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1. Paris KA, Haq O, Felts AK, Das K, Arnold E, Levy RM: Conformational landscape of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket: lessons for inhibitor design from a cluster analysis of many crystal structures. J Med Chem; 2009 Oct 22;52(20):6413-20
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  • [Title] Conformational landscape of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket: lessons for inhibitor design from a cluster analysis of many crystal structures.
  • Clustering of 99 available X-ray crystal structures of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) at the flexible non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket (NNIBP) provides information about features of the conformational landscape for binding non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs), including effects of mutation and crystal forms.
  • The ensemble of NNIBP conformations is separated into eight discrete clusters based primarily on the position of the functionally important primer grip, the displacement of which is believed to be one of the mechanisms of inhibition of RT.

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  • (PMID = 19827836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM030580; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI027690; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI27690; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM30580
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.- / reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 1; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS144565; NLM/ PMC3182518
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2. Mundt AJ, Rotmensch J, Waggoner SE, Yamada D, Langhauser C, Fleming GF: Phase I trial of concomitant vinorelbine, paclitaxel, and pelvic irradiation in cervical carcinoma and other advanced pelvic malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Aug;82(2):333-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and toxicity of concomitant vinorelbine, paclitaxel, and pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with advanced cervical cancer and other pelvic malignancies.
  • In part I, vinorelbine was administered as a single agent during pelvic RT at a starting dose of 10 mg/m(2)/week with subsequent cohorts being escalated in 5 mg/m(2)/week increments.
  • In part II, paclitaxel was added to vinorelbine (20 mg/m(2)/week) and pelvic RT at a starting dose of 20 mg/m(2)/week.
  • Twenty-seven received vinorelbine and 6 received both paclitaxel and vinorelbine in combination with pelvic RT.
  • Escalating vinorelbine doses to 25 mg/m(2)/week were well tolerated, with the primary toxicity being hematologic.
  • RT was delayed in only 1 patient due to acute hematologic toxicity.
  • In contrast, the combination of paclitaxel, vinorelbine, and pelvic RT was not well tolerated.
  • Five of 6 patients (83%) experienced grade > or = 2 leukopenia, with 2 patients missing > 1 cycle of chemotherapy.
  • Moreover, RT was delayed for 1 week in 2 of 6 patients (33%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant pelvic RT and vinorelbine with doses to 25 mg/m(2)/week is well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radiotherapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11531289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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3. Newman LA, Mair RG: Cholinergic modulation of visuospatial responding in central thalamus. Eur J Neurosci; 2007 Dec;26(12):3543-52
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  • [Title] Cholinergic modulation of visuospatial responding in central thalamus.
  • Central thalamus has extensive connections with basal ganglia and frontal cortex that are thought to play a critical role in sensory-guided goal-directed behavior.
  • Central thalamic activity is influenced by cholinergic projections from mesopontine nuclei.
  • To elucidate this function we trained rats to respond to lights in a reaction time (RT) task and compared effects of muscarinic (2.4, 7.3, 22 nmol scopolamine) and nicotinic (5.4, 16, 49, 98 nmol mecamylamine) antagonists with the GABA(A) agonist muscimol (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 nmol) in central thalamus.
  • Subcutaneous mecamylamine increased omissions at the highest dose tested while impairing RT and per cent correct at lower doses.
  • Intrathalamic injections of muscimol and mecamylamine decreased per cent correct at doses that did not affect omissions or RT.
  • Intrathalamic scopolamine increased omissions and RT at doses that had little effect on per cent correct.
  • Anatomical controls indicated that the effects of mecamylamine were localized in central thalamus and those of scopolamine were not.
  • Drug effects did not interact with attention-demanding manipulations of stimulus duration, proximity of stimulus and response locations, or stimulus array size.
  • These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central thalamus mediates decisional processes linking sensory stimuli with actions, downstream from systems that detect sensory signals.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholinergic Antagonists / pharmacology. Space Perception / physiology. Thalamus / drug effects. Thalamus / physiology. Visual Perception / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / radiation effects. Choice Behavior / physiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. GABA Agonists / administration & dosage. GABA Agonists / pharmacology. Injections. Injections, Subcutaneous. Light. Male. Mecamylamine / administration & dosage. Mecamylamine / pharmacology. Muscimol / administration & dosage. Muscimol / pharmacology. Nicotinic Antagonists / administration & dosage. Nicotinic Antagonists / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Reaction Time / drug effects. Scopolamine Hydrobromide / administration & dosage. Scopolamine Hydrobromide / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18088280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9568
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinergic Antagonists; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / GABA Agonists; 0 / Nicotinic Antagonists; 2763-96-4 / Muscimol; 451IFR0GXB / Scopolamine Hydrobromide; 6EE945D3OK / Mecamylamine
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4. Song H, Li J, Shi S, Yan L, Zhuang H, Li K: Thermal stability and inactivation of hepatitis C virus grown in cell culture. Virol J; 2010 Feb 18;7:40
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  • RESULTS: HCVcc in culture medium was found to survive 37 degrees C and room temperature (RT, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) for 2 and 16 days, respectively, while the virus was relatively stable at 4 degrees C without drastic loss of infectivity for at least 6 weeks.
  • Addition of normal human serum to HCVcc did not significantly alter viral stability at RT or its susceptibility to heat.

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  • (PMID = 20167059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI069285; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01-AI069285
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Detergents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2834657
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5. Furchert SE, Lanvers-Kaminsky C, Juürgens H, Jung M, Loidl A, Frühwald MC: Inhibitors of histone deacetylases as potential therapeutic tools for high-risk embryonal tumors of the nervous system of childhood. Int J Cancer; 2007 Apr 15;120(8):1787-94
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  • [Title] Inhibitors of histone deacetylases as potential therapeutic tools for high-risk embryonal tumors of the nervous system of childhood.
  • The origin of malignant embryonal tumors is incompletely understood and certain risk groups remain difficult to treat.
  • The authors evaluated the cytotoxicity of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) [MS-275, SAHA, TSA, M344, M360, D85, SW55, SW187 and valproic acid (VPA)] on 13 embryonal tumor cell lines [4 medulloblastomas, 5 neuroblastomas, 2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and 2 malignant rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (RTK)] in MTT assay.
  • In addition, HDI effects on hyperacetylation, reexpression of growth regulatory genes and apoptosis were characterized by Western analysis, RT-PCR and annexin-V staining.
  • All HDI inhibited cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
  • Reactivation of several genes including the proapoptotic CASP8 was identified by RT-PCR.
  • Annexin-V staining demonstrated a dose and time dependent induction of apoptosis.
  • HDI inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma and rhabdoid tumors in vitro.
  • Our results warrant further studies and may help in the design of new protocols geared at the treatment of high risk embryonal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Annexin A5 / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Factors. Valproic Acid / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17230517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Histones; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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6. Berkhout B, Back NK, de Ronde A, Jurriaans S, Bakker M, Parkin NT, van der Hoek L: Identification of alternative amino acid substitutions in drug-resistant variants of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. AIDS; 2006 Jul 13;20(11):1515-20
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  • [Title] Identification of alternative amino acid substitutions in drug-resistant variants of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
  • OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: To identify new drug-resistance-associated mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) protein, we screened the RT sequence database of our hospital for alternative amino acid substitutions at known RT drug-resistance positions.
  • METHOD: The genotypic database used for this analysis contained 1322 RT sequences from 1015 patients.
  • We analysed this RT database with a focus on alternative mutations at RT positions known to be involved in drug resistance.
  • The patterns of drug resistance associated with these alternative mutations were investigated in a separate database containing genotype and drug-susceptibility results.
  • RESULTS: We identified multiple alternative resistance-associated mutations at amino acid positions 44, 62, 67, 69, 70, 74, 75, 103, 181, 190, 210, and 219 in RT.
  • Phenotypic analysis indicated that drug-resistance properties of the alternative Y181V and L74I mutants are similar, but not identical, to that of the well-known Y181C and L74V mutations.
  • CONCLUSION: This initial survey indicates that many resistance-associated phenomena can be distilled from existing data.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / genetics. HIV-1 / drug effects. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Databases, Genetic. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 16847406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
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7. Quiros-Roldan E, Moretti F, Airoldi M, Fausti C, Chiodera A, Castelli F, Carosi G: Long-term benefit of genotypic-guided therapy and prevalence of multinucleoside resistance in an Italian group of antiretroviral multiexperienced patients. J Clin Lab Anal; 2001;15(3):127-30
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  • [Title] Long-term benefit of genotypic-guided therapy and prevalence of multinucleoside resistance in an Italian group of antiretroviral multiexperienced patients.
  • Multiple nucleoside resistance involves specific genetic changes in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene, such as Q151M mutation and an insertion of two serine aminoacids at RT codon 69.
  • Among 432 patients failing antiretroviral therapy, five (1.15%) harboured viruses with Q151M mutation into the RT gene and no viruses were identified harbouring insertion at codon 69.
  • Also we have studied the long-term benefit of HIV genotypic testing with the failure to reach a viral load below 50 copies/ml within 1 year of antiretroviral therapy using as the primary end-point.
  • The development of more precise resistance tests and interpretations are needed for better control of HIV replication.
  • Other metabolic/pharmacokinetics factors of poor drug adherence should also be assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Mutation. RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / genetics


8. Chang WE, Takeda T, Raman EP, Klimov DK: Molecular dynamics simulations of anti-aggregation effect of ibuprofen. Biophys J; 2010 Jun 2;98(11):2662-70
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  • Using implicit solvent molecular dynamics and replica exchange simulations, we study the impact of ibuprofen on the growth of wild-type Abeta fibrils.
  • As a result, ibuprofen interference modifies the free energy landscape of fibril growth and reduces the free energy gain of Abeta peptide binding to the fibril by approximately 2.5 RT at 360 K.
  • [MeSH-minor] Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Protein Multimerization / drug effects. Protein Structure, Quaternary. Temperature. Thermodynamics. Water / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20513411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-0086
  • [Journal-full-title] Biophysical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biophys. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG028191
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid; 0 / Amyloid beta-Peptides; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 059QF0KO0R / Water; WK2XYI10QM / Ibuprofen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877328
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9. Kapur R, Tu EY, Pendland SL, Fiscella R, Sugar J: The effect of temperature on the antimicrobial activity of Optisol-GS. Cornea; 2006 Apr;25(3):319-24
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  • After 48 hours of refrigeration, all vials were placed at room temperature (RT) and counts were performed at 48, 50 (2 hour RT), 54 (6 hour RT), 60 (12 hour RT), 72 (24 hour RT), and 96 (48 hour RT) hours.
  • RESULTS: Except for the 10 CFU/mL inocula of P. aeruginosa, all isolates were viable after 48 hours of refrigeration.
  • Rapid bactericidal activity was observed against P. aeruginosa after 2 hours at RT, with complete sterilization by 6 hours.
  • Bactericidal activity was achieved after 2 hours at RT with 10 CFU/mL of S. aureus versus 24 hours with the 10 inoculum.
  • Of note, bactericidal activity was not observed against S. pneumoniae and E. faecium following 24 hours of storage at RT.
  • The presence of corneal tissue did not affect viable counts, with counts from corneal tissue cultures reflecting the counts seen from Optisol-GS after 48 hours at RT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The antimicrobial activity of Optisol-GS was reduced at refrigerated temperature and enhanced at RT.
  • Bactericidal activity was not observed against E. faecium at either refrigerated temperature or RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Bacteria / drug effects. Chondroitin Sulfates / pharmacology. Culture Media, Serum-Free / pharmacology. Dextrans / pharmacology. Gentamicins / pharmacology. Temperature
  • [MeSH-minor] Colony Count, Microbial. Complex Mixtures / pharmacology. Cornea / microbiology. Enterococcus faecium / drug effects. Humans. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Pilot Projects. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects. Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects. Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16633033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Complex Mixtures; 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Gentamicins; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; 97794-22-4 / Optisol; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans
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10. Chang SM, Lamborn KR, Malec M, Larson D, Wara W, Sneed P, Rabbitt J, Page M, Nicholas MK, Prados MD: Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide with radiation therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Oct 1;60(2):353-7
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  • PURPOSE: The chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) and the antiangiogenic agent thalidomide have both demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine if the combined strategy of these oral agents with radiation therapy (RT) is associated with an improved median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and to evaluate toxicity.
  • Radiotherapy parameters were a total dose of 60 Gy delivered in 2 Gy fractions over 6 weeks.
  • Temozolomide was administered starting the first day of RT at 150 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days every 4 weeks for the first cycle and escalated to a maximum dose of 200 mg/m(2).
  • Thalidomide was started on Day 7 of RT at 200 mg and escalated by 100-200 mg every 1-2 weeks depending on patient tolerance, to a maximum of 1,200 mg daily.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one patients have progressed, with a median time to progression of 22 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This strategy of combination TMZ, thalid and RT was relatively well tolerated with favorable survival outcome for patients with GM when compared to patients not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and similar to those who have received nitrosourea adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15380566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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11. Kao CL, Huang PI, Tsai PH, Tsai ML, Lo JF, Lee YY, Chen YJ, Chen YW, Chiou SH: Resveratrol-induced apoptosis and increased radiosensitivity in CD133-positive cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 May 1;74(1):219-28
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  • [Title] Resveratrol-induced apoptosis and increased radiosensitivity in CD133-positive cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • PURPOSE: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133(+/-)).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: AT/RT-CD133(+/-) were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses.
  • RESULTS: AT/RT-CD133(+) displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed "stem cell" genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133(-) cells.
  • After treatment with 200 microM RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133(+) were dramatically inhibited.
  • Importantly, treatment with 150 microM RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133(+), and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133(+) into CD133(-).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AT/RT-CD133(+) exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment.
  • Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133(+/-); RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Radiation Tolerance / drug effects. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Stilbenes / therapeutic use. Teratoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, SCID. Peptides / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19362240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Stilbenes; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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12. Angelopoulou MK, Vassilakopoulos TP, Siakantaris MP, Kontopidou FN, Boussiotis VA, Papavassiliou C, Kittas C, Pangalis GA: EBVD combination chemotherapy plus low dose involved field radiation is a highly effective treatment modality for early stage Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Mar;37(1-2):131-43
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  • To evaluate the efficacy of EBVD combination chemotherapy followed by low dose (LD) involved field (IF) radiation therapy (RT) in patients with clinical stage (CS) I-IIA Hodgkin's disease (HD), we analyzed 148 patients treated in our Unit from March 1988 to November 1995.
  • All drugs were administered i.v. at days 1 and 15, every 4 weeks, for a total of 4-6 cycles.
  • LDIF RT (24-32 Gy) was scheduled for patients with complete response (CR) or >90% reduction of tumor load, after EBVD.
  • Patients with stable or progressive disease (SD, PD) after EBVDx3 or poor compliance to the regimen received mantle or inverted Y RT at standard dose.
  • 129 patients achieved a CR after EBVD and 10 a >90% reduction of tumor load, for a post-CT response rate of 94%.
  • All 9 patients received mantle or inverted Y RT and 8/9 achieved a CR.
  • Nine patients relapsed at a median of 7 months from the end of treatment.
  • We conclude that EBVD followed by LDIF RT is a highly effective regimen for patients with CS I-IIA HD.
  • Longer follow up is required to assess the risk of secondary malignancies, especially solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10721777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EBVD protocol
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13. Toropainen T, Heikkilä T, Leppänen J, Matilainen L, Velaga S, Jarho P, Carlfors J, Lehto VP, Järvinen T, Järvinen K: Crystal structure changes of gamma-cyclodextrin after the SEDS process in supercritical carbon dioxide affect the dissolution rate of complexed budesonide. Pharm Res; 2007 Jun;24(6):1058-66
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: gamma-CD solution (10 mg/ml in 50% ethanol) was pumped together with supercritical carbon dioxide through a coaxial nozzle with or without a model drug, budesonide (3.3 mg/ml).
  • The processing conditions were 100 b and 40, 60 or 80 degrees C. gamma-CD powders were characterised before and after vacuum-drying (2-3 days at RT) with XRPD, SEM and NMR.
  • RESULTS: During the SEDS process (100 b, 40 and 60 degrees C), gamma-CD and budesonide/gamma-CD complexes crystallized in a tetragonal channel-type form.
  • At 80 degrees C, amorphous gamma-CD was obtained while the complexes crystallized in a hexagonal channel-type form.

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  • (PMID = 17385023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / gamma-Cyclodextrins; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; 51333-22-3 / Budesonide; KZJ0BYZ5VA / gamma-cyclodextrin
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14. Marrif H, Schifman A, Stepanyan Z, Gillis MA, Calderone A, Weiss RE, Samarut J, Silva JE: Temperature homeostasis in transgenic mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor-alpha gene products. Endocrinology; 2005 Jul;146(7):2872-84
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  • [Title] Temperature homeostasis in transgenic mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor-alpha gene products.
  • We studied temperature homeostasis in male mice lacking all thyroid hormone receptor-alpha gene products (TRalpha-0/0).
  • As other TRalpha-deficient mice, TRalpha-0/0 mice have lower core body temperature (T(C)) than cognate wild-type controls.
  • We found that obligatory thermogenesis is normal in TRalpha-0/0 and that the lower T(C) at room temperature (RT, 20-22 C) is caused by a down setting of the hypothalamic thermostat.
  • BAT normally contributes to maintain T(C) at RT, 9 C below thermoneutrality, yet TRalpha-0/0 mice do not show signs of being cold stressed at 20-22 C.
  • Instead, oxygen consumption is greater in TRalpha-0/0 than in wild-type mice at RT, suggesting the recruitment of an alternate, cold-activated form of thermogenesis to compensate for the lack of BAT thermogenesis.
  • These results indicate that TRalpha is necessary for T(3) to modulate the central control of T(C) and for an essential step in norepinephrine activation of BAT thermogenesis but not to sustain obligatory thermogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acclimatization. Adipose Tissue, Brown / drug effects. Adipose Tissue, Brown / physiopathology. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Animals. Cold Temperature. Female. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Oxygen Consumption. Stress, Physiological / blood. Stress, Physiological / physiopathology. Temperature. Thermogenesis / drug effects. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood

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  • (PMID = 15845618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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15. Isobe K, Uno T, Kawakami H, Ueno N, Kawata T, Abe H, Minowa K, Yamamoto S, Ito H: Radiation therapy for idiopathic orbital myositis: two case reports and literature review. Radiat Med; 2004 Nov-Dec;22(6):429-31
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  • We report two cases of idiopathic orbital myositis treated with radiation therapy (RT).
  • There was no history of thyroid disease or trauma, and no signs of infection, neoplasm, or collagen disease.
  • The laboratory investigations, including a thyroid function test, showed no abnormalities in either woman.
  • They were initially treated with a combination of corticosteroids (CS) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, they became dependent on or refractory to oral CS therapy, and received 20 Gy in 10 fractions of RT to the orbit.
  • Their symptoms decreased immediately, and both patients were able to reduce the dosage of oral CS after RT.
  • However, they both experienced recurrence at eight months after RT, and have been receiving oral CS to control their symptoms.
  • RT at doses of 20 Gy in 10 fractions for patients with idiopathic orbital myositis appears to be effective in palliating symptoms, but long-term control is not satisfactory.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 15648461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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16. Shin HS, Seong J, Kim WC, Lee HS, Moon SR, Lee IJ, Lee KK, Park KR, Suh CO, Kim GE: Combination of external beam irradiation and high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy for inoperable carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Sep 1;57(1):105-12
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  • PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and therapeutic benefits of a combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) for treating patients with inoperable carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Of 31 patients who received RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea between 1986 and 1995, 17 patients underwent EBRT alone (Group 1) and 14 patients were treated with EBRT in combination with high-dose-rate ILBT (Group 2).
  • After external drainage, EBRT was delivered with a total dose ranging from 36 to 55 Gy (median 50.4) in both groups.
  • High-dose-rate ILBT for the patients in Group 2 was performed using a high-intensity (192)Ir source (Gamma-med remote afterloading system) within the expandable intrabiliary prosthesis (Gianturco stent), inserted transhepatically at the site of the obstruction.
  • The radiation dose of the high-dose-rate ILBT was prescribed at 1.5 cm from the center of the source with a single daily dose of 5 Gy to a total of 15 Gy given in three fractions.
  • RESULTS: Although locoregional recurrence was the most common pattern of failure in both groups, no statistically significant difference was found in the recurrence rates between those who did and did not receive ILBT (53% for Group 1 vs. 36% for Group 2; p > 0.05).
  • However, a prolongation of the median time to tumor recurrence was observed in the Group 2 patients (5 months for Group 1 vs. 9 months for Group 2; p = 0.06).
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 12909222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Shalaby T, von Bueren AO, Hürlimann ML, Fiaschetti G, Castelletti D, Masayuki T, Nagasawa K, Arcaro A, Jelesarov I, Shin-ya K, Grotzer M: Disabling c-Myc in childhood medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor cells by the potent G-quadruplex interactive agent S2T1-6OTD. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Jan;9(1):167-79
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  • [Title] Disabling c-Myc in childhood medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor cells by the potent G-quadruplex interactive agent S2T1-6OTD.
  • We investigated here the effects of S2T1-6OTD, a novel telomestatin derivative that is synthesized to target G-quadruplex-forming DNA sequences, on a representative panel of human medulloblastoma (MB) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid (AT/RT) childhood brain cancer cell lines.
  • In remarkable contrast to control cells, short-term (72-hour) treatment with S2T1-6OTD resulted in a dose- and time-dependent antiproliferative effect in all MB and AT/RT brain tumor cell lines tested (IC(50), 0.25-0.39 micromol/L).
  • Long-term treatment (5 weeks) with nontoxic concentrations of S2T1-6OTD resulted in a time-dependent (mainly c-Myc-dependent) telomere shortening.
  • On in vivo animal testing, S2T1-6OTD may well represent a novel therapeutic strategy for childhood brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] G-Quadruplexes / drug effects. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Oxazoles / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Base Sequence. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Protein Binding / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Telomerase / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism. Time Factors


18. Venkateshwar Goud T, Srinivasa Reddy N, Raghavendra Swamy N, Siva Ram T, Venkateswarlu Y: Anti-HIV active petrosins from the marine sponge Petrosia similis. Biol Pharm Bull; 2003 Oct;26(10):1498-501
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  • In extracellular HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase inhibition assay petrosin and petrosin-A inhibited HIV-1 RT at 10.6 and 14.8 microm.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. HIV-1 / drug effects. Porifera
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. HeLa Cells. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14519963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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19. Nartthanarung A, Thanapprapasr D: Comparison of outcomes for patients with cervical cancer who developed bone metastasis after the primary treatment with concurrent chemoradiation versus radiation therapy alone. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Nov;20(8):1386-90
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  • [Title] Comparison of outcomes for patients with cervical cancer who developed bone metastasis after the primary treatment with concurrent chemoradiation versus radiation therapy alone.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to retrospectively compare outcomes for patients with cervical cancer who developed bone metastasis later after the primary treatment at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) to radiation therapy alone (RT).
  • Of these, 11 patients who received CCRT and 24 patients who received RT went on to develop bone metastasis.
  • Sixteen patients were excluded including 10 patients with unavailable records and 6 patients who did not receive CCRT or RT at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer.
  • Thirty-five patients who had bone metastasis received primary treatment with CCRT or RT.
  • The 2 groups of patients (CCRT vs RT) were similar in age, histologic cell type, and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages.
  • The patients who received CCRT did not have a better overall survival than the patients who received RT (median, 19 vs 22 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.68-23.32 vs 8.56-35.44).
  • They were comparable in the interval from cervical cancer diagnoses to diagnoses of bone metastasis (CCRT group: median, 14 months; 95% CI, 9.14-18.86; RT group: median; 15 months; 95% CI, 10.20-19.80) and the survival after diagnosis of bone metastasis between both groups (CCRT group: median, 4 months; 95% CI, 0.76-7.24; RT group: median, 7 months; 95% CI, 4.70-9.30).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective analysis showed that there were no differences in survival benefits observed between the patients with cervical cancer who developed bone metastases later after the primary treatment with CCRT and RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


20. Tchesnokov EP, Grivel JC, Biancotto A, Brichacek B, Elliott J, Fromentin E, Shattock R, Anton P, Gorelick R, Balzarini J, McGuigan C, Derudas M, Götte M, Schinazi RF, Margolis L: Acyclovir is activated into a HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor in herpesvirus-infected human tissues. Cell Host Microbe; 2008 Sep 11;4(3):260-270
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  • Acyclovir (ACV) is one such drug.
  • Furthermore, phosphorylated ACV directly inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), terminating DNA chain elongation, and can trap RT at the termination site.
  • These data suggest that ACV anti-HIV-1 activity may contribute to the response of HIV/HHV-coinfected patients to ACV treatment and could guide strategies for the development of new HIV-1 RT inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyclovir / pharmacology. Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / drug effects. Herpes Simplex / virology. Herpesvirus 2, Human / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biotransformation. Cells, Cultured. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Lymphoid Tissue / virology. Phosphorylation. Prodrugs / metabolism. Prodrugs / pharmacology. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • [CommentIn] Cell Host Microbe. 2008 Sep 11;4(3):194-5 [18779044.001]
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  • (PMID = 18779052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-6069
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell host & microbe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Host Microbe
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD001416-18; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5R37-AI-041980; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD001416-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI041980; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5P30-AI-50409
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS69880; NLM/ PMC4210193
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21. Friest JA, Maezato Y, Broussy S, Blum P, Berkowitz DB: Use of a robust dehydrogenase from an archael hyperthermophile in asymmetric catalysis-dynamic reductive kinetic resolution entry into (S)-profens. J Am Chem Soc; 2010 May 5;132(17):5930-1
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  • Described is an efficient heterologous expression system for Sulfolobus solfataricus ADH-10 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase isozyme 10) and its use in the dynamic reductive kinetic resolution (DYRKR) of 2-arylpropanal (Profen-type) substrates.
  • Importantly, among the 12 aldehydes tested, a general preference for the (S)-antipode was observed, with high ee's for substrates corresponding to the NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) naproxen, ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, and fenoprofen.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first application of a dehydrogenase from this Sulfolobus hyperthermophile to asymmetric synthesis and the first example of a DYRKR with such an enzyme.
  • The requisite aldehydes are generated by Buchwald-Hartwig-type Pd(0)-mediated alpha-arylation of tert-butyl propionate.
  • Importantly, the SsADH-10 enzyme could be conveniently recycled by exploiting the differential solubility of the organic substrate/product at 80 degrees C and at rt.

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  • (PMID = 20377222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5126
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR016544; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR016544-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016544; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / SIG-1-510-RR-06307
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS195034; NLM/ PMC2869291
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22. Yusuf A, Al Dgither S, Hammami MM: Validation of a new high-performance liquid chromatography assay for nizatidine. Ther Drug Monit; 2006 Apr;28(2):232-6
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  • [Title] Validation of a new high-performance liquid chromatography assay for nizatidine.
  • After deproteinization of 200 microL of plasma by filtration, nizatidine and 4-amino-antipyrine (internal standard) were separated (capacity ratio 3.0 and 6.63, respectively) on Nova-Pak C18 cartridge at room temperature (RT), and detected spectrophotometrically at 320 nm.
  • Calibration curves were linear (r2 > or = 0.999) in the range 0.02 to 5 microg/mL, detection and quantification limits were 0.01 and 0.02 microg/mL, respectively, intra-run and inter-run coefficients of variation were < or = 3.5% and < or = 4.2%, respectively, and recovery was >90%.
  • Nizatidine was stable for at least 4 hours at RT, 12 weeks at -20 degrees C, and 3 freeze-thaw cycles in plasma; 16 hours at RT and 48 hours at -20 degrees C in deproteinized plasma; and 6 hours at RT and 3 weeks at -20 degrees C in water.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ampyrone / analysis. Antipyrine / analogs & derivatives. Antipyrine / analysis. Capsules. Drug Stability. Histamine H2 Antagonists / analysis. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Reference Standards. Reproducibility of Results. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16628136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsules; 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0M0B7474RA / Ampyrone; P41PML4GHR / Nizatidine; T3CHA1B51H / Antipyrine
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23. Crook J, Ludgate C, Malone S, Perry G, Eapen L, Bowen J, Robertson S, Lockwood G: Final report of multicenter Canadian Phase III randomized trial of 3 versus 8 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy before conventional-dose radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Feb 1;73(2):327-33
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of 3 vs. 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before conventional-dose radiotherapy (RT) on disease-free survival for localized prostate cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between February 1995 and June 2001, 378 men were randomized to either 3 or 8 months of flutamide and goserelin before 66 Gy RT at four participating centers.
  • CONCLUSION: A longer period of NHT before standard-dose RT did not alter the patterns of failure when combined with 66-Gy RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Flutamide / administration & dosage. Goserelin / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Canada. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18707821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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24. Hashizume R, Gupta N, Berger MS, Banerjee A, Prados MD, Ayers-Ringler J, James CD, VandenBerg SR: Morphologic and molecular characterization of ATRT xenografts adapted for orthotopic therapeutic testing. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Apr;12(4):366-76
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  • [Title] Morphologic and molecular characterization of ATRT xenografts adapted for orthotopic therapeutic testing.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a malignant tumor of the central nervous system that most commonly arises in young children.
  • Large clinical trials that could test new therapeutic agents are difficult to conduct due to the low incidence of this cancer.
  • Our results indicate that following supratentorial or infratentorial injection in athymic mice, ATRT cells produce rapidly growing tumors, often with intraventricular spread or neuraxis dissemination.
  • When established as orthotopic xenografts, the tumors predominantly display cells with a rhabdoid-like cellular morphology that show a spectrum of immunophenotypes similar to primary ATRT tumors.
  • These data suggest that an orthotopic ATRT xenograft model, in which BLI is used for monitoring tumor growth and response to therapy, should contribute to the identification of effective therapeutics and regimens for treating this highly aggressive pediatric brain tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20308314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA097257
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940601
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25. Blaney S, Berg SL, Pratt C, Weitman S, Sullivan J, Luchtman-Jones L, Bernstein M: A phase I study of irinotecan in pediatric patients: a pediatric oncology group study. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Jan;7(1):32-7
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  • A Phase I trial of irinotecan was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and the incidence and severity of other toxicities in children with refractory solid tumors.
  • Myelosuppression was the primary DLT in heavily pretreated patients, and diarrhea was the DLT in less-heavily pretreated patients.
  • Stable disease (4-20 cycles) was observed in seven patients with a variety of malignancies including neuroblastoma, pineoblastoma, glioblastoma, brainstem glioma, osteosarcoma, hepatoblastoma, and a central nervous system rhabdoid tumor.
  • In conclusion, the recommended Phase II dose of irinotecan administered as a 60-min i.v. infusion daily for 5 days, every 21 days, is 39 mg/m2 in heavily treated and 50 mg/m2 in less-heavily treated children with solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hematologic Tests. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Toxicity Tests. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11205914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1RR00188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA57745
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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26. Hess DR, Pang JM, Camargo CA Jr: A survey of the use of noninvasive ventilation in academic emergency departments in the United States. Respir Care; 2009 Oct;54(10):1306-12
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  • METHODS: A survey instrument was developed by the authors, pilot tested, and distributed to one physician (MD) and one respiratory therapist (RT) at the 132 hospitals with emergency medicine residencies.
  • Ninety-nine percent of RTs and 64% of MDs are very familiar with NIV (P<.001).
  • The reported time needed to initiate NIV was <10 min for 41% of sites (<20 min for 89%).
  • Compared to the time requirement in other clinical areas, 60% of RTs reported that NIV "takes no additional time" in the ED.
  • An RT is always present in 38% the EDs, and equipment for NIV is readily available in 76% of the EDs.
  • Barriers to greater use of NIV in the ED include physician familiarity, availability of RT and equipment in the ED, and time required for NIV.


27. Al-Dgither S, Alvi SN, Hammami MM: Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of gatifloxacin stability in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal; 2006 Apr 11;41(1):251-5
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  • The mobile phase, 0.025 M disodium hydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v), were delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min.
  • Plasma samples were deproteinized using Amicon Centrifree system.
  • No interference in blank plasma or of commonly used drugs was observed.
  • Gatifloxacin was found to be stable for at least 5 h at RT, 7 weeks at -20 degrees C, and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles in plasma; 16 h at RT and 48 h at -20 degrees C in deproteinized plasma; and 24 h at RT and 7 weeks at -20 degrees C in phosphate buffer.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Drug Stability. Fluoroquinolones / analysis. Fluoroquinolones / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetonitriles / chemistry. Calibration. Ciprofloxacin / analysis. Ciprofloxacin / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Models, Chemical. Phosphoric Acids / chemistry. Quality Control. Reproducibility of Results. Spectrophotometry / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16311002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0731-7085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Biomed Anal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Phosphoric Acids; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin; E4GA8884NN / phosphoric acid; L4618BD7KJ / gatifloxacin; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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28. Im SJ, Kim KN, Yun YG, Lee JC, Mun YJ, Kim JH, Woo WH: Effect of Radix Ginseng and Radix Trichosanthis on the melanogenesis. Biol Pharm Bull; 2003 Jun;26(6):849-53
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  • In this study, we conducted to evaluate the effects of Radix Ginseng (RG) and Radix Trichosanthis (RT) on the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells.
  • The cells were treated for 48 h with RT at concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 microg/ml, RG at concentration of 10-1000 microg/ml, or RG at various doses (10-1000 microg/ml) with 25 microg/ml RT.
  • Treatment with RT alone dose-dependently suppressed tyrosinase activity and melanin content compared with untreated control, and significantly inhibited cell proliferation.
  • Treatment with RT in the presence of various concentrations of RG suppressed tyrosinase activity and melanin content, similar to treatment with RT alone, but slightly increased cell proliferation.
  • Furthermore, tyrosinase protein level was significantly decreased in treatment with 25 microg/ml RT alone and with a combination of 100 microg/ml RG.
  • These results indicate that treatment with RG and RT significantly inhibits the melanogenesis in B16 cells, and raise the possibility that this combination may be effective in the whitening agent for the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology. Melanins / biosynthesis. Monophenol Monooxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors. Panax / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Mice. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12808298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Melanins; 0 / radix Trichosanthis; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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29. Zaki MI, Knözinger H, Tesche B, Mekhemer GA: Influence of phosphonation and phosphation on surface acid-base and morphological properties of CaO as investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. J Colloid Interface Sci; 2006 Nov 1;303(1):9-17
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  • Surface acid-base properties were probed by in situ FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO (at 85 K), CDCl3 (at RT), CO2 (at RT), and methyl butynol decomposition reactions (at 473 K).
  • These findings may establish surface chemical attributes for the application of the methylene bisphosphonate (MBP) class of drugs to hamper acid-induced resorption of bone materials (osteoporosis).

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  • (PMID = 16934283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9797
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of colloid and interface science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Colloid Interface Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Vega DR, Polla G, Martinez A, Mendioroz E, Reinoso M: Conformational polymorphism in bicalutamide. Int J Pharm; 2007 Jan 10;328(2):112-8
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  • The relative stability between forms I and II is presented in an energy versus temperature diagram, where forms I and II are considered as a monotropic system, being form I the more stable one.
  • The amorphous phase was observed very metastable and it converts to form II spontaneously at RT in around a week.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / chemistry. Anilides / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Tosyl Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Crystallization. Drug Stability. Molecular Conformation. Nitriles. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet. Spectrum Analysis, Raman. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 16978811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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31. Budihas SR, Gorshkova I, Gaidamakov S, Wamiru A, Bona MK, Parniak MA, Crouch RJ, McMahon JB, Beutler JA, Le Grice SF: Selective inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H activity by hydroxylated tropolones. Nucleic Acids Res; 2005;33(4):1249-56
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  • High-throughput screening of a National Cancer Institute library of pure natural products identified the hydroxylated tropolone derivatives beta-thujaplicinol (2,7-dihydroxy-4-1(methylethyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one) and manicol (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-7-dihydroxy-9-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-6H-benzocyclohepten-6-one) as potent and selective inhibitors of the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT).
  • Inhibition of HIV-2 RT-associated RNase H indirectly indicates that these compounds do not occupy the nonnucleoside inhibitor-binding pocket in the vicinity of the DNA polymerase domain.
  • Both beta-thujaplicinol and manicol failed to inhibit DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT at a concentration of 50 microM, suggesting that they are specific for the C-terminal RNase H domain, while surface plasmon resonance studies indicated that the inhibition was not due to intercalation of the analog into the nucleic acid substrate.
  • Finally, we have demonstrated synergy between beta-thujaplicinol and calanolide A, a nonnucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 RT, raising the possibility that both enzymatic activities of HIV-1 RT can be simultaneously targeted.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Benzocycloheptenes / pharmacology. HIV-1 / drug effects. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Ribonuclease H / antagonists & inhibitors. Tropolone / analogs & derivatives. Tropolone / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15741178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4962
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Benzocycloheptenes; 0 / Coumarins; 0 / Pyranocoumarins; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / beta-thujaplicinol; 0 / manicol; 7L6DL16P1T / Tropolone; EC 3.1.26.4 / Ribonuclease H; S5A9TQN46W / calanolide A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC552956
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32. Rezk PE, Graham JR, Moran TS, Gordon RK, Sciuto AM, Doctor BP, Nambiar MP: Acute toxic effects of nerve agent VX on respiratory dynamics and functions following microinsillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs. Inhal Toxicol; 2007 Mar;19(3):291-302
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  • [Title] Acute toxic effects of nerve agent VX on respiratory dynamics and functions following microinsillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs.
  • Exposure to a chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) leads to severe respiratory distress, respiratory failure, or death if not treated.
  • We investigated the toxic effects of nerve agent VX on the respiratory dynamics of guinea pigs following exposure to 90.4 mug/m3 of VX or saline by microinstillation inhalation technology for 10 min.
  • VX-exposed animals showed a significant decrease in the respiratory frequency (RF) at 24 and 48 h of recovery (p value .0329 and .0142, respectively) compared to the saline control.
  • The tidal volume (TV) slightly increased in VX exposed animals at 24 and significantly at 48 h (p = .02) postexposure.
  • Animals exposed to VX also showed an increase in expiratory (Te) and relaxation time (RT) at 24 and 48 h and a small reduction in inspiratory time (Ti) at 24 h.
  • The pseudo lung resistance (Penh) was significantly increased at 4 h after VX exposure and remained slightly high even at 48 h.
  • Time-course studies reveal that most of the altered respiratory dynamics returned to normal at 7 d after VX exposure except for EEP, which was high at 7 d and returned to normal at 18 d postexposure.
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 1 mo after exposure showed virtually no difference in protein levels, cholinesterase levels, cell number, and cell death in the exposed and control animals.
  • These results indicate that sublethal concentrations of VX induce changes in respiratory dynamics and functions that over time return to normal levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemical Warfare Agents / toxicity. Inhalation Exposure. Lung / drug effects. Organothiophosphorus Compounds / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Guinea Pigs. Male. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate / drug effects. Plethysmography. Respiration / drug effects. Tidal Volume / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17365032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-7691
  • [Journal-full-title] Inhalation toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inhal Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemical Warfare Agents; 0 / Organothiophosphorus Compounds; 50782-69-9 / VX
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33. Sasani M, Oktenoglu T, Ozer AF, Sarioglu AC: Giant supratentorial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor presentation: a case of a five-year-old child with favorable outcome and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):149-54
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  • [Title] Giant supratentorial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor presentation: a case of a five-year-old child with favorable outcome and review of the literature.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system is a highly malignant neoplasm and that usually arises in the posterior fossa, survival from this is frequently poor.
  • We present a unique case in a 21-month-old girl who had an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with cystic components located in the right fronto-parietal lobe.
  • It consisted of five chemotherapeutic agents, but the patient did not receive any radiotherapy.
  • Two years later at the last follow-up visit, there was no evidence of a tumor relapse on MRI, and the examination was symptom free.
  • It is possible the favorable outcome of the patient resulted from a rapid diagnosis, prompt management, radical surgical intervention and aggressive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Lobe / surgery. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Rhabdoid Tumor / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Infant. Keratins / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microsurgery. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neurologic Examination. Vimentin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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34. Fakih MG, Bullarddunn K, Yang GY, Pendyala L, Toth K, Andrews C, Rustum YM, Ross ME, Levea C, Puthillath A, Park YM, Rajput A: Phase II study of weekly intravenous oxaliplatin combined with oral daily capecitabine and radiotherapy with biologic correlates in neoadjuvant treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 1;72(3):650-7
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  • [Title] Phase II study of weekly intravenous oxaliplatin combined with oral daily capecitabine and radiotherapy with biologic correlates in neoadjuvant treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiotherapy (RT) in the neoadjuvant treatment of Stage II and III rectal cancers.
  • METHODS: Capecitabine was given at 725 mg/m(2) orally twice daily Monday through Friday concurrently with RT.
  • Oxaliplatin was given intravenously at 50 mg/m(2) once weekly five times starting the first day of RT.
  • Endorectal tumor biopsies were obtained before treatment and on the third day of treatment to explore the effects of treatment on thymidine phosphorylase, thymidylate synthase, excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and apoptosis.
  • RESULTS: A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study; 6 patients (24%) had a complete pathologic response.
  • Grade 3 diarrhea was the most common Grade 3-4 toxicity, occurring in 20% of patients.
  • Thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, ERCC1, and apoptosis did not vary significantly between the pretreatment and Day 3 tumor biopsies, nor did they predict for T-downstaging or a complete pathologic response.
  • CONCLUSION: Capecitabine at 725 mg/m(2) orally twice daily, oxaliplatin 50 mg/m(2)/wk, and RT at 50.4 Gy is an effective neoadjuvant combination for Stage II and III rectal cancer and results in a greater rate of complete pathologic responses than historically shown in fluoropyrimidine plus RT controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / radiation effects. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / toxicity. Drug Administration Schedule. Endonucleases / genetics. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / toxicity. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Organoplatinum Compounds / toxicity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18565686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Schloegl H, Dresen S, Spaczynski K, Stoertzel M, Wurst FM, Weinmann W: Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples. Int J Legal Med; 2006 Mar;120(2):83-8
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  • When stored at 4 degrees C in airtight test tubes, EtG concentrations remained relatively constant; when stored at room temperature (RT) for 5 weeks in ventilated vials, variations of EtG concentrations ranged from a 30% decrease to an 80% increase, with an average of 37.5% increase.
  • EtG concentrations decreased 27.7% on average in 4 weeks storage at RT but EtG was still detectable in all samples with initial EtG concentrations higher than 1 mug/g.
  • Blood and liver samples of four corpses with negative BACs were stored at RT after addition of 0.1 g% ethanol, and no new formation of EtG was observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alcohol Drinking. Biomarkers / analysis. Central Nervous System Depressants / analysis. Drug Stability. Ethanol / analysis. Female. Forensic Toxicology. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Postmortem Changes. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 16059713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-9827
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of legal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Legal Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Glucuronates; 17685-04-0 / ethyl glucuronide; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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36. Bhaskar K, Anbu J, Ravichandiran V, Venkateswarlu V, Rao YM: Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies. Lipids Health Dis; 2009;8:6
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  • The aim of the study is to prepare aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles--flurbiprofen solid lipid nanoparticles (FLUSLN) and flurbiprofen nanostructured lipid carriers (FLUNLC) by hot homogenization followed by sonication technique and then incorporated into the freshly prepared hydrogels for transdermal delivery.
  • They are characterized for particle size, for all the formulations, more than 50% of the particles were below 300 nm after 90 days of storage at RT.
  • DSC analyses were performed to characterize the state of drug and lipid modification.
  • Further they were evaluated for in vitro drug release characteristics, rheological behaviour, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies.
  • The Cmax and AUC of the B1 formulation were 1.8 and 2.5 times higher than the A1 gel formulation respectively.
  • The bioavailability of flurbiprofen with reference to oral administration was found to increase by 4.4 times when gel formulations were applied.
  • Both the SLN and NLC dispersions and gels enriched with SLN and NLC possessed a sustained drug release over period of 24 h but the sustained effect was more pronounced with the SLN and NLC gel.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems. Flurbiprofen / administration & dosage. Flurbiprofen / pharmacology. Lipids / administration & dosage. Nanoparticles / administration & dosage. Skin / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Carriers / pharmacology. Hydrogels / pharmacology. Male. Particle Size. Permeability / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Rheology. Shear Strength

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  • (PMID = 19243632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-511X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lipids in health and disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lipids Health Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Lipids; 5GRO578KLP / Flurbiprofen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2651881
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37. Romano L, Venturi G, Bloor S, Harrigan R, Larder BA, Major JC, Zazzi M: Broad nucleoside-analogue resistance implications for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse-transcriptase mutations at codons 44 and 118. J Infect Dis; 2002 Apr 1;185(7):898-904
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  • [Title] Broad nucleoside-analogue resistance implications for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse-transcriptase mutations at codons 44 and 118.
  • Two large, independent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance databases containing >7700 reverse-transcriptase (RT) sequences were used to analyze the epidemiology of amino acid substitutions at codons 44 and 118, which confer moderate lamivudine resistance in the presence of zidovudine resistance.
  • However, selection of E44A/D and V118I was also detected in association with a switch to other nucleoside RT inhibitors, including zalcitabine and abacavir.
  • Thus, substitutions at RT codons 44 and 118 have broad implications in nucleoside RT inhibitor resistance in the setting of several nucleoside-associated mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acid Substitution. Codon / genetics. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / genetics. HIV-1 / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Mutagenesis, Site-Directed. Mutation. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11920313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Codon; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
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38. Monno L, Scudeller L, Brindicci G, Saracino A, Punzi G, Chirianni A, Lagioia A, Ladisa N, Lo Caputo S, Angarano G: Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of non-B HIV type 1 clinical isolates from naïve and treated subjects. Antiviral Res; 2009 Aug;83(2):118-26
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  • [Title] Genotypic analysis of the protease and reverse transcriptase of non-B HIV type 1 clinical isolates from naïve and treated subjects.
  • One hundred and ninety-two pol sequences of drug-naïve and drug-experienced subjects infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes were analyzed to identify treatment-related amino acid changes which might be relevant for drug-resistance and possibly not included in the accepted mutation list for the B subtype.
  • To verify the contribution of each single mutation to the resistance levels as predicted by the Virtual Phenotype-LM, simple univariate linear regression was used with fold resistance as a dependent variable and individual mutations as predictors.
  • Commonly accepted protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) positions along with mutants at RT positions 118 and 90 were significantly associated with treatment.
  • Two unusual PR (K14R and I66F) and five RT positions (E28K, S68G, H221Y, L228R/H and P294A) were also associated with treatment (p<0.01).
  • All amino acid changes correlated with treatment influenced the resistance levels to each single drug.
  • Our findings demonstrate that there are no substantial differences regarding known resistance-associated mutations and the newly emergent substitutions between non-B and B subtype strains.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic. RNA, Viral / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19549585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9096
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 2.7.7.- / reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 1; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase; EC 3.4.23.- / HIV Protease
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39. Imamichi T, Sinha T, Imamichi H, Zhang YM, Metcalf JA, Falloon J, Lane HC: High-level resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythimidine due to a deletion in the reverse transcriptase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol; 2000 Jan;74(2):1023-8
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  • [Title] High-level resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythimidine due to a deletion in the reverse transcriptase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
  • A variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) possessing a deletion in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene at codon 67 was identified in a patient who had failed combination antiretroviral therapy.
  • It has persisted for more than 3 years in association with the accumulation of a variety of other well-described drug resistance mutations and an uncharacterized mutation at RT codon 69 (T69G).
  • However, in the context of the T69G mutation and three other mutations known to be associated with AZT resistance (K70R, T215F, and K219Q), this deletion led to a increase in AZT resistance from 8.
  • A further increase in resistance (up to 1, 813-fold) was observed when two mutations associated with nonnucleoside RT inhibitor resistance (K103N and L74I) were added to the deletion T69G K70R T215F K219Q construct.
  • Hence, these results establish that a deletion at RT codon 67 may be selected for in the presence of antiretroviral therapy and may lead to high-level resistance to AZT.

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  • (PMID = 10623768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-56000
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC111626
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40. Kawaguchi T, Kumabe T, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour with leptomeningeal dissemination in an adult. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2004 Sep;146(9):1033-8; discussion 1038
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour with leptomeningeal dissemination in an adult.
  • A 22-year-old man presented with a rare case of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT).
  • Histological examination revealed AT/RT.
  • Three-drug chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide, and adjuvant intrathecal administration of methotrexate were repeated.
  • Near complete response was achieved, and no tumour recurrence/progression has been noticed during the follow up of 24 months.
  • Intensive radiochemotherapy can successfully control AT/RT, even with leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15340816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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41. Yue P, Tao T, Zhao Y, Ren J, Chai X: Determination of Huperzine A in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. J Pharm Biomed Anal; 2007 May 9;44(1):309-12
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  • The mobile phase, methanol-water-triethanol amine (45:55:0.05, v/v/v), was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min.
  • Huperzine A was found to be stable for at least 5h at RT and 1 week at -20 degrees C.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Neuroprotective Agents / blood. Sesquiterpenes / blood. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Administration, Intranasal. Alkaloids. Animals. Calibration. Drug Stability. Ethanolamines / chemistry. Freezing. Half-Life. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Methanol / chemistry. Molecular Structure. Rats. Reference Standards. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17408901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0731-7085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Biomed Anal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkaloids; 0 / Ethanolamines; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Sesquiterpenes; 0111871I23 / huperzine A; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9O3K93S3TK / triethanolamine; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol
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42. Boyer PL, Sarafianos SG, Arnold E, Hughes SH: Nucleoside analog resistance caused by insertions in the fingers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase involves ATP-mediated excision. J Virol; 2002 Sep;76(18):9143-51
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  • [Title] Nucleoside analog resistance caused by insertions in the fingers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase involves ATP-mediated excision.
  • Although anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy has prolonged the lives of patients, drug resistance is a significant problem.
  • Of particular concern are mutations that cause cross-resistance to a particular class of drugs.
  • Among the mutations that cause resistance to several nucleoside analogs are the insertion of amino acids in the fingers subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) at positions 69 and 70.
  • These insertions are usually associated with changes in the flanking amino acids and with a change to F or Y at position 215.
  • We have proposed that the T215F/Y mutation makes the binding of ATP to HIV-1 RT more effective, which increases the excision of 3-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (AZTMP) in vitro and increases zidovudine (AZT) resistance in vivo.
  • Although the mechanism of AZT resistance involves enhanced excision, resistance to 3TC involves a block to incorporation of the analog.
  • RT variants with the amino acid insertions in the fingers and T215Y have a decreased level of misincorporation of ddATP and 3TCTP.
  • However, unlike the classic AZT resistance mutations (M41L/D67N/K70R/T215Y or F/K219E or Q), the combination of the amino acid insertions in the fingers and the T215Y mutation allows efficient excision of ddTMP and d4TMP, even when relatively high levels of deoxynucleoside triphosphates are present in the reaction.
  • Although the dideoxynucleoside analogs of other nucleosides were excised more slowly than AZTMP, ddTMP, and d4TMP, the mutants with the fingers insertion and T215Y excised all of the nucleoside analogs that were tested more efficiently than wild-type RT or a mutant RT carrying the classical AZT resistance mutations.
  • In the ternary complex (RT/template-primer/dNTP), the presence of the bound dNTP prevents the end of the primer from gaining access to the nucleotide binding site (N site) where excision occurs.
  • Gel shift analysis showed that the amino acid insertions in the fingers destabilized the ternary complex compared to wild-type HIV-1 RT.
  • If the ternary complex is unstable, the end of the primer can gain access to the N site and excision can occur.

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  • (PMID = 12186898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI027690; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 27690; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 55609
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Dideoxynucleotides; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / Thymine Nucleotides; 29706-85-2 / 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'phosphate; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC136461
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43. Howes TL, Buatti JM, O'Dorisio MS, Kirby PA, Ryken TC: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor case report: treatment with surgical excision, radiation therapy, and alternative medicines. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):85-8
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor case report: treatment with surgical excision, radiation therapy, and alternative medicines.
  • Intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare with a poor prognosis.
  • We report one case of a 7-year old girl living over 17 months after the diagnosis of AT/RT in the left frontal lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Teratoma / radiotherapy


44. Rödel C: Current status of radiation therapy and combined-modality treatment for bladder cancer. Strahlenther Onkol; 2004 Nov;180(11):701-9
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  • Combined-modality treatment (CMT), including transurethral resection (TURBT), radiation therapy (RT) and systemic chemotherapy, has been shown to produce survival rates comparable to those of radical cystectomy.
  • METHODS: This review summarizes series of radical RT with different fractionation schedules and focuses on CMT for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • Current protocols of the bladder-sparing approach will be discussed and the background of future developments, including incorporation of promising new chemotherapeutic agents as well as the role of predictive and prognostic factors in selecting patients for the respective treatment alternatives, will be given.
  • RESULTS: There is moderate evidence that hyperfractionated and accelerated regimens are superior to conventional RT at least in situations where no concomitant chemotherapy is applied.
  • Several phase II studies and one phase III study indicate that concomitant radiochemotherapy is superior to RT alone.
  • Recent data suggest that incorporation of newer chemotherapeutic agents, particularly gemcitabine and taxanes, in CMT protocols is feasible and promising.
  • Clinical criteria helpful in determining patients for bladder preservation include such variables as early tumor stage, unifocal tumor, a visibly and microscopically complete TURBT, and absence of ureteral obstruction.
  • CONCLUSION: CMT for bladder cancer is a reasonable treatment option for patients who are deemed medically unfit for cystectomy and for those seeking an alternative to radical cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystectomy / trends. Drug Therapy / trends. Radiotherapy / methods. Radiotherapy / trends. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15549188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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45. Sanfilippo NJ, Taneja SS, Chachoua A, Lepor H, Formenti SC: Phase I/II study of biweekly paclitaxel and radiation in androgen-ablated locally advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun 20;26(18):2973-8
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  • PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had T2-4 tumors with Gleason scores greater than 7 and/or PSA levels greater than 10 ng/mL and/or had tumors with pathologic stage TxN1.
  • Hormonal ablation was initiated 3 months before RT and was given for 9 months.
  • RT was delivered daily (1.8 Gy) with concurrent twice-weekly paclitaxel (30 mg/m(2)).
  • The last RT dose level was fixed at 73.8 Gy.
  • No grade 3 toxicities occurred at 63 Gy.
  • Grade 3 diarrhea occurred in three patients at 66.6 Gy.
  • No grade 3 toxicities were observed at 70.2 Gy.
  • One patient experienced grade 3 diarrhea at 73.8 Gy.
  • Five additional patients were treated to 73.8 Gy without grade 3 toxicity, which established the MTD for combined paclitaxel and RT at 73.8 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent biweekly paclitaxel with RT is feasible, with an MTD of 73.8 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18565883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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46. Pettit GR, Thornhill AJ, Moser BR, Hogan F: Antineoplastic agents. 552. Oxidation of combretastatin A-1: trapping the o-quinone intermediate considered the metabolic product of the corresponding phosphate prodrug. J Nat Prod; 2008 Sep;71(9):1561-3
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  • [Title] Antineoplastic agents. 552. Oxidation of combretastatin A-1: trapping the o-quinone intermediate considered the metabolic product of the corresponding phosphate prodrug.
  • The very unstable (<10 min at rt) o-quinone 5 derived from the vicinal diphenol anticancer drug combretastatin A-1 (1) has been obtained by careful oxidation with NaIO4 and tetrabutylammonium bromide in water/dichloromethane.
  • Both phenazines 7 and 11 significantly inhibited (ED50 approximately 0.2 microg/mL) growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and provided a new SAR insight in the combretastatin series of naturally occurring anticancer drugs.

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  • (PMID = 18729517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6025
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of natural products
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nat. Prod.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090441-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090441-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R56 CA090441-06A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090441-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2R56 CA090441-06A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090441-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090441-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA90441-01-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R56 CA090441
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Quinones; 0 / Stilbenes; 109971-63-3 / combretastatin A-1; I5590ES2QZ / fosbretabulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS86312; NLM/ PMC2756244
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47. Steen RG, Koury B S M, Granja CI, Xiong X, Wu S, Glass JO, Mulhern RK, Kun LE, Merchant TE: Effect of ionizing radiation on the human brain: white matter and gray matter T1 in pediatric brain tumor patients treated with conformal radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Jan 01;49(1):79-91
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  • [Title] Effect of ionizing radiation on the human brain: white matter and gray matter T1 in pediatric brain tumor patients treated with conformal radiation therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To test a hypothesis that fractionated radiation therapy (RT) to less than 60 Gy is associated with a dose-related change in the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of normal brain tissue, and that such changes are detectable by quantitative MRI (qMRI).
  • METHODS: Each of 21 patients received a qMRI examination before treatment, and at several time points during and after RT.
  • A map of brain T1 was calculated and segmented into white matter and gray matter at each time point.
  • The RT isodose contours were then superimposed upon the T1 map, and changes in brain tissue T1 were analyzed as a function of radiation dose and time following treatment.
  • We used a mixed-model analysis to analyze the longitudinal trend in brain T1 from the start of RT to 1 year later.
  • Predictive factors evaluated included patient age and clinical variables, such as RT dose, time since treatment, and the use of an imaging contrast agent.
  • RESULTS: In white matter (WM), a dose level of greater than 20 Gy was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in T1 over time, which became significant about 3 months following treatment.
  • In gray matter (GM), there was no significant change in T1 over time, as a function of RT doses < 60 Gy.
  • However, GM in close proximity to the tumor had an inherently lower T1 before therapy.
  • Neither use of a contrast agent nor a combination of chemotherapy plus steroids had a significant effect on brain T1.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that T1 mapping may be sensitive to radiation-related changes in human brain tissue T1.
  • WM T1 appears to be unaffected by RT at doses less than approximately 20 Gy; GM T1 does not change at doses less than 60 Gy.
  • However, tumor appears to have an effect upon adjacent GM, even before treatment.
  • Conformal RT may offer a substantial benefit to the patient, by minimizing the volume of normal brain exposed to greater than 20 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Dose Fractionation. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Steroids / therapeutic use. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11163500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Steroids
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48. Ali H, König GM, Khalid SA, Wright AD, Kaminsky R: Evaluation of selected Sudanese medicinal plants for their in vitro activity against hemoflagellates, selected bacteria, HIV-1-RT and tyrosine kinase inhibitory, and for cytotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol; 2002 Dec;83(3):219-28
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  • [Title] Evaluation of selected Sudanese medicinal plants for their in vitro activity against hemoflagellates, selected bacteria, HIV-1-RT and tyrosine kinase inhibitory, and for cytotoxicity.
  • Most interestingly, the extracts of the leaves of C. hartmannianum totally inhibited the enzyme HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) at a concentration of 66 microg/ml.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimalarials / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Bacteria / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / antagonists & inhibitors. Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck) / antagonists & inhibitors. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plants, Medicinal. Trypanocidal Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. HT29 Cells. Humans. Leishmania donovani / drug effects. Sudan

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  • (PMID = 12426089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimalarials; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; EC 2.7.10.2 / Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck); EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
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49. Yau TK, Lee AW, Wong DH, Yeung RM, Chan EW, Ng WT, Tong M, Soong IS: Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine followed by accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin in patients with stage IV(A-B) nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck; 2006 Oct;28(10):880-7
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine followed by accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin in patients with stage IV(A-B) nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with stage IV(A-B) NPC were treated with 3 cycles of cisplatin plus gemcitabine (cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) on day 1; gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8) 3-weekly as induction chemotherapy, followed by another 3 cycles of concurrent cisplatin (100 mg/m(2) on day 1) 3-weekly with accelerated radiotherapy (RT) at 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions, 6 daily fractions per week.
  • All patients completed RT, with 92% receiving > or = 5 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • At a median follow-up of 2.9 years, the 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 76% and 63%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16721741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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50. Abram ME, Parniak MA: Virion instability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutated in the protease cleavage site between RT p51 and the RT RNase H domain. J Virol; 2005 Sep;79(18):11952-61
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  • [Title] Virion instability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutated in the protease cleavage site between RT p51 and the RT RNase H domain.
  • Each of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol-encoded enzymes, protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN), is active only as a dimer (or higher-order oligomer in the case of IN), but only RT comprises subunits of different masses.
  • RT is a heterodimer of 66-kDa and 51-kDa subunits.
  • The latter is formed by HIV PR-catalyzed cleavage of p66 during virion maturation, resulting in the removal of the RNase H (RNH) domain of a p66 subunit.
  • In order to study the apparent need for RT heterodimers in the context of the virion, we introduced a variety of mutations in the RT p51-RNH protease cleavage site of an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone.
  • Surprisingly, rather than leading to virions with increased RT p66 content, most of the mutations resulted in significantly attenuated virus that contained greatly decreased levels of RT that in many cases was primarily p51 RT.
  • However, most mutants showed normal levels of the Pr160(gag-pol) precursor polyprotein, suggesting that reduced virion RT arose from proteolytic instability rather than decreased incorporation.
  • Mutant virion p24 Gag levels were equivalent to wild type, indicating that Gag incorporation and processing were not affected.
  • Repeated passage of MT-2 cells exposed to mutant viruses led to the appearance of virus with improved replication capacity; these virions contained normally processed RT at near-wild-type levels.
  • These results imply that additional proteolytic processing of RT to the p66/p51 heterodimer is essential to provide proteolytic stability of RT during HIV-1 maturation.

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  • (PMID = 16140771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01 GM066671; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM066671
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, pol; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1212597
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51. Rissmann R, Groenink HW, Gooris GS, Oudshoorn MH, Hennink WE, Ponec M, Bouwstra JA: Temperature-induced changes in structural and physicochemical properties of vernix caseosa. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Feb;128(2):292-9
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  • A remarkable difference was observed in water release and uptake properties: dehydration and rehydration processes take place two to four times faster at 37 degrees C than at room temperature (RT).
  • The dehydration was irreversible; rehydration was only possible to a final weight of 55% (37 degrees C) and 46% (RT) of the pre-desiccation weight.
  • Investigation of the lipid organization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray diffraction revealed a more disordered state of lipids at 37 degrees C than at RT, which might explain the faster dehydration and rehydration process at 37 degrees C as well as the changes in thermotropic rheological behavior.

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  • (PMID = 17671513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water
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52. Fields MT, Eisbruch A, Normolle D, Orfali A, Davis MA, Pu AT, Lawrence TS: Radiosensitization produced in vivo by once- vs. twice-weekly 2'2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Jun 1;47(3):785-91
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  • PURPOSE: Gemcitabine (2'2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, dFdCyd) is a potent radiosensitizer of rodent and human tumor cells.
  • Our Phase I clinical trial using once-weekly dFdCyd as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of patients with Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer has produced a high rate of tumor response and significant normal mucosal toxicity.
  • In vitro studies suggest that twice-weekly dFdCyd has the potential to be more effective than once-weekly dFdCyd when administered in combination with radiation (RT) given 5 days per week.
  • Therefore, we have used a mouse model to assess whether the therapeutic ratio of combined modality therapy may be improved by using a twice-weekly drug regimen.
  • 2) Does a once-weekly or twice-weekly dFdCyd + RT regimen produce a better therapeutic index?
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: To assess normal tissue toxicity, C3H mice underwent mouth (60)Co RT (27.5 Gy in 5 daily fractions) +/- dFdCyd delivered intraperitoneally (IP) either once or twice weekly 6 hours prior to irradiation.
  • Acute lip reactions were quantified according to a standard scoring system, and weight loss was measured.
  • We measured tumor control using squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) VII murine squamous cell flank tumors (50-125 mm(3)) treated with the same regimens used in the mouth irradiation model.
  • RESULTS: We found that dFdCyd delivered 800 mg/kg once weekly or 150 mg/kg twice weekly caused similar (and maximal tolerable) weight loss; therefore these regimens were chosen to test which schedule produced more acute lip radiosensitization.
  • Twice-weekly dFdCyd + RT was somewhat more toxic by weight loss (800 mg/kg once weekly: 11.9%; 150 mg/kg twice weekly: 17.7%; p = 0.09).
  • To assess therapeutic index, we treated SCC VII flank tumors with RT combined with isotoxic drug/RT regimens (dFdCyd 800 mg/kg once weekly or 100 mg/kg twice weekly).
  • Tumors treated with twice-weekly dFdCyd + RT were significantly smaller than tumors treated with once-weekly drug + RT at 28 days from the start of treatment (p < 0.03).
  • In addition, our findings suggest that for head and neck cancers twice-weekly dFdCyd may have a higher therapeutic index compared with once-weekly dFdCyd when combined with daily RT.

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  • (PMID = 10837965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078554; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA78554
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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53. Nicolaides T, Tihan T, Horn B, Biegel J, Prados M, Banerjee A: High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):117-23
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the central nervous system are rare but aggressive tumors of childhood.
  • In an attempt to improve outcome, patients were treated with aggressive surgical resection and multi-agent chemotherapy, followed by high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.
  • Nine consecutive children (median age 21 months) were diagnosed with AT/RT at the University of California San Francisco Childrens Hospital from 1997 to 2007 and treated with this aggressive approach.
  • Two of nine patients treated for AT/RT at our institution with high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplant are long-term survivors, suggesting that a subset of patients can be cured with this approach.

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  • (PMID = 19936623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108462; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108462-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184133; NLM/ PMC2880232
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54. Athale UH, Duckworth J, Odame I, Barr R: Childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Sep;31(9):651-63
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  • [Title] Childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
  • PURPOSE: Therapy for central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is controversial.
  • RESULTS: The median OS for patients treated with multiagent chemotherapy (n=79) was 17.3 months (range, 1.5-93 mo); unrelated to age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, and extent of resection.
  • Patients (n=30) treated with intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy had significantly higher 2-year OS [64% (95% confidence interval, 46.5-82.0) vs. 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-29.3); P<0.0001] and lower prevalence of distant CNS metastasis compared with those without IT therapy (n=49) (20% vs. 59.2%; P=0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite dismal OS, multimodal therapy can induce remission even in metastatic CNS ATRT with partial resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Injections, Spinal. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19707161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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55. Kibria G, Islam KM, Jalil RU: Stability study of ambroxol hydrochloride sustained release pellets coated with acrylic polymer. Pak J Pharm Sci; 2009 Jan;22(1):36-43
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  • The drug loaded beads were prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology then coated with ammonio methacrylate copolymer type A (Eudragit RL 30 D) and ammonio methacrylate copolymer type B (Eudragit RS 30 D) at a ratio of 2:3 (8% polymer by weight on dry basis) in fluid bed coater (Wurster column).
  • At RT the color of pellets remains unchanged during the stability study.
  • The mean drug content decreased gradually in all conditions.
  • In acid media the initial drug release was 23% but after 1st month it was decreased to 13-15% in all conditions.
  • In the buffer media (pH 6.8) the drug release was increased a little bit in all conditions except at 30 degrees C/70%RH with the passes of storage time.
  • Stability studies at 30 degrees C/70%RH revealed consistent drug release (f(2)>50) throughout the stability period.
  • The physical properties of pellets as well as the in vitro release profile of the drug was found to be a function of the different storage conditions as well as the physico-chemical nature of the polymers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Buffers. Capsules. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Compounding. Drug Stability. Drug Storage. Humidity. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Solubility. Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 19168418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-601X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Capsules; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Expectorants; 0 / Polymers; 200168S0CL / Ambroxol; 33434-24-1 / Eudragit RS; 51822-44-7 / Eudragit RL
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56. Kopec SE, DeBellis RJ, Irwin RS: Chemical analysis of freshly prepared and stored capsaicin solutions: implications for tussigenic challenges. Pulm Pharmacol Ther; 2002;15(6):529-34
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  • Samples of varying concentrations were then stored under 4 environmental conditions: 4 degrees C and protected from light, room temperature (RT) exposed to light, RT protected from light, and -20 degrees C and protected from light.
  • Solutions stored at RT exposed to light decreased in concentration after 6 months (P=0.020), and solutions stored at RT protected from light decreased in concentration after 4 months (P=0.026).
  • [MeSH-major] Capsaicin / analysis. Capsaicin / chemistry. Pharmaceutical Solutions / analysis. Pharmaceutical Solutions / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Drug Compounding. Drug Stability. Drug Storage. Light. Respiratory Function Tests. Temperature. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12493340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-5539
  • [Journal-full-title] Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pulm Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pharmaceutical Solutions; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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57. Chan AT, Ma BB, Lo YM, Leung SF, Kwan WH, Hui EP, Mok TS, Kam M, Chan LS, Chiu SK, Yu KH, Cheung KY, Lai K, Lai M, Mo F, Yeo W, King A, Johnson PJ, Teo PM, Zee B: Phase II study of neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel followed by radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: therapeutic monitoring with plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Aug 1;22(15):3053-60
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  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) followed by concurrent cisplatin and radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to monitor treatment response with plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with International Union Against Cancer stages III and IV undifferentiated NPC had two cycles of paclitaxel (70 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15) and carboplatin (area under the curve 6 mg/mL/min on day 1) on a 3-weekly cycle, followed by 6 to 8 weeks of cisplatin (40 mg/m2 weekly) and RT at 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions.
  • Plasma EBV DNA was measured serially using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method.
  • Response to neoadjuvant TC was as follows: 12 patients (39%) achieved partial response (PR) and 18 achieved (58%) complete response (CR) in regional nodes; five patients (16%) achieved PR and no patients achieved CR in nasopharynx.
  • At 6 weeks after RT, one patient (3%) achieved PR and 30 patients (97%) achieved CR in regional nodes, and 31 patients (100%) achieved CR in nasopharynx; 29 patients (93%) had EBV DNA level of less than 500 copies/mL.
  • Neoadjuvant TC was well tolerated, and the most common acute toxicity of cisplatin plus RT was grade 3 mucositis (55%).
  • Plasma EBV DNA level increased significantly in eight of nine patients who experienced treatment failure but did not increase in those who did not.
  • CONCLUSION This strategy was feasible and resulted in excellent local tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. DNA, Viral / blood. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Environmental Monitoring / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Society of Clinical Onocology
  • (PMID = 15284255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / DNA, Viral; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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58. Leite-Moreira AF, Rocha-Sousa A, Henriques-Coelho T, Roncon-Alburqueque Júnior R, Chaves P: [The effects of endothelin-1 on myocardial function]. Rev Port Cardiol; 2000 Jan;19(1):79-83
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  • In addition, after ET-1, RT at the end of the isometric twitch decreased by 19 +/- 3%, when compared with the control and to its value at the beginning of the twitch.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that, in addition to the well-known positive inotropic effect, ET-1 improves diastolic function by accelerating relaxation rate (dT/dtmin) and decreasing RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology. Endothelin-1 / pharmacology. Heart / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diastole / drug effects. In Vitro Techniques. Muscle Tonus / drug effects. Myocardial Contraction / drug effects. Papillary Muscles / drug effects. Papillary Muscles / physiology. Rabbits. Systole / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 10731793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0870-2551
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cardiol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] PORTUGAL
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Endothelin-1
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59. Himmel DM, Das K, Clark AD Jr, Hughes SH, Benjahad A, Oumouch S, Guillemont J, Coupa S, Poncelet A, Csoka I, Meyer C, Andries K, Nguyen CH, Grierson DS, Arnold E: Crystal structures for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complexes with three pyridinone derivatives: a new class of non-nucleoside inhibitors effective against a broad range of drug-resistant strains. J Med Chem; 2005 Dec 1;48(24):7582-91
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  • [Title] Crystal structures for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in complexes with three pyridinone derivatives: a new class of non-nucleoside inhibitors effective against a broad range of drug-resistant strains.
  • In the treatment of AIDS, the efficacy of all drugs, including non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), has been limited by the rapid appearance of drug-resistant viruses.
  • Lys103Asn, Tyr181Cys, and Tyr188Leu are some of the most common RT mutations that cause resistance to NNRTIs in the clinic.
  • We report X-ray crystal structures for RT complexed with three different pyridinone derivatives, R157208, R165481, and R221239, at 2.95, 2.9, and 2.43 A resolution, respectively.
  • All three ligands exhibit nanomolar or subnanomolar inhibitory activity against wild-type RT, but varying activities against drug-resistant mutants.
  • These compounds strongly inhibit wild-type HIV-1 RT and drug-resistant variants, including Tyr181Cys and Lys103Asn RT.
  • An acrylonitrile substituent on R165481 substantially improves the activity of the compound against wild-type RT (and several mutants) and provides a way to generate novel inhibitors that could interact with conserved elements of HIV-1 RT at the polymerase catalytic site.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Viral. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / chemistry. HIV-1 / enzymology. Pyridones / chemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16302798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 27690; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / F32 AI 060300; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01 GM 066671
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyridones; 0 / R 157208; 0 / R 165481; 0 / R 221239; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
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60. Zimmerman MA, Goumnerova LC, Proctor M, Scott RM, Marcus K, Pomeroy SL, Turner CD, Chi SN, Chordas C, Kieran MW: Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):77-84
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  • [Title] Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly malignant lesions of childhood that carry a very poor prognosis.
  • AT/RT can occur in the central nervous system (CNS AT/RT) and disease in this location carries an even worse prognosis with a median survival of 7 months.
  • In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of maximal surgical resection (including second look surgery), radiation therapy (focal and craniospinal), and multi-agent intravenous, oral and intrathecal chemotherapy, with or without high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue, only seven long-term survivors of CNS AT/RT have been reported, all in patients with newly diagnosed disease.
  • We now report on four children, two with newly diagnosed CNS AT/RT and two with progressive disease after multi-agent chemotherapy who are long term survivors (median follow-up of 37 months) using a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and intensive chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy component was modified from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS III) parameningeal protocol as three of the seven reported survivors in the literature were treated using this type of therapy.
  • More importantly, we report on the first two survivors after relapse with multi-agent intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy treated with this modified regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15803379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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61. Harrigan PR, Mo T, Hirsch J, Brumme ZL, McKenna P, Bacheler L: A 21-base pair insertion/duplication at codon 69 of the HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase in a patient undergoing multiple nucleoside therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2007 Jul;23(7):895-9
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  • [Title] A 21-base pair insertion/duplication at codon 69 of the HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase in a patient undergoing multiple nucleoside therapy.
  • We describe the selection of a previously unreported 21-base pair insertion following codon 69 of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) from a patient undergoing multiple nucleoside analogue therapy.
  • This insertion was a direct duplication of the preceding 21 bases of HIV-RT, and was selected in a background of NRTI-resistance mutations including substitutions at RT codons 41, 67, 184, 210, and 215.
  • Longitudinal genotypic and phenotypic resistance tests performed before and after selection of the insertion suggested that the insertion conferred an additional decrease in susceptibility to some nucleoside analogues, most notably didanosine, stavudine, abacavir, and tenofovir.
  • However, phenotypic analysis of an insertion-containing site-directed mutant constructed in an HIV-1 HXB2 background revealed no direct association between the 21-base pair insertion and decreased susceptibility to NRTIs, suggesting that the insert requires the context of the patients' virus in order to confer resistance.
  • These observations may offer new insight into the relative contribution of HIV-RT codon 69 insertion mutations to antiretroviral resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1. Mutation / drug effects. RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics. Evolution, Molecular. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutagenesis, Site-Directed. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 17678473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-2229
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ157783/ DQ157784/ DQ157785/ DQ157786/ DQ157787/ DQ157788/ DQ157789/ DQ157790/ DQ157791/ DQ157792/ DQ157793/ DQ157794
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.49 / RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
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62. Walsh AJ, Davis ML, Fraser W: Solid phase synthesis of a metronidazole oligonucleotide conjugate. Molecules; 2006;11(6):486-95
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  • [Title] Solid phase synthesis of a metronidazole oligonucleotide conjugate.
  • Direct, solid phase synthesis of an oligonucleotide conjugate of the antibiotic drug metronidazole was accomplished by the phosphoramidite method.
  • NH(3) (aq) at rt for 30 min) whereas standard conditions (conc.
  • NH(3) (aq) at 55 degrees C for 16 h) cleaved the drug.

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  • (PMID = 17962782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-3049
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Molecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / phosphoramidite; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole
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63. Casagrande R, Georgetti SR, Verri WA Jr, Jabor JR, Santos AC, Fonseca MJ: Evaluation of functional stability of quercetin as a raw material and in different topical formulations by its antilipoperoxidative activity. AAPS PharmSciTech; 2006;7(1):E10
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  • There was no detectable loss of activity during 182 days (6 months) of storage at all tested temperatures (4 degrees C, room temperature [RT], 37 degrees C, and 45 degrees C) for the raw material.
  • In conclusion, the results suggest that the activity of quercetin depends on iron chelation, and its possible usefulness as a topical antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress-induced skin damage depends on maintaining its antilipoperoxidative activity stored at RT, which avoids special storage conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / administration & dosage. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Quercetin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Stability. Iron Chelating Agents / pharmacology. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 16584140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9932
  • [Journal-full-title] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Iron Chelating Agents; 9IKM0I5T1E / Quercetin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2750709
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64. Mundt AJ, Murphy KT, Rotmensch J, Waggoner SE, Yamada SD, Connell PP: Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy in FIGO Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Aug 1;50(5):1154-60
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome, pattern(s) of failure, and optimal treatment volume in Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: Between 1983 and 1998, 30 Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma patients were treated with primary surgery and postoperative RT at the University of Chicago.
  • All underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, sampling of pelvic lymph nodes (PLN), and peritoneal cytology.
  • Twenty women received whole-pelvic RT (WPRT) and 10 (WPRT), plus paraortic RT (extended-field RT, EFRT).
  • One EFRT patient also underwent concomitant whole-abdominal RT (WART).
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 32 months, the actuarial 5-year disease-free and cause-specific survivals of the entire group were 33.9% and 55.8%, respectively.
  • Two patients developed significant RT sequelae: chronic diarrhea in 1 patient treated with WPRT and VB, and small bowel obstruction in 1 patient treated with EFRT.
  • Our failure pattern suggests that the optimal adjuvant RT volume is EFRT, even in women with negative PALN sampling.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chicago / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Tables. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11483324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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65. Momota H, Holland EC: Mouse models of CNS embryonal tumors. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(2):43-50
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  • [Title] Mouse models of CNS embryonal tumors.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors are devastating cancers in children, consisting of medulloblastomas, CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
  • One of the reasons that CNS embryonal tumors remain difficult to treat is their rarity, which makes conducting clinical trials for these tumors difficult.
  • Recent advances of molecular biology have led us to identify molecular and genetic causality of brain tumors.
  • Based on the genetic alterations found in humans, multiple models of human CNS embryonal tumors have been generated in genetically engineered mice.
  • These mouse models are valuable tools for understanding brain tumor biology and discovering novel therapeutic targets and drugs.
  • In this article, we review molecular and cytogenetic characteristics of human CNS embryonal tumors and corresponding mouse models that have been developed.
  • These findings indicate that common genetic abnormalities are seen in variants of human CNS embryonal tumors, and multiple histological variants of these tumors can be generated from a single set of genetic abnormalities in mice.
  • These data provide insight into the biology and classification of CNS embryonal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic

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  • (PMID = 19856214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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66. Brígido LF, Nunes CC, Oliveira CM, Knoll RK, Ferreira JL, Freitas CA, Alves MA, Dias C, Rodrigues R, Research Capacity Program: HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2007 Dec;23(12):1579-86
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  • [Title] HIV type 1 subtype C and CB Pol recombinants prevail at the cities with the highest AIDS prevalence rate in Brazil.
  • However, many samples clustering with clade C are actually a recombinant, with a small B segment at RT (CRF31).
  • Partial polymerase sequences from HIV RNA made it possible to determine HIV clades and recombination patterns and to identify primary drug resistance mutations (DRMs).
  • Clade F pol genomes had significantly more primary DRM.


67. Lalonde LF, Gajadhar AA: Effect of storage media, temperature, and time on preservation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for PCR analysis. Vet Parasitol; 2009 Mar 23;160(3-4):185-9
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  • [Title] Effect of storage media, temperature, and time on preservation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for PCR analysis.
  • The effect of storage media, temperature, and time on suitability of oocysts for use in subsequent molecular studies was examined.
  • Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were stored for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months in sterile dH(2)O, 70 or 95% ethanol, (room temperature [RT], 4, -20, and -70 degrees C), 10% formalin (RT and 4 degrees C), PBS, TE buffer, antibiotic-antimycotic (A-A) solution (4, -20 and -70 degrees C), 2% sulphuric acid, 2.5% potassium dichromate (4 degrees C), and gDNA from 10(4) oocysts was extracted in triplicate and subjected to PCR.
  • To determine the effect of storage media on PCR sensitivity, gDNA from 10(4), 10(2), and 10(0) oocysts stored for 15 months in the media listed above at RT or 4 degrees C was also extracted in triplicate and subjected to PCR.
  • At RT, ethanol was suitable for up to 15 months, while gDNA from oocysts stored in dH(2)O amplified inconsistently after 3 months.
  • Storage at -70 degrees C for up to 12 months was effective regardless of media type.
  • Oocysts stored in formalin at RT or 4 degrees C could not be amplified by PCR despite washing prior to gDNA extraction.
  • To maintain gDNA quality suitable for PCR, it is recommended that coccidian oocysts be stored at -70 degrees C in dH(2)O, ethanol, PBS, TE or A-A solution, at 4 degrees C in A-A or ethanol, or at RT in ethanol where refrigerated storage is unavailable.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptosporidium parvum / physiology. Culture Media / chemistry. DNA, Protozoan / analysis. Preservation, Biological / veterinary. Specimen Handling / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acids / pharmacology. Animals. Cryptosporidiosis / diagnosis. Cryptosporidiosis / veterinary. Ethanol / pharmacology. Formaldehyde / pharmacology. Oocysts / drug effects. Oocysts / growth & development. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Solutions. Temperature. Time Factors. Water / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19128883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4017
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / DNA, Protozoan; 0 / Solutions; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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68. Carvalho AT, Fernandes PA, Ramos MJ: Insights on resistance to reverse transcriptase: the different patterns of interaction of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate binding site relative to the normal substrate. J Med Chem; 2006 Dec 28;49(26):7675-82
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  • [Title] Insights on resistance to reverse transcriptase: the different patterns of interaction of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate binding site relative to the normal substrate.
  • It is presently known that the long-term failure in the treatment of AIDS with the currently available nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is related to the development of resistance by reverse transcriptase (RT) at the binding or incorporation level or both, or subsequent to the nucleotide incorporation (excision).
  • To achieve greater insight on the differential interactions of two NRTIs that are mainly discriminated by different mechanisms, 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate (d4TTP, that is, phosphorylated stavudine) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate (ddCTP, that is, phosphorylated zalcitabine), with the primer/template (p/t) and with the N binding site of reverse transcriptase (RT) in relation to the normal substrate (dNTP), we have conducted a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.
  • We propose that the different resistance profiles arise from the different conformations adopted by the inhibitors at the N site. d4TTP adopts an ideal conformation for catalysis because it forms an ion-dipole intramolecular interaction with the beta-phosphate oxygen of the triphosphate, as does the normal substrate.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxyribonucleotides / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral / drug effects. HIV / drug effects. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / antagonists & inhibitors. Nucleosides / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17181150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Deoxyribonucleotides; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / Thymine Nucleotides; 26194-89-8 / 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-dehydrothymidine 5'-triphosphate; 6L3XT8CB3I / Zalcitabine; BO9LE4QFZF / Stavudine; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
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69. Jensen TR, Gérentes N, Jepsen J, Hazell RG, Jakobsen HJ: New amine-templated zinc phosphates with a temperature-induced increase of structural dimensionality. Inorg Chem; 2005 Feb 7;44(3):658-65
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  • Three new amine-templated zinc phosphates, [C4N2H14][Zn(HPO4)2].H2O, AU-I, [C4N2H14][Zn2(H(0.5)PO4)2(H2PO4)], AU-II, and [C4N2H14][Zn5(H2O)(PO4)4], AU-III, are prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using an organic amine, N,N'-dimethylethylendiamine CH3NHCH2CH2NHCH3, as structure-directing agent.
  • The three materials are prepared from the same reaction mixture, 1Zn(CH3CO2)2:3.05H3PO4:2.25CH3NHCH2CH2NHCH3:138H2O (pH = 5.1), AU-I at RT, AU-II at 60 degrees C, and AU-III at 170 degrees C.

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  • (PMID = 15679399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-1669
  • [Journal-full-title] Inorganic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inorg Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • A total of 88 intrathecal injections of liposomal cytarabine (dose range, 20-50 mg) were administered with concomitant dexamethasone prophylaxis.
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • Proof of efficacy requires a prospective single-agent phase II study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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71. Fournel P, Robinet G, Thomas P, Souquet PJ, Léna H, Vergnenégre A, Delhoume JY, Le Treut J, Silvani JA, Dansin E, Bozonnat MC, Daurés JP, Mornex F, Pérol M, Groupe Lyon-Saint-Etienne d'Oncologie Thoracique-Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie: Randomized phase III trial of sequential chemoradiotherapy compared with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Groupe Lyon-Saint-Etienne d'Oncologie Thoracique-Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie NPC 95-01 Study. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5910-7
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  • [Title] Randomized phase III trial of sequential chemoradiotherapy compared with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: Groupe Lyon-Saint-Etienne d'Oncologie Thoracique-Groupe Français de Pneumo-Cancérologie NPC 95-01 Study.
  • PURPOSE: We conducted a phase III study to compare the survival impact of concurrent versus sequential treatment with radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) in unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • In the sequential arm, patients received induction CT with cisplatin (120 mg/m2) on days 1, 29, and 57, and vinorelbine (30 mg/m2/wk) from day 1 to day 78, followed by thoracic RT at a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (2 Gy per fraction and 5 fractions per week).
  • In the concurrent arm, the same RT was started on day 1 with two concurrent cycles of cisplatin 20 mg/m2/d and etoposide 50 mg/m2/d (days 1 to 5 and days 29 to 33); patients then received consolidation therapy with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 on days 78 and 106 and vinorelbine 30 mg/m2/wk from days 78 to 127.
  • Median survival was 14.5 months in the sequential arm and 16.3 months in the concurrent arm (log-rank test P = .24).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;23(25):5859-61 [16087952.001]
  • (PMID = 16087956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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72. Wang L, Sun J, Li L, Harbour C, Mears D, Koutalistras N, Sheil AG: Factors affecting hepatocyte viability and CYPIA1 activity during encapsulation. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol; 2000 May;28(3):215-27
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  • This work investigates the negative influences on hepatocyte viability and CYPIA1 activity during APA encapsulation, and reports methods to alleviate these influences by incorporating certain reagents into the encapsulation solution.
  • Hepatocyte viability was 25% higher (p < 0.05) in CaCl2 than in calcium lactate (CaLa) when the cells were gelled by contact with these calcium solutions at room temperature (RT).
  • Hepatocyte viability showed little improvement by processing at 4 degrees C than at RT in CaCl2 (p > 0.05) but was 23% higher at 4 degrees C than at RT in CaLa (p < 0.05).
  • However, nifedipine at a final concentration of 25 mM modestly improved hepatocyte survival in solution containing 100 mM CaCl2 (p = 0.003).
  • [MeSH-major] Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism. Drug Compounding / adverse effects. Liver / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alginates / pharmacology. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology. Calcium / toxicity. Calcium Chloride / pharmacology. Calcium Compounds / pharmacology. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Survival. Coloring Agents / standards. Glutathione / pharmacology. Lactates / pharmacology. Necrosis. Nifedipine / pharmacology. Polylysine / analogs & derivatives. Polylysine / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reproducibility of Results. Swine. Taurine / pharmacology. Temperature. Tetrazolium Salts / standards. Thiazoles / standards

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  • (PMID = 10852673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-1199
  • [Journal-full-title] Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Calcium Compounds; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Lactates; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 0 / alginate-polylysine-alginate; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; 25104-18-1 / Polylysine; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; 2URQ2N32W3 / calcium lactate; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine; M4I0D6VV5M / Calcium Chloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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73. León-González G, Cruz C: [Obtention of a heterohybridoma for production of type IgM monoclonal antibodies against the D antigen of the Rh system]. Invest Clin; 2007 Mar;48(1):57-67
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  • [Title] [Obtention of a heterohybridoma for production of type IgM monoclonal antibodies against the D antigen of the Rh system].
  • [Transliterated title] Obtención de heterohibridoma productor de anticuerpos monoclonales de tipo IgM contra el antígeno D del sistema Rh.
  • The objective was to obtain a heterohybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal antibody with IgM type anti-D specificity (Rh system), that could be used as a reactive for hemoclasification.
  • Mononuclear cells (MNC) were extracted from a blood sample of a highly sensitized woman, five days after giving birth to an Rh positive child.
  • Once transformed and in exponential growth, they were fused with K6H6/B5 line cells using PEG 4.000 as a fusing agent in a 1:1 proportion.
  • This clone could be maintained in constant culture for three months, producing antibodies in a concentration of 4 microg/mL in de CSN.
  • It was also possible to obtain antibodies with an Artificial Capilar System (ACS) reaching a concentration of 24 microg/mL.
  • In CSN at immediate centrifugation (IC): 1 x 32, score 52; 15' from incubation at room temperature (RT): 1 x 1,024 score 105.
  • With that ACS product at IC: 1 x 32 score 54; 15' from incubation at RT: 1 x 8.192 score 136; and a 37 degrees C: 1 x 8,192 score 136.
  • Reactivity was detected with red cells D(IIIa), D(IV), D(Va), D(VI) type IV, D(VII), DFR, DNU, STEM+, DAR and DAU.
  • There was no reactivity with red cells D(IIIc), DI(Va), D(V) type II, D(VI) types I, II y III, Ro(HAR), DOL and weak D type II.
  • A stable heterohybridoma was obtained, producer of IgM type anti-D, with enough qualities to be used in blood typing.
  • Given the excellent qualities of the antibody, we are evaluating dilution media and the addition of type IgG antibodies in order to manufacture a reactive for use in hemoclassification.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis. Hybridomas / metabolism. Immunoglobulin M / biosynthesis. Isoantibodies / biosynthesis. Rh-Hr Blood-Group System / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Specificity. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Blood Grouping and Crossmatching. Callithrix. Cell Fusion. Cell Line, Transformed. Clone Cells / immunology. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology. Postpartum Period. Pregnancy. Rh Isoimmunization / blood. Rho(D) Immune Globulin

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  • (PMID = 17432544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0535-5133
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigación clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Clin
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Venezuela
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Isoantibodies; 0 / RHO(D) antibody; 0 / Rh-Hr Blood-Group System; 0 / Rho(D) Immune Globulin; 0 / Rho(D) antigen
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74. Gilani AH, Khan AU, Ghayur MN, Ali SF, Herzig JW: Antispasmodic effects of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) is mediated predominantly through K+ -channel activation. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol; 2006 Nov;99(5):365-73
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  • Its aqueous extract (RT) at 0.3-10 mg/ml produced relaxation of spontaneous and low K(+) (25 mM)-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum, with weak effect on high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions.
  • In the presence of glibenclamide, relaxation of low K(+)-induced contractions was prevented.
  • RT also exhibited antidiarrhoeal and antisecretory activities in mice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apigenin / chemistry. Apigenin / pharmacology. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. Female. Flavones. Flavonoids / chemistry. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Glucosides / chemistry. Glucosides / pharmacology. Glyburide / pharmacology. Jejunum / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Muscle Contraction / drug effects. Potassium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Rabbits. Toxicity Tests, Acute

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  • (PMID = 17076689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7835
  • [Journal-full-title] Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Flavones; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Glucosides; 0 / Parasympatholytics; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Potassium Channel Blockers; 0 / Potassium Channels; 28608-75-5 / orientin; 491-71-4 / chrysoeriol; 521-33-5 / vitexin; 7V515PI7F6 / Apigenin; SX6K58TVWC / Glyburide
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75. Pallier C, Castéra L, Soulier A, Hézode C, Nordmann P, Dhumeaux D, Pawlotsky JM: Dynamics of hepatitis B virus resistance to lamivudine. J Virol; 2006 Jan;80(2):643-53
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  • [Title] Dynamics of hepatitis B virus resistance to lamivudine.
  • Lamivudine was the first approved inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse transcriptase (RT).
  • Lamivudine resistance develops in 53% to 76% of patients after 3 years of treatment.
  • We extensively characterized the dynamics of HBV quasispecies variant populations in four HBV-infected patients who developed lamivudine resistance.
  • Virological breakthrough was preceded by 2 to 4 months by the emergence of quasispecies variants bearing amino acid substitutions at RT position 204, i.e., within the YMDD catalytic motif (rtM204V/I).
  • Three patients had a gradual switch from a YMDD variant population at baseline to a 100% lamivudine-resistant variant population, whereas the remaining patient had a fluctuating pattern of resistance variant dynamics.
  • Careful analysis of amino acid substitutions located outside domain C of HBV RT, including those known to partially restore replication capacities in vitro, showed that the in vivo replication of HBV variants is driven by multiple forces, including intrinsic replicative advantages conferred by mutations accumulating outside domain C and the changing environment in which these variants replicate.
  • Our findings also suggest that individual treatment optimization will require sensitive methods capable of detecting the emergence of viral resistance before the relevant variants acquire optimal replicative capacities.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B virus / drug effects. Hepatitis B, Chronic / virology. Lamivudine / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Drug Resistance, Viral. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / genetics. Sequence Alignment. Time Factors. Viral Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16378967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AM073272/ AM073273/ AM073274/ AM073275/ AM073276/ AM073277/ AM073278/ AM073279/ AM073280/ AM073281/ AM073282/ AM073283/ AM073284/ AM073285/ AM073286/ AM073287/ AM073288/ AM073289/ AM073290/ AM073291/ AM073292/ AM073293/ AM073294/ AM073295/ AM073296/ AM073297/ AM073298/ AM073299/ AM073300/ AM073301/ AM073302/ AM073303/ AM073304/ AM073305/ AM073306/ AM073307/ AM073308/ AM073309/ AM073310/ AM073311/ AM073312/ AM073313/ AM073314/ AM073315/ AM073316/ AM073317/ AM073318/ AM073319/ AM073320/ AM073321/ AM073322/ AM073323/ AM073324/ AM073325/ AM073326/ AM073327/ AM073328/ AM073329/ AM073330/ AM073331/ AM073332/ AM073333/ AM073334/ AM073335/ AM073336/ AM073337/ AM073338/ AM073339/ AM073340/ AM073341/ AM073342/ AM073343/ AM073344/ AM073345/ AM073346/ AM073347/ AM073348/ AM073349/ AM073350/ AM073351/ AM073352/ AM073353/ AM073354/ AM073355/ AM073356/ AM073357/ AM073358/ AM073359/ AM073360/ AM073361/ AM073362/ AM073363/ AM073364/ AM073365/ AM073366/ 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AM073967/ AM073968
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / Viral Proteins; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; EC 2.7.7.49 / RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1346832
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76. Turner D, Brenner B, Moisi D, Detorio M, Cesaire R, Kurimura T, Mori H, Essex M, Maayan S, Wainberg MA: Nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms at drug resistance sites in non-B-subtype variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2004 Aug;48(8):2993-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms at drug resistance sites in non-B-subtype variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
  • We have compared nucleotide substitutions and polymorphisms at codons known to confer drug resistance in subtype B strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with similar substitutions in viruses of other subtypes.
  • Nucleotide and amino acid diversity at resistance sites was compared with a consensus subtype B reference virus.
  • Among patients with non-subtype B infections, polymorphisms relative to subtype B were observed at codon 10 in protease (PR).
  • Subtype A viruses possessed a V179I substitution in reverse transcriptase (RT).
  • Subtype G viruses were identified by silent substitutions at codon 181 in RT (TAT-->TAC).
  • Similarly, subtype A/G viruses were identified by a substitution at position 67 in RT (GAC-->GAT).
  • Subtype C was distinguished by silent substitutions at codons 106 (GTA-->GTG) and 219 (AAA-->AAG) in RT and codon 48 (GGG-->GGA) in PR.
  • Variations relative to subtype B were seen at RT position 215 (ACC-->ACT) for subtypes A and A/E.
  • However, the existence of different subtypes may only rarely affect patterns of drug resistance-associated mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids / genetics. Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics. HIV-1 / drug effects. HIV-1 / genetics. Nucleotides / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15273111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Codon; 0 / Nucleotides; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC478480
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77. Møller A, Specht L, Toft PB, Sjø LD: [Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the ocular adnexa]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2008 Nov 3;170(45):3660-3
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  • INTRODUCTION: Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is among the most common malignant lymphomas of the ocular adnexa and it furthermore shows an increasing incidence.
  • MALT lymphoma can be treated with radiotherapy (RT), but in case of relapse, alternatives are required.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the 2001-2006 period, nine patients with MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa were treated with RT at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.
  • The visual acuity of six of the nine patients was evaluated before and after receiving RT.
  • RESULTS: All nine patients achieved complete remission after a total RT dose of 26 Gy.
  • Furthermore, one patient experienced a striking improvement of vision after RT: from 2/60 to 6/6 in the affected eye.
  • CONCLUSION: RT is effective in treatment of MALT lymphomas of the ocular adnexa.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rituximab. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 18986616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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78. Aina V, Marchis T, Laurenti E, Diana E, Lusvardi G, Malavasi G, Menabue L, Cerrato G, Morterra C: Functionalization of sol gel bioactive glasses carrying Au nanoparticles: selective Au affinity for amino and thiol ligand groups. Langmuir; 2010 Dec 21;26(24):18600-5
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  • The results evidence the following. (i) At room temperature (RT), no functionalization of Au-free glass occurs, whereas in the case of glasses containing AuNPs, stable linkages form only with amino groups, as in this condition Au does not bind with either thiol or hydroxyl groups.
  • The RT functionalization with cysteine and cystine confirms the preferential functionalization through the amino groups, while the -SH groups are oxidized to S-S bridges. (ii) The functionalization with cysteine and cystine, compared at pH = 5, 9, and 12, is shown not to take place at pH = 5 and to be hindered by the glass matrix dissolution at pH = 12 (with consequent release of AuNPs), while the best results are obtained at pH = 9. (iii) For the effect of reaction temperature, at 4 °C it is possible to obtain a strong Au-S interaction, whereas at RT, a weak Au-N linkage is formed.
  • These results should allow production, in a selective way, of different bonds exhibiting different strengths and, consequently, different release times in solution, with a wide range of possible applications (for instance, weak Au-N bonds in the case of drug delivery, strong Au-S bonds in protein immobilization).

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  • (PMID = 21090664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langmuir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 48TCX9A1VT / Cystine; 7440-57-5 / Gold; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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79. Ross L, Johnson M, Ferris RG, Short SA, Boone LR, Melby TE, Lanier R, Shaefer M, St Clair M: Deletions in the beta3-beta4 hairpin loop of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are observed in HIV-1 isolated from subjects during long-term antiretroviral therapy. J Hum Virol; 2000 May-Jun;3(3):144-9
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  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of in-frame deletions in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) on plasma viremia and phenotypic resistance to antiretroviral drugs.
  • STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Plasma HIV-1 RNA was isolated from 168 antiretroviral therapy-experienced subjects for quantification of plasma viremia, RT sequence analysis, and phenotypic resistance assays.
  • RESULTS: Four patients were found to harbor HIV-1 strains possessing in-frame, 3-nucleotide deletions at RT codons 67, 69, and 70.
  • In these subjects, phenotypic resistance and high plasma viremia were observed only in a background of multiple resistance mutations.
  • A recombinant virus engineered with an in-frame deletion of RT codon 67 did not have increased resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Selection for deletions within the beta3-beta4 hairpin loop of the HIV-1 RT is an uncommon event most likely to occur in subjects with long-term antiretroviral experience.
  • The codon 67 deletion does not appear to cause increased phenotypic resistance or increased viremia in the absence of concomitant RT mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Gene Deletion. HIV Infections / virology. HIV Reverse Transcriptase / genetics. HIV-1 / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Microbial. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Viral / blood. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Stavudine / therapeutic use. Viral Load. Zidovudine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10881994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-9508
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hum. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; BO9LE4QFZF / Stavudine; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
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80. Gergley JC: Comparison of two lower-body modes of endurance training on lower-body strength development while concurrently training. J Strength Cond Res; 2009 May;23(3):979-87
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  • The most recent American College of Sports Medicine (1998) recommendations for quantity and quality of exercise includes both resistance and endurance exercise components.
  • Skeletal muscle adaptations to resistance-only and endurance-only programs may be different and possibly antagonistic when both types of training are imposed concurrently.
  • The present study examined the effect of two different modes of lower-body endurance exercise (i.e., cycle ergometry and incline treadmill walking) on lower-body strength development with concurrent resistance training designed to improve lower-body strength (i.e., bilateral leg press 1 repetition maximum [RM]).
  • Thirty untrained participants (22 men and 8 women, ages 18-23) were randomly assigned to one of 3 training groups (resistance only [R], N = 10; resistance + cycle ergometry [RC], N = 10; and resistance + incline treadmill [RT], N = 10).
  • Before training began, 3 weeks of training, 6 weeks of training, and after training, the participants also performed a 1RM test for lower-body strength.
  • Analysis of variance comparisons with repeated measures revealed the following statistically significant changes (alpha = 0.05) in the 3 training groups over time: (a) when men and women were combined, body mass of R was significantly greater than RC and RT post-training;.
  • (b) body mass of men only was significantly greater than RC and RT post-training;.
  • (c) body composition of men only was significantly smaller for RC and RT compared with R;.
  • (d) when men and women were combined, percent change in strength revealed significantly greater gains in R compared with RT at 6 weeks;.
  • (e) when men and women were combined, percent change in strength revealed significantly greater gains in R compared with RC and RT post-training;.
  • (f) percent change in strength for men only was significantly greater for R compared with RT at 3 weeks;.
  • (g) percent change in strength for men only was significantly greater for R compared with RC and RT at 6 weeks, and RC was significantly greater than RT at 6 weeks;.
  • (h) percent change in strength in men only was significantly greater for R compared with RC and RT post-training, and RC was significantly greater than RT post-training; and (i) percent change in strength in women was significantly greater in R compared with RT post-training.
  • The findings confirm previous studies that reported attenuated strength development with concurrent resistance and endurance training compared with resistance-only training.

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  • (PMID = 19387377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4287
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of strength and conditioning research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Strength Cond Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. McGregor LM, Spunt SL, Santana VM, Stewart CF, Ward DA, Watkins A, Laningham FH, Ivy P, Furman WL, Fouladi M: Phase 1 study of an oxaliplatin and etoposide regimen in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors. Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;115(3):655-64
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  • [Title] Phase 1 study of an oxaliplatin and etoposide regimen in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The combination of a platinating agent and etoposide has induced responses in various pediatric tumors.
  • The study estimated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of an oxaliplatin and etoposide regimen in children with recurrent solid tumors.
  • 1) oxaliplatin at a dose of 130 mg/m(2) and etoposide at a dose of 75 mg/m(2), 2) oxaliplatin at a dose of 130 mg/m(2) and etoposide at a dose of 100 mg/m(2), and 3) oxaliplatin at a dose of 145 mg/m(2) and etoposide at a dose of 100 mg/m(2).
  • Calcium and magnesium infusions were used at dose level 3 in an attempt to escalate the oxaliplatin dose past the single-agent MTD.
  • RESULTS: The 16 patients received a total of 63 courses.
  • At dose level 3, 2 of 4 patients experienced dose-limiting neutropenia; none experienced grade 3 or 4 acute neuropathy.
  • Responses were observed in patients with medulloblastoma (1 complete response) and pineoblastoma (1 partial response); 3 others with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, ependymoma, and soft tissue sarcoma had prolonged disease stabilization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of this regimen was found to be oxaliplatin at a dose of 130 mg/m(2) given on Day 1 and etoposide at a dose of 100 mg/m(2)/d given on Days 1 to 3.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19117350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131860; NLM/ PMC2852396
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82. Sudour H, Chastagner P, Claude L, Desandes E, Klein M, Carrie C, Bernier V: Fertility and pregnancy outcome after abdominal irradiation that included or excluded the pelvis in childhood tumor survivors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Mar 1;76(3):867-73
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  • [Title] Fertility and pregnancy outcome after abdominal irradiation that included or excluded the pelvis in childhood tumor survivors.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004.
  • RESULTS: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population.
  • Of the 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy.
  • Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy.
  • Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility.
  • A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account.
  • When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving.
  • The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / radiation effects. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. France. Humans. Infant. Infant, Low Birth Weight. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature. Live Birth / epidemiology. Lymphatic Irradiation / adverse effects. Lymphatic Irradiation / methods. Menstruation / physiology. Ovary / radiation effects. Pelvis / radiation effects. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Uterus / radiation effects. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19632060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Faraj A, El Alaoui AM, Gosselin G, Imbach JL, Morrow C, Sommadossi JP: Effects of beta-L-3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate on host and viral DNA polymerases. Antiviral Res; 2000 Aug;47(2):97-102
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  • We have previously reported that several beta-L-thymidine analogues including beta-L-3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (beta-L-AZT), beta-L-3'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (beta-L-FLT) and beta-L-2', 3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (beta-L-D4T) did not inhibit HIV replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells whereas their corresponding beta-D-counterparts are known as potent and selective anti-HIV agents [Faraj et al., 1997.
  • In order to gain insight on the lack of antiviral activities of these beta-L-derivatives, in vitro enzymatic steady state studies were conducted in the present study with beta-L-AZT. beta-L-AZT 5'-triphosphate (L-AZTTP) was chemically synthesized and found to moderately inhibit wild-type HIV reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) with a K(i) value of 2 microM; while lacking any inhibitory effect towards human DNA polymerase alpha, beta or gamma.
  • However, the inhibitory effect of L-AZTTP towards HIV-1 RT was very modest (266-fold less potent) when compared to its isomer beta-D-AZT 5'-triphosphate (D-AZTTP) which exhibits a K(i) value of 0.0075 microM and this finding was further confirmed by DNA chain termination assay.
  • Finally, L-AZTTP was found to lack affinity for the mutant RT at position 184 (M184V) demonstrating that this mutation confers resistance not only to beta-L-2',3'-dideoxycytidine analogs as previously reported by our group [Faraj et al., 1994. Antimicrob.
  • Agents Chemother.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Autoradiography. Dideoxynucleotides. Humans. Point Mutation. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 10996397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-3542
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Dideoxynucleotides; 0 / Thymine Nucleotides; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; 92586-35-1 / 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Polymerase I; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Polymerase beta; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA polymerase gamma; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase; EC 2.7.7.7 / DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
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84. Narendran A, Coppes L, Jayanthan A, Coppes M, Teja B, Bernoux D, George D, Strother D: Establishment of atypical-teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) cell cultures from disseminated CSF cells: a model to elucidate biology and potential targeted therapeutics. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):171-80
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  • [Title] Establishment of atypical-teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) cell cultures from disseminated CSF cells: a model to elucidate biology and potential targeted therapeutics.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant central nervous system neoplasm that usually affects infants and young children.
  • In this report, we describe culture conditions that enabled the sustained growth of tumor cells obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an infant with AT/RT.
  • These cells retained the morphological and biomarker characteristics of the original tumor.
  • IGF-IR activity is consistent with data from other established AT/RT cell lines.
  • Inhibition of IGF-IR by the small molecular weight inhibitor AEW541 led to growth suppression of cultured AT/RT cells.
  • We also compared cultured AT/RT cells to established cell lines to identify consistent drug sensitivity patterns among these cells.
  • In addition to previously described cell lines and xenograft models, continuous culture of CSF derived cells may also provide an effective way to study the biology of AT/RT and to identify potential targets for future therapeutics for this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Rhabdoid Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Male. Models, Biological. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. SMARCB1 Protein. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured / pathology. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18651103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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85. Prieto JA, Andrade F, Martín S, Sanjurjo P, Elorz J, Aldámiz-Echevarría L: Determination of creatine and guanidinoacetate by GC-MS: study of their stability in urine at different temperatures. Clin Biochem; 2009 Jan;42(1-2):125-8
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  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a GC-MS method using N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent for GC-MS.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: 22 urines were kept at RT, 4 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 15 days.
  • RESULTS: MTBSTFA produces a single chromatographic peak in contrast with other derivatizing agents.

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  • (PMID = 18992235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2933
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetamides; 0 / Fluoroacetates; 0 / Organosilicon Compounds; 77377-52-7 / N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide; E5R8Z4G708 / Trifluoroacetic Acid; GO52O1A04E / glycocyamine; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
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86. Stief TW: Thrombin generation by exposure of blood to endotoxin: a simple model to study disseminated intravascular coagulation. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost; 2006 Apr;12(2):137-61
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  • In an in-vitro system consisting of incubation of fresh citrated blood with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or glucans and subsequent plasma recalcification plasmatic thrombin was quantified.
  • Five hundred microliters of freshly drawn citrated blood of healthy donors were incubated with up to 800 ng/mL LPS (Escherichia coli) or up to 80 microg/mL Zymosan A (ZyA; Candida albicans) for 30 minutes at room temperature (RT).
  • Arginine was also added in the endotoxin exposure time (EET) or in the plasma coagulation reaction time (CRT).
  • After 30 minutes EET at RT, the thrombin activity at 12 minutes CRT generated by the addition of 200 ng/mL LPS or 20 microg/mL ZyA is approximately 200 mIU/mL compared to approximately 20 mIU/mL without addition of endotoxin, or compared to about 7 mIU/mL thrombin at 0 minutes CRT.
  • The thrombin generated by blood plus endotoxin incubation and plasma recalcification suggests that the contact phase of coagulation; e.g., triggered by cell components of (phospholipase-) lysed cells such as monocyte or endothelium DNA or phospholipid-vesicles (microparticles), is of primary pathologic importance in sepsis-PDIC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD14 / analysis. Arginine / pharmacology. Blood / drug effects. Blood Coagulation Tests. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology. Models, Cardiovascular. Sepsis. Thromboplastin / analysis. Zymosan / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16708116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Endotoxins; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 9010-72-4 / Zymosan; 9035-58-9 / Thromboplastin; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
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87. Fujii H, Osa Y, Ishihara M, Hanamura S, Nemoto T, Nakajima M, Hasebe K, Mochizuki H, Nagase H: Synthesis of N-isobutylnoroxymorphone from naltrexone by a selective cyclopropane ring opening reaction. Bioorg Med Chem Lett; 2008 Sep 15;18(18):4978-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synthesis of N-isobutylnoroxymorphone from naltrexone by a selective cyclopropane ring opening reaction.
  • Selective ring opening reaction of the N-cyclopropylmethyl group in naltrexone (1d) was effected in the presence of platinum (IV) oxide and hydrobromic acid under a hydrogen atmosphere at rt to selectively afford N-isobutyl derivative 10.
  • The binding affinity of N-i-Bu derivative 10 for opioid receptors was 11-17 times less than that of the corresponding N-CPM compound, naltrexone (1d).
  • Contrary to expectations based on previous structure-activity relationship studies for a series of N-substituted naltrexone derivatives that compound 10 would be an opioid antagonist, 10 showed dose-dependent analgesia in the mouse acetic acid writhing test (ED(50): 5.05 mg/kg, sc), indicating it was an opioid agonist.
  • This finding may have a great influence on the drug design of opioid agonists.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetic Acid. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Mice. Molecular Structure

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  • (PMID = 18755589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-3405
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Cyclopropanes; 0 / Morphinans; 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 5S6W795CQM / Naltrexone; 99TB643425 / cyclopropane; 9NZ7111A9O / noroxymorphone; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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88. Li W, Cao M, Pei L, Ling X, Li B, Yang Z: Study on steady-state kinetics of nucleotide analogues incorporation by non-gel CE. Electrophoresis; 2010 Jan;31(3):507-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nucleoside analogue is a kind of antiviral agent used to inhibit viral replication in infected cells, especially HIV.
  • Samples were prepared by single nucleotide incorporation assays catalyzed by Taq DNA polymerase at 58 degrees C and HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) at 37 degrees C, and then were separated using NGCE under optimized conditions: 25 mmol/L Tris-boric-EDTA buffer (pH 8.0) with 7 mmol/L urea in the presence of 20% w/v PEG 35000 at 30 degrees C and -20 kV.
  • K(m(dTTP)), K(m(d4TTP)) and K(m(AZTTP)) were measured by NGCE for the first time and their values for Taq DNA polymerase were 0.29+/-0.04, 32.1+/-3.3 and 74.5+/-6.6 micromol/L, respectively.
  • For HIV RT, the values were 0.15+/-0.05, 0.31+/-0.03 and 0.17+/-0.03 micromol/L, respectively.
  • The trend of data for HIV RT measured by NGCE was consistent with that measured by PAGE.
  • The reported method by NGCE for the K(m) determination was powerful, sensitive and fast, and required less amounts of reagents compared with PAGE.
  • It be employed as a reliable alternative method and further applied in other relative studies of nucleoside analogue substrates and DNA polymerases or RTs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Binding Sites. Biocatalysis. Buffers. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Substrate Specificity. Taq Polymerase / metabolism. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 20119962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2683
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Nucleotides; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase; EC 2.7.7.7 / DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
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89. Pryor DI, Porceddu SV, Burmeister BH, Guminski A, Thomson DB, Shepherdson K, Poulsen M: Enhanced toxicity with concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Feb;90(2):172-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To report toxicity data from the first 13 consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC), ineligible for cisplatin, treated with concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy (RT) at our institution.
  • Planned treatment consisted of a cetuximab loading dose (400mg/m(2)) via intravenous infusion 1 week prior and then weekly (250mg/m(2)) with 70Gy in 35 daily fractions over 7 weeks.
  • The predominant primary sites were hypopharyngeal (5) and oropharyngeal (5).
  • Of the 13 patients, 10 (77%) had grade 3/4 skin reactions and 10 (77%) grade 3/4 mucositis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our early experience with cetuximab/RT has demonstrated a higher rate of toxicity compared with the recently reported randomised trial, resulting in low treatment compliance and delays in completing RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiodermatitis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Drug Eruptions / pathology. Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Radiother Oncol. 2009 Dec;93(3):654 [19524312.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiother Oncol. 2009 Jul;92(1):142-3 [19328573.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiother Oncol. 2009 Feb;90(2):281-2 [19150740.001]
  • (PMID = 18976827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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90. Nio Y, Hashimoto K, Yano S, Itakura M, Koike M, Yamaguchi K, Endo S, Tsuji M, Higami T, Maruyama R: Phase II study on low dose gemcitabine plus oral chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur and cyclophosphamide in combination with radiotherapy against recurrent and advanced pancreatic cancer. Oncol Rep; 2005 Aug;14(2):401-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The present study assessed the anti-tumor effects and clinical benefits of intravenous (i.v.) or intra-arterial (i.a.) gemcitabine (GEM) at low dose plus oral chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur (UFT) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) against recurrent and advanced pancreatic cancers.
  • A total of 22 patients with 15 advanced or 7 recurrent pancreatic cancer were enrolled.
  • The target lesions included 15 primary tumors, 9 liver metastases, 3 local recurrences, 1 lung metastasis and 1 pleural effusion.
  • The patients were each given GEM at 200-400 mg weekly or biweekly, UFT at 300 mg/day daily and CPA at 50 mg/day every other day in combination with RT at a total dose of 40-60 Gy.
  • The primary efficacy measures were the overall response rate (RR) and survival.
  • The regimen was well tolerated, and the major side effects included anorexia, general malaise and myelo-suppression.
  • GEM at low dose, UFT and CPA in combination with RT is a well-tolerated regimen with beneficial clinical efficacy, and is worthy of further study.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Constipation / chemically induced. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy / methods. Survival Rate. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome. Uracil / administration & dosage


91. Arcaro A, Doepfner KT, Boller D, Guerreiro AS, Shalaby T, Jackson SP, Schoenwaelder SM, Delattre O, Grotzer MA, Fischer B: Novel role for insulin as an autocrine growth factor for malignant brain tumour cells. Biochem J; 2007 Aug 15;406(1):57-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel role for insulin as an autocrine growth factor for malignant brain tumour cells.
  • AT/RTs (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours) of the CNS (central nervous system) are childhood malignancies associated with poor survival rates due to resistance to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy.
  • We characterized a panel of human AT/RT and MRT (malignant rhabdoid tumour) cell lines for expression of RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases) and their involvement in tumour growth and survival.
  • When compared with normal brain tissue, AT/RT cell lines overexpressed the IR (insulin receptor) and the IGFIR (insulin-like growth factor-I receptor).
  • Moreover, insulin was secreted by AT/RT cells grown in serum-free medium.
  • Insulin potently activated Akt (also called protein kinase B) in AT/RT cells, as compared with other growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor.
  • Pharmacological inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, or RNAi (RNA interference) targeting the IR impaired the growth of AT/RT cell lines and induced apoptosis.
  • Inhibitors of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt pathway also impaired basal and insulin-stimulated AT/RT cell proliferation.
  • Experiments using RNAi and isoform-specific pharmacological inhibitors established a key role for the class I(A) PI3K p110alpha isoform in AT/RT cell growth and insulin signalling.
  • Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for autocrine signalling by insulin and the IR in growth and survival of malignant human CNS tumour cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Autocrine Communication. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Growth Substances / metabolism. Insulin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Child, Preschool. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. Culture Media, Serum-Free. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Male. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Receptor, Insulin / genetics. Receptor, Insulin / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Transcription Factors / metabolism