIV infection is not defined, but estimates suggest a prevalence of 3-4%.
  • HIV-related NHLs are divisible by site of manifestation into systemic, primary central nervous system and body-cavity lymphomas, and by pathology into Burkitt's and Burkitt's-like lymphoma, and diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL).
  • In about 90% of cases these lymphomas are of monoclonal B-cell composition.
  • Recent experiences suggest a link between therapy with immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophospamide, etc.) and development of IALD, best supported by the increased rate of IALD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who receive methotrexate therapy.

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  • (PMID = 11785833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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9. Corti M, Villafañe Fioti MF, Lewi D, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, de Dios Soler M: [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2006 Dec;36(4):190-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfomas del tubo digestivo y glándulas anexas en pacientes con SIDA. Serie de casos.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm among patients with AIDS.
  • RESULTS: All patients were males; 4 were heterosexual, 2 homosexual, and 1 were a hemophilic and an intravenous drug abuser.
  • The median age was 42 years and the median CD4 T cell count was 87 cells/uL at the time of the diagnosis of neoplasm.
  • No patient was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at lymphoma diagnosis.
  • The global incidence of AIDS-associated lymphomas (central nervous system lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma) during the time of study was 2,9% (54 cases); 17 patients (32%) had diagnosis of systemic NHL; 10 (58,8%) of them were extranodal at the onset of clinical symptoms and 8 (80%) involvement the digestive tract and anexal glands (parotid gland, cavum, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, the right colon in 2 patients and the liver), as primary NHL of high grade and "B" phenotype.
  • Primary duodenal lymphoma was the only Burkitt lymphoma of this serie and we detected the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the biopsy smears of this tumor and in the hepatic lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis


10. Gerstner E, Batchelor T: Primary CNS lymphoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 May;7(5):689-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary CNS lymphoma.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma, an uncommon form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, has increased in incidence and occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients is associated with unique diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues and the management of this malignancy is different from other forms of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Since primary CNS lymphoma may involve the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and eyes, diagnostic evaluation should include assessment of all of these regions as well as screening for the possibility of occult systemic disease.
  • The incidence of HIV-related primary CNS lymphoma has decreased in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Patients with HIV-associated primary CNS lymphoma have a worse prognosis but may respond to highly active antiretroviral therapy, whole-brain radiation therapy or therapies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Combined Modality Therapy. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17492932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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