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1. Rubenstein JL, Combs D, Rosenberg J, Levy A, McDermott M, Damon L, Ignoffo R, Aldape K, Shen A, Lee D, Grillo-Lopez A, Shuman MA: Rituximab therapy for CNS lymphomas: targeting the leptomeningeal compartment. Blood; 2003 Jan 15;101(2):466-8
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  • [Title] Rituximab therapy for CNS lymphomas: targeting the leptomeningeal compartment.
  • Most lymphomas that involve the central nervous system are B-cell neoplasms that express the cell surface molecule CD20.
  • After intravenous administration, rituximab can be reproducibly measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma; however, the CSF levels of rituximab are approximately 0.1% of serum levels associated with therapeutic activity in patients with systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Because lymphomatous meningitis is a frequent complication of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, we have conducted an analysis of the safety and pharmacokinetics of direct intrathecal administration of rituximab using cynomolgus monkeys.
  • Pharmacokinetic analysis suggests that drug clearance from the CSF is biphasic, with a terminal half-life of 4.96 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Area Under Curve. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Half-Life. Injections, Spinal. Macaca fascicularis. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 12393404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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2. Madanat LM, Lähteenmäki PM, Hurme S, Dyba T, Salmi TT, Sankila R: Hypothyroidism among pediatric cancer patients: a nationwide, registry-based study. Int J Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;122(8):1868-72
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  • Patients extracted from the Finnish Cancer Registry data base (5,180 patients with cancer diagnosis at the age of 0-15 years, and born after 1970) were linked with thyroxin reimbursement data (Drug Reimbursement Register) and with thyroxin purchase data (prescription database) maintained by the Social Insurance Institution.
  • At the end of follow-up, the prevalence of HT (10,509/100,000) was found to exceed that in the general population (240/100,000) for those aged <35 years.
  • Diagnostic group (p < 0.0001) and gender (p < 0.0025) had significant effect on the risk of developing HT.
  • Cumulative incidence rate of HT was highest in patients with thyroid cancer (TC), Hodgkin lymphoma, central nervous system (CNS) tumors and neuroblastoma.
  • Except in patients with TC (4.5 months) and CNS tumors (19 months), the median time for the appearance of HT was quite long, varying between 2 and 4.5 years.
  • We consider our results valuable in providing new data for the planning of thyroid function follow-up in different diagnostic groups of childhood cancer survivors.

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  • (PMID = 18076068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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3. Al-Katib A, Arnold AA, Aboukameel A, Sosin A, Smith P, Mohamed AN, Beck FW, Mohammad RM: I-kappa-kinase-2 (IKK-2) inhibition potentiates vincristine cytotoxicity in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mol Cancer; 2010 Sep 01;9:228
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  • [Title] I-kappa-kinase-2 (IKK-2) inhibition potentiates vincristine cytotoxicity in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: IKK-2 is an important regulator of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) which has been implicated in survival, proliferation and apoptosis resistance of lymphoma cells.
  • In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of IKK-2 impacts cell growth or cytotoxicity of selected conventional chemotherapeutic agents in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Two established model systems were used; Follicular (WSU-FSCCL) and Diffuse Large Cell (WSU-DLCL2) Lymphoma, both of which constitutively express p-IκB.
  • A novel, selective small molecule inhibitor of IKK-2, ML120B (N-[6-chloro-7-methoxy-9H-β-carbolin-8-yl]-2-methylnicotinamide) was used to perturb NF-κB in lymphoma cells.
  • There was no significant enhancement of cell kill in the M/C or M/H combination.
  • However, there was strong synergy in the M/V combination where the vincristine concentration can be lowered by a hundred fold in the combination for comparable G2/M arrest and apoptosis.
  • In vivo, ML120B was effective by itself and enhanced CHOP anti-tumor activity significantly (P = 0.001) in the WSU-DLCL2-SCID model but did not prevent CNS lymphoma in the WSU-FSCCL-SCID model.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, this study demonstrates that perturbation of IKK-2 by ML120B leads to synergistic enhancement of vincristine cytotoxicity in lymphoma.
  • These results suggest that disruption of the NF-κB pathway is a useful adjunct to cytotoxic chemotherapy in lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 20809973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM058905B; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109389
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitussive Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940845
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4. Mottl H, Bajciova V, Nemec J, Al Shemmari S, Al Awadi S: High survival rate in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma without CNS involvement: results of BFM 95 study in Kuwait. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Mar;20(2):103-10
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  • [Title] High survival rate in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma without CNS involvement: results of BFM 95 study in Kuwait.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in children are the second most common malignant tumors in Kuwait.
  • The results of a retrospective analysis of NHL BFM 95 protocol in Kuwait are reported.
  • Seven patients diagnosed with NHL--group B: 3 children with Burkitt lymphoma (B-cell NHL) and group A: 4 children with lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-cell NHL)--were treated from October 1995 to September 2000 in the Kuwait Cancer Control Centre according to NHL BFM 95 protocol.
  • Group B consisted of 2 girls and 1 boy; median age at diagnosis was 4 years 8 months, 2 pts classified as stage II and 1 pt as stage III.
  • Group A included 1 girl and 3 boys; median age at diagnosis was 5 years 8 months, 1 pt classified as stage III and 3 pts as stage IV.
  • In group B all 3 pts are in 1st CR; in group A 3 pts are in 1st CR and 1 pt having Li-Fraumani syndrome died after the 3rd relapse of disease during therapy.
  • In both groups there was no toxic death, myelotoxicity WHO grade III-IV, hepatotoxicity WHO grade II-III.
  • Six patients are in 1st CR and one died due to progression of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Burkitt Lymphoma / mortality. Burkitt Lymphoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Kuwait / epidemiology. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell / surgery. Male. Mesna / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage


5. Taj MM, Messahel B, Mycroft J, Pritchard-Jones K, Baker A, Height S, Hadzic N, Pinkerton CR: Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose methotrexate in central nervous system positive or relapsed lymphoproliferative disease following liver transplant in children. Br J Haematol; 2008 Jan;140(2):191-6
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  • [Title] Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose methotrexate in central nervous system positive or relapsed lymphoproliferative disease following liver transplant in children.
  • Childhood post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a heterogeneous condition in which treatment varies, from the reduction of immunosuppression to moderately intensive chemotherapy.
  • While low-dose chemotherapy/rituximab has been found to be effective, moderately intensive chemotherapy is required for patients who relapse, have classic non-Hodgkin lymphoma or have fulminant PTLD.
  • Methotrexate (Mtx) is highly effective in lymphomas and crosses the blood-brain barrier.
  • We describe four cases of high-grade lymphomas (three diffuse large B cell and one T-cell lymphoblastic), post-liver transplant, for which chemotherapy including high-dose Mtx (HDMTX) was the treatment of choice.
  • In total, 20 doses of HDMTX (1-5 g/m(2)) were given.
  • One case of central nervous system (CNS) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was treated with HDMTX alone.
  • We conclude that, in the absence of significant organ damage, HDMTX can safely be given to liver transplant patients, but should only be administered in specialist oncology units.
  • Proof of effectiveness as a single agent in CNS lymphoma needs further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Transplantation. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Humans. Male. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18173755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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6. Schlegel U, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Deckert M: Primary CNS lymphoma: clinical presentation, pathological classification, molecular pathogenesis and treatment. J Neurol Sci; 2000 Dec 1;181(1-2):1-12
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  • [Title] Primary CNS lymphoma: clinical presentation, pathological classification, molecular pathogenesis and treatment.
  • Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) represent malignant non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphomas, which are confined to the central nervous system.
  • According to the results of uncontrolled studies the combination of RT and chemotherapy based on high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is most efficient in terms of survival rates.
  • The authors favor the systematic evaluation of chemotherapy alone with protocols including HD MTX, because unicenter results are promising in terms of both survival as well as quality of life in long term survivors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy / methods. Drug Therapy / statistics & numerical data. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Radiotherapy / statistics & numerical data. Survival Rate / trends

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  • (PMID = 11099705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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7. Doolittle ND, Anderson CP, Bleyer WA, Cairncross JG, Cloughesy T, Eck SL, Guastadisegni P, Hall WA, Muldoon LL, Patel SJ, Peereboom D, Siegal T, Neuwelt EA: Importance of dose intensity in neuro-oncology clinical trials: summary report of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consortium. Neuro Oncol; 2001 01;3(1):46-54
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  • [Title] Importance of dose intensity in neuro-oncology clinical trials: summary report of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consortium.
  • Therapeutic options for the treatment of malignant brain tumors have been limited, in part, because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier.
  • For this reason, the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consortium, the focus of which was the "Importance of Dose Intensity in Neuro-Oncology Clinical Trials," was convened in April 2000, at Government Camp, Mount Hood, Oregon.
  • This meeting, which was supported by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, brought together clinicians and basic scientists from across the U.S. to discuss the role of dose intensity and enhanced chemotherapy delivery in the treatment of malignant brain tumors and to design multicenter clinical trials.
  • Optimizing chemotherapy delivery to the CNS is crucial, particularly in view of recent progress identifying certain brain tumors as chemosensitive.
  • This report summarizes the discussions, future directions, and key questions regarding dose-intensive treatment of primary CNS lymphoma, CNS relapse of systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, high-grade glioma, and metastatic cancer of the brain.
  • The promising role of cytoenhancers and chemoprotectants as part of dose-intensive regimens for chemosensitive brain tumors and development of improved gene therapies for malignant gliomas are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypertonic Solutions / pharmacology. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Buthionine Sulfoximine / pharmacology. Buthionine Sulfoximine / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Synergism. Genetic Therapy. Genetic Vectors / pharmacokinetics. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / metabolism. Glutathione / metabolism. Guinea Pigs. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / chemically induced. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / prevention & control. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Multicenter Studies as Topic / methods. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Permeability / drug effects. Quality of Life. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11305417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R13 CA 86959-01
  • [Publication-type] Congresses; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Hypertonic Solutions; 5072-26-4 / Buthionine Sulfoximine; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920598
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8. Chimienti E, Spina M, Vaccher E, Tirelli U: Management of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2009 Oct;9(5):353-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that arises within and is confined to the CNS.
  • The clinical management of these patients remains controversial, and the optimal treatment for patients with PCNSL has not yet been defined.
  • Corticosteroids have a specific role in the treatment of patients with PCNSL, whose disease is sensitive to them as a chemotherapeutic agent.
  • PCNSL is also a chemosensitive neoplasm; while the optimal choice, sequence, and combination of appropriate agents for efficacious treatment of patients with PCNSL has yet to be determined.
  • An essential component of therapy must include an adequate drug delivery behind a normal blood-brain barrier.
  • Methotrexate is the agent with the most proven activity in PCNSL.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19858054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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9. Siepmann K, Rohrbach JM, Duncker G, Zierhut M: [Intraocular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and its therapy-- a case series of ten patients]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2004 Apr;221(4):266-72
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  • [Title] [Intraocular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and its therapy-- a case series of ten patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Das intraokulare Non-Hodgkin-Lymphom und seine Therapie -- eine Fallserie mit 10 Patienten.
  • BACKGROUND: The timely and correct diagnosis of intraocular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents a huge challenge to clinicians.
  • Two thirds of intraocular lymphomas are a manifestation of a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) arising outside the lymphatic system and are localized in the brain, the meninges or the spinal chord.
  • Ninety five percent of PCNSL are B cell lymphomas.
  • Six patients had a concomitant CNS lesion while four patients showed isolated intraocular lymphoma only.
  • The presence of a highly malignant B cell lymphoma was proven by vitreous biopsy in nine cases and by stereotactic biopsy of a CNS lesion in one patient.
  • At present it is recommended that all patients with proven PCNSL be entered in a multicenter randomized study under the auspices of the Department of Internal Medicine III of the Benjamin-Franklin-University-Hospital, Berlin and the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital of Tuebingen.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Uveitis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15118956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Yang JH, Wu SL: Multiple sclerosis preceding CNS lymphoma: a case report. Acta Neurol Taiwan; 2007 Jun;16(2):92-7
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  • [Title] Multiple sclerosis preceding CNS lymphoma: a case report.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that targets the myelin of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.
  • Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is usually a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates in the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, or eyes.
  • We report a 33-year-old patient who was diagnosed to have multiple sclerosis initially and a CNS lymphoma was noted 38 months later.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma is a potential complication of chronic immunosuppression.
  • These agents might contribute to the occurrence of a primary CNS lymphoma.
  • On the other hand, a demyelinating disease may have preceded the diagnosis of primary CNS lymphoma.
  • A possibility of neoplastic transformation in CNS inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis may occur.
  • The association of coexistent primary CNS lymphoma and multiple sclerosis may be more than coincidental.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma / etiology. Multiple Sclerosis / complications


11. Oertel SH, Riess H: Immunosurveillance, immunodeficiency and lymphoproliferations. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2002;159:1-8
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  • The incidence of malignant lymphomas is significantly higher in patients who have congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies.
  • Although there are some differences between these immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (IALD), they share several features: a tendency to present in extranodal sites, particularly the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, rapid clinical progression when untreated, diffuse large cell histology, B-cell origin and association with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • Recent studies identified three categories: plasmacytic hyperplasia, polymorphic lymphoproliferation and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • The precise risk of lymphoma development in HIV infection is not defined, but estimates suggest a prevalence of 3-4%.
  • HIV-related NHLs are divisible by site of manifestation into systemic, primary central nervous system and body-cavity lymphomas, and by pathology into Burkitt's and Burkitt's-like lymphoma, and diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL).
  • In about 90% of cases these lymphomas are of monoclonal B-cell composition.
  • Recent experiences suggest a link between therapy with immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophospamide, etc.) and development of IALD, best supported by the increased rate of IALD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who receive methotrexate therapy.

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  • (PMID = 11785833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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12. Gow KW, Lensing S, Hill DA, Krasin MJ, McCarville MB, Rai SN, Zacher M, Spunt SL, Strickland DK, Hudson MM: Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Nov;38(11):1574-80
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  • The authors sought to compare the clinical characteristics, course, and outcomes of patients with primary or secondary thyroid malignancies.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 8 children with PTM and 17 children with STM referred to St Jude Children's Research Hospital between February 1962 and February 2002 for evaluation and treatment of malignant thyroid carcinoma.
  • Three of the 8 (37.5%) had metastatic disease involving regional lymph nodes; 2 patients (25.0%) had lung metastases.
  • Six patients required radioactive iodine (I 131) ablation for residual or metastatic disease after surgical resection.
  • All 8 patients remain alive a median of 22.6 years after diagnosis (range, 0.7 to 30.5 years); 1 continues to receive radioactive iodine (I 131) ablation for persistent disease.
  • Seventeen patients had thyroid carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), Hodgkin's disease (n = 5), central nervous system tumor (n = 2), Wilms' tumor (n = 1), retinoblastoma (n = 1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1), or neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • Patients with secondary thyroid carcinoma presented at a median age of 21.5 years (range, 15.3 to 42.6 years), a median of 16.2 years (range, 0.9 to 29.2 years) after diagnosis of the primary cancer.
  • Four patients (23.5%) had metastatic disease involving regional lymph nodes.
  • Six patients (35.3%) required I(131) ablation for residual or metastatic disease after thyroidectomy.
  • At the time of this report, all 17 patients are alive and in continue to be free of disease.
  • Given the limited period of follow-up of our cohort of secondary malignant thyroid tumors that arise after childhood cancer, these lesions appear to have similar presentations and outcomes when compared with primary carcinomas and can therefore be managed in the same manner.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Tennessee / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14614703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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13. Ferreri AJ, Reni M, Dell'Oro S, Ciceri F, Bernardi M, Camba L, Ponzoni M, Terreni MR, Tomirotti M, Spina M, Villa E: Combined treatment with high-dose methotrexate, vincristine and procarbazine, without intrathecal chemotherapy, followed by consolidation radiotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent patients. Oncology; 2001;60(2):134-40
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  • [Title] Combined treatment with high-dose methotrexate, vincristine and procarbazine, without intrathecal chemotherapy, followed by consolidation radiotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and the activity, as well as the efficacy to treat meninges, of chemotherapy (CHT) containing high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) followed by radiation therapy (RT), without intrathecal CHT, in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Eligibility criteria were histologically proven diagnosis, disease limited to the CNS, age < or = 70, ECOG performance status < or = 3, HIV-negative and no prior treatment.
  • Patients who achieved a complete remission were referred to RT, those with progressive disease were excluded from further study; all the remaining patients received a third course of CHT followed by RT.
  • In contrast to high-dose cytarabine-containing CHT, salvage therapy with temozolomide produced good results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HD-MTX, procarbazine and vincristine followed by RT, without intrathecal therapy, produce similar results with respect to other HD-MTX-containing regimens.
  • These results seem to suggest that adequate meningeal treatment is possible without intrathecal drug delivery, even in CSF-positive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Administration Schedule. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11244328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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14. Aung L, Gorlick RG, Shi W, Thaler H, Shorter NA, Healey JH, Huvos AG, Meyers PA: Second malignant neoplasms in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience. Cancer; 2002 Oct 15;95(8):1728-34
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  • [Title] Second malignant neoplasms in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the incidence and relative risk of secondary malignant neoplasms in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma.
  • Chemotherapy was scheduled for up to 40 weeks with some variations in the actual treatment period and consisted of various combinations of the following agents: high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin, vincristine, cisplatin, and ifosfamide.
  • RESULTS: Secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN) occurred in 14 of 509 patients.
  • Only one had pulmonary metastasis at diagnosis and subsequent multiple recurrences that required thoracotomies and further modification of the chemotherapy regimen.
  • The median age at diagnosis for osteosarcoma was 16.6 years (range, 3.1-74.4 years).
  • The time interval from diagnosis of the primary osteosarcoma to the development of SMN was 1.3-13.1 years (median, 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-9.6).
  • The most common SMN occurred in the central nervous system (n = 4): anaplastic glioma, meningioma, high-grade glioma, and maxillary astrocytoma.
  • There were two cases of acute myeloid leukemia and one case each of myelodysplastic syndrome, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, breast carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of secondary malignancies in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma was significantly higher than the expected incidence of cancer in the general population.
  • However, the standardized incidence ratios were much lower than those reported for Hodgkin disease and retinoblastoma.
  • Although additional follow-up is warranted, the successes of current treatment regimens consisting of intensive, high-dose chemotherapy in combination with topoisomerase II inhibitors outweigh the risks.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Osteosarcoma / complications. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12365021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Pels H, Schulz H, Schlegel U, Engert A: Treatment of CNS lymphoma with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab: experience with two cases and review of the literature. Onkologie; 2003 Aug;26(4):351-4
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  • [Title] Treatment of CNS lymphoma with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab: experience with two cases and review of the literature.
  • Treatment with radio- and chemotherapy has become increasingly efficient in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL).
  • Treatment with intravenous rituximab has resulted in response rates of 50% in systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was also efficient in PCNSL as well as in CNS involvement of systemic disease.
  • However, rituximab concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid are low after systemic application.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antigens, CD20 / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Injections, Intraventricular. Remission Induction. Rituximab

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 12972702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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16. Zucca E, Gregorini A, Cavalli F: Management of non-Hodgkin lymphomas arising at extranodal sites. Ther Umsch; 2010 Oct;67(10):517-25
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  • [Title] Management of non-Hodgkin lymphomas arising at extranodal sites.
  • Primary extranodal lymphomas are relatively rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma presentations with either no or only "minor" nodal involvement along with a clinically "dominant" extranodal component, to which primary treatment must often be directed.
  • Clinical presentations depend largely on the localization and are similar to those of other malignancies affecting that specific organ.
  • In addition to the histological subtype, the primary organ of origin represents the most significant prognostic factor due to differences in natural history and, mainly, in management strategies related to organ-specific problems.
  • In principle, as for primary nodal disease, treatment strategies depends on the patient's clinical conditions, the extent and/or location of the disease, and the histological type.
  • In general, for stage I and II disease with low tumor burden, local therapy is a relevant option both for cure and local control.
  • In advanced stage disease, systemic chemoimmunotherapy is usually required.
  • Localizations with particularly poor survival are the enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma, the primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and the primary CNS Lymphoma.
  • However, recent studies have shown that site-tailored treatment strategies in testis and brain lymphoma may result in a significant outcome improvement.
  • Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common indolent subtype.
  • This lymphoma usually arises in mucosal sites where lymphocytes are not normally present and where a lymphoid infiltration is acquired in response to either chronic infectious conditions or autoimmune processes: Helicobacter pylori gastritis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Sjögren syndrome.
  • Indeed, a pathogenetic link between gastric MALT lymphoma and H. pylori is strongly suggested by the regression of gastric MALT lymphoma (in approx.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20886458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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17. Kästner F, Paulus W, Deckert M, Schlegel P, Evers S, Husstedt IW: [Primary CNS lymphoma in azathioprine therapy for autoimmune diseases: review of the literature and case report]. Nervenarzt; 2007 Apr;78(4):451-6
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  • [Title] [Primary CNS lymphoma in azathioprine therapy for autoimmune diseases: review of the literature and case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Primäres ZNS-Lymphom während der Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen mit Azathioprin. Kasuistik und Literaturübersicht.
  • We present a 31-year-old female patient with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS after immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Stereotactic biopsy revealed immunochemical and histologic high-grade malignant B cell lymphoma.
  • The risk of primary CNS lymphoma under azathioprine treatment for an autoimmune disease with a possible congenital immunodeficiency is presented and the literature is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy. Azathioprine / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / chemically induced. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17375274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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18. Ferrucci PF, Vanazzi A, Tesoriere G, Ferrari M, Bartolomei M, Rocca P, Cremonesi M, Paganelli G, Martinelli G: Cerebrospinal fluid diffusion of Zevalin after high-activity treatment and stem cell support in a patient affected by diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with central nervous system involvement. Ann Oncol; 2005 Oct;16(10):1710-1
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid diffusion of Zevalin after high-activity treatment and stem cell support in a patient affected by diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with central nervous system involvement.

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  • (PMID = 15972281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / ibritumomab tiuxetan
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19. Lin XB, Zhou NN, Li S, Cai QQ, Xia ZJ, Liao H, Gao Y, Huang HQ: [Effects of infusion duration of high-dose methotrexate on cerebrospinal fluid drug levels in lymphoma patients]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Oct;27(10):1100-5
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  • [Title] [Effects of infusion duration of high-dose methotrexate on cerebrospinal fluid drug levels in lymphoma patients].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX) Concentration of higher than minimal therapeutic level in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential for the therapeutic effects on central nervous system(CNS) lymphoma.
  • This study was to evaluate the effect of duration of venous infusion of high-dose MTX (HD-MTX) on drug levels in CSF, and to define the optimal schedule of HD-MTX infusion with high efficiency and low toxicity in CNS lymphomas.
  • METHODS: Thirty-four non-Hodgkin' lymphoma (NHL) patients received 6-hour or 24-hour continuous venous infusion of MTX (1-3 g/m2).
  • CSF samples were obtained right after the end of HD-MTX infusion, and serum samples were obtained at 0 h, 24 h, and 48 h after the end of HD-MTX infusion.
  • CSF levels of MTX were much higher in the patients with CNS involvement than in those without CNS involvement.
  • The occurrence rates of grade II-IV mucositis were 15.4% in 6-hour group and 37.8% in 24-hour group; those of grade III-IV myelosuppression were 46.2% in 6-hour group and 67.6% in 24-hour group.
  • CONCLUSION: The shorter duration (6 h) of MTX administration is thought to be more beneficial on the aspects of reducing toxicity and enhancing CNS pharmacokinetics.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / cerebrospinal fluid. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / cerebrospinal fluid. Methotrexate / cerebrospinal fluid
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mucositis / chemically induced. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18851792.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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20. Jahnke K, Doolittle ND, Muldoon LL, Neuwelt EA: Implications of the blood-brain barrier in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Neurosurg Focus; 2006;21(5):E11
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  • [Title] Implications of the blood-brain barrier in primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • The optimal treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare form of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma, has yet to be defined.
  • Methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens yield poor drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus necessitating administration of high doses with the concomitant risk of increased systemic and neurological toxicity.
  • The aim of chemotherapy in conjunction with BBB disruption is to maximize drug delivery to the brain and improve the agent's efficacy, while preserving neurocognitive function and minimizing systemic toxicity.
  • Animal models of central nervous system lymphoma and drug neurotoxicity offer new possibilities to study the effects of various treatments on PCNSL and normal brain and can also help understand biological and pathophysiological aspects of this disease.
  • Because the intact BBB is even less permeable to antibodies than it is to drugs, preclinical and clinical studies of monoclonal antibody delivery (for example, rituximab and 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan) to the brain in conjunction with BBB disruption offer a new possibility to make these novel treatments more efficient against PCNSL.
  • Regarding the evaluation of more sensitive and specific diagnostic imaging tools, iron oxide-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging have shown promise for better differentiation of PCNSL from other white matter diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood-Brain Barrier. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans


21. Moppett J, Oakhill A, Duncan AW: Second malignancies in children: the usual suspects? Eur J Radiol; 2001 Jun;38(3):235-48
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  • The aim of this article is to provide an up to date review of second malignant neoplasms (SMN's) following treatment for childhood cancer, referring to their incidence, the role of genetic factors, and how the primary malignancy and treatment received influence the type, site and prognosis of SMN's.
  • The primary malignancies that have important associations with SMN's will then be discussed, in particular Hodgkin's disease, retinoblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • The important second malignancies will be highlighted, including tumours of the CNS and thyroid, osteosarcoma, secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and melanoma.
  • These are provided in combination with illustrations as a useful adjunct to the text, with a particular emphasis on radiological features, diagnosis and screening.
  • Finally, the important but different roles of causal agents, in particular chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / etiology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Child. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Male. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Osteosarcoma / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retinal Neoplasms / genetics. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / genetics. Retinoblastoma / therapy. Risk Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [RepublishedFrom] Eur J Radiol. 2001 Feb;37(2):95-108 [11223476.001]
  • (PMID = 11399379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Corrected and Republished Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Levine AM: Challenges in the management of Burkitt's lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma; 2002 Dec;3 Suppl 1:S19-25
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  • [Title] Challenges in the management of Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Burkitt's lymphoma and small noncleaved Burkitt's-like lymphoma are rare and are highly aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that are characterized by dysregulation of the c-myc oncogene.
  • Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) also appear to be at risk for developing Burkitt's lymphomas.
  • Treatment options for Burkitt's lymphoma involve complex chemotherapy regimens that contain as many as 10 cytotoxic agents.
  • Approximately 50%-80% of adult patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or small, noncleaved lymphoma can be cured with these intensive chemotherapy regimens, and in pediatric populations, the cure rate is even higher.
  • However, a number of factors often compromise the outcome of patients with Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • For instance, the high proliferation rate of Burkitt's lymphoma enhances the risk for tumor lysis syndrome, which results from metabolic imbalances, such as hyperuricemia, that occur as large numbers of malignant cells are lysed during cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Standard treatment for tumor lysis syndrome includes adjustments in the chemotherapy regimen, vigorous hydration, administration of a uric acid synthesis inhibitor like allopurinol, and alkalinization.
  • The lifetime risk of developing central nervous system disease is 20%-30% for Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Consequently all chemotherapy regimens with activity in Burkitt's lymphoma utilize some form of central nervous system prophylaxis, such as systemic or intrathecal methotrexate or cytarabine.
  • In the past, patients with HIV who developed Burkitt's lymphoma often received inadequate chemotherapy doses because of their immunosuppression.
  • With the discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the ability to treat and control Burkitt's lymphoma in patients with HIV has improved.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Allopurinol / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Urate Oxidase / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12521385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 63CZ7GJN5I / Allopurinol; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 1.7.3.3 / Urate Oxidase; EC 1.7.3.3. / rasburicase; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ANAVACYM protocol; IVAC protocol; M-BACOD protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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23. Fesler MJ, Becker-Koepke S, Di Bisceglie AM, Petruska PJ: Procarbazine-induced hepatotoxicity: case report and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy; 2010 May;30(5):540
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  • Procarbazine hydrochloride is an oral alkylating agent primarily used as a component of chemotherapy regimens for Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as in regimens for primary central nervous system lymphoma and high-grade gliomas.
  • We describe a 65-year-old man who developed liver injury due to procarbazine during salvage chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The patient had no preexisting liver disease, his lymphoma was without hepatic involvement, and no liver injury developed after initial chemotherapy with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone).
  • Due to relapse of his non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, salvage chemotherapy with C-MOPP-R (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and rituximab) was administered, and the patient developed fever and aminotransferase level elevation during the second cycle.
  • After discontinuation of all drug therapy, exclusion of other potential etiologies, and resolution of hepatic injury, the patient was rechallenged with procarbazine and again experienced fever with aminotransferase level elevation.
  • His aminotransferase levels promptly returned to normal after discontinuation of procarbazine, and he experienced no further evidence of liver disease.
  • Use of validated scoring systems of drug-induced liver injury indicated a definitive association between the patient's hepatic injury and procarbazine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Procarbazine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Drug Monitoring. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Male. Salvage Therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20412004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9114
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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24. Brachet C, Dufrane JP, Van De Casseye M, Ost M, Debusscher L: [Bilateral breast masses]. Rev Med Brux; 2000 Jun;21(3):165-9
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  • Blood tests reveal pancytopenia; the MRI scan of the brain is suggestive of a CNS lymphoma.
  • The pathologic examination of a breast mass specimen confirms the lymphoid nature of the neoplasm.
  • This case report highlights the multifocal or systemic nature of non hodgkin's lymphoma and the diagnostic pitfalls of breast lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10925599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Bruxelles
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Brux
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] BELGIUM
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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25. Wong ET, Tishler R, Barron L, Wu JK: Immunochemotherapy with rituximab and temozolomide for central nervous system lymphomas. Cancer; 2004 Jul 1;101(1):139-45
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  • [Title] Immunochemotherapy with rituximab and temozolomide for central nervous system lymphomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Methotrexate-based and alkylator-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with renal and bone marrow toxicities, which limit their use in patients with central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas.
  • The authors report their experience with an immunochemotherapy regimen consisting of rituximab and temozolomide in patients with primary or metastatic CNS lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Seven patients who had received rituximab and temozolomide were identified from the database of the brain tumor clinic at the authors' institution: three patients had developed recurrent primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), one patient had newly diagnosed PCNSL but had poor renal function, and three other patients with systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma developed recurrent lymphoma in the brain only.
  • Patients were scheduled to receive 4 cycles of induction rituximab on Day 1 and temozolomide on Days 1-5 of a 28-day cycle.
  • Thereafter, their treatment included a total of up to 8 maintenance cycles of temozolomide alone on Days 1-5 of a 28-day cycle.
  • Of the 4 patients who received induction temozolomide at doses > 150 mg/m(2) daily on Days 1-5, 2 experienced Grade 2 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
  • The data obtained in the current study suggest that the optimal induction dose combination consists of rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on Day 1 and temozolomide 150 mg/m(2) daily on Days 1-5.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Drug Synergism. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2004 Dec 15;101(12):2900-1; author reply 2901-2 [15529311.001]
  • (PMID = 15221999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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26. Giuliari GP, Hinkle DM, Foster CS: Local treatment for lymphoid malignancies of the eye. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2009 Dec;9(10):1123-8
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  • Lymphoid malignancies may affect the eye either as primary intraocular lymphomas (PIOL), or by secondary involvement of a nodal lymphoma.
  • PIOL is a subtype of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and in up to 98% of the cases are non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphomas.
  • PIOL may occur in isolation, without involvement of the CNS.
  • Systemic chemotherapy, alone or in combination with radiotherapy has been used in the past for the treatment of PIOL.
  • Methotrexate and rituximab are immunomodulatory agents used in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
  • Recent reports have shown the intraocular safety and efficacy of both of these agents for the treatment of PIOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Follicular / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Vitreous Body / drug effects. Vitreous Body / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19925396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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27. Reni M, Mason W, Zaja F, Perry J, Franceschi E, Bernardi D, Dell'Oro S, Stelitano C, Candela M, Abbadessa A, Pace A, Bordonaro R, Latte G, Villa E, Ferreri AJ: Salvage chemotherapy with temozolomide in primary CNS lymphomas: preliminary results of a phase II trial. Eur J Cancer; 2004 Jul;40(11):1682-8
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  • [Title] Salvage chemotherapy with temozolomide in primary CNS lymphomas: preliminary results of a phase II trial.
  • Temozolomide is a well-tolerated alkylating agent, that is able to permeate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and has additive cytotoxicity when given with radiotherapy (RT).
  • A phase II trial assessing temozolomide 150 mg/m(2)/day, for 5 days every 28 days in primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) patients with negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS)<4, previously treated with high-dose methotrexate-containing (HD-MTX) chemotherapy and/or RT was started.
  • Five complete remissions (median duration 6+ months; range 2-36 months), one partial response, four stable disease (median duration 7.2 months, range 2-16.5 months), and 13 progressions were observed.
  • This is the first prospective trial assessing single-agent activity in PCNSL at failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15251157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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28. Cheung TW: AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part B: Malignant lymphoma. Cancer Invest; 2004;22(5):787-98
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  • [Title] AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part B: Malignant lymphoma.
  • The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was less obvious initially, although primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has dropped precipitously since the introduction of HAART.
  • The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma is multifactorial.
  • Epstein-Barr virus plays a significant role in these diseases, especially Burkitt lymphoma and PCNSL.
  • The use of biological agents, for example, monoclonal antibody against CD-20, is being explored to improve the clinical outcome of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma / immunology. Lymphoma / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology


29. Sparano JA: Clinical aspects and management of AIDS-related lymphoma. Eur J Cancer; 2001 Jul;37(10):1296-305
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  • [Title] Clinical aspects and management of AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is increased by approximately 100-fold in patients with advanced HIV infection.
  • Clinical presentations may include systemic lymphoma, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, and primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Systemic lymphoma is the most common presentation, is almost always of intermediate or high-grade histology and B-cell phenotype, and usually involves extranodal sites.
  • The disease is potentially curable with combination chemotherapy used for immunocompetent patients with lymphoma, although cure is achieved in only approximately 10-35% of patients.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma may be difficult to distinguish from cerebral infection.
  • Evidence suggests that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a decreased incidence of lymphoma, and that patients with systemic lymphoma treated in the post-HAART era have a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hematopoiesis. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous

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  • (PMID = 11423261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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30. Pache M, Kain H, Buess M, Flammer J, Meyer P: [Primary intraocular lymphoma with unusual clinical presentation and poor outcome]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2004 May;221(5):401-3
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  • [Title] [Primary intraocular lymphoma with unusual clinical presentation and poor outcome].
  • [Transliterated title] Primäres intraokuläres Lymphom mit untypischer Klinik und ungünstigem Verlauf.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary intraocular lymphoma is a distinct subset of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS.
  • In general, the primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS is rare, accounting for 1 % of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and less than 1 % of all intraocular tumors.
  • Diagnostic vitreous surgery including a biopsy was performed.
  • An intraocular malignant B-cell lymphoma was determined by immunohistochemistry.
  • General screening revealed no further manifestations of the lymphoma.
  • The following immunohistochemical examination confirmed the initial diagnosis.
  • A chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate and leucovorin rescue was initiated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary intraocular lymphoma can present as diffuse uveitis refractory to corticosteroids.
  • Diagnosis can be difficult and is often delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Blindness / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Bruch Membrane / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Choroid / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Eye Enucleation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Optic Atrophy / pathology. Prognosis. Retina / pathology. Vitrectomy. Vitreous Body / pathology. Vitreous Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Vitreous Hemorrhage / pathology. Vitreous Hemorrhage / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15162291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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31. Armand JP, Ribrag V, Harrousseau JL, Abrey L: Reappraisal of the use of procarbazine in the treatment of lymphomas and brain tumors. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2007 Jun;3(2):213-24
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  • [Title] Reappraisal of the use of procarbazine in the treatment of lymphomas and brain tumors.
  • Procarbazine HCl is a 'nonclassical' oral alkylating anticancer agent that was first synthesized in the late 1950s.
  • It has been used in the treatment of many cancers, but its main use is in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain tumors and, to a lesser extent, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Early use of procarbazine in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (MOPP) was effective in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma, but late toxic effects such as secondary cancer and infertility led to its replacement by other regimens.
  • However, its recent reintroduction in the dose-intensified BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) regimen has yielded very promising findings.
  • The most common side effects of procarbazine are gastrointestinal disturbances, myelosuppression, and central nervous system effects.
  • In conclusion, the use of procarbazine in combination with other drugs means that it remains a major anticancer drug in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma and gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 18360630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1936303
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32. Ohta M, Takeshita I, Matsumoto K, Matsuoka S, Ikeda K: [Case of central nervous system lymphoma metastasized to breast after remission by methotrexate chemotherapy]. No Shinkei Geka; 2005 Mar;33(3):263-8
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  • [Title] [Case of central nervous system lymphoma metastasized to breast after remission by methotrexate chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) who responded well to initial systemic chemotherapy, but subsequently developed breast metastasis with local recurrence in the brain 27 months after complete remission.
  • A stereotactic biopsy of the tumor made a diagnosis of classic diffuse non-Hodgkin's B-cell type lymphoma.
  • She received chemotherapy with a high-dose methotrexate under a condition of 20% of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15773316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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33. Mazhar D, Stebbing J, Bower M: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the CNS: prophylaxis and therapy in immunocompetent and HIV-positive individuals. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Mar;6(3):335-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the CNS: prophylaxis and therapy in immunocompetent and HIV-positive individuals.
  • The involvement of the CNS in individuals with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a well-recognised complication.
  • There are few studies that have addressed the management of CNS disease in AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and treatment algorithms have been formulated secondary to protocols in immunocompetent individuals.
  • The prevention and treatment of CNS disease is an important aspect of lymphoma management, and new medications, such as a sustained-release formulation of intrathecal cytarabine, will have an increasingly relevant role.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16503851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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34. Luther N, Greenfield JP, Chadburn A, Schwartz TH: Intracranial nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: immunopathologically-confirmed case and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):185-8
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  • [Title] Intracranial nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: immunopathologically-confirmed case and review of literature.
  • Advances in immunophenotypic profiling now permit characterization of natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma as distinct from other extranodal T- and B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • NK/T-cell lymphoma presents most commonly in the nasal cavity.
  • Disease progression to the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare phenomenon.
  • We present here, to our knowledge, the first immunophenotypically-confirmed case of direct extension of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma to the brain.
  • In addition, we review the literature with respect to NK/T-cell lymphoma metastasis to the CNS.
  • The overall prevalence of NK/T-cell lymphoma CNS metastasis is less than 3%.
  • Although rare, CNS invasion portends a poor prognosis, emphasizing the importance of early and accurate immunophenotype profiling and the need for novel, aggressive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / immunology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD3 / immunology. Antigens, CD4 / immunology. Antigens, CD56 / immunology. Craniotomy. Fatal Outcome. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / isolation & purification. Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects. Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16283442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD56
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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35. Moppett J, Oakhill A, Duncan AW: Second malignancies in children: the usual suspects? Eur J Radiol; 2001 Feb;37(2):95-108
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  • The aim of this article is to provide an up to date review of second malignant neoplasms (SMN's) following treatment for childhood cancer, referring to their incidence, the role of genetic factors, and how the primary malignancy and treatment received influence the type, site and prognosis of SMN's.
  • The primary malignancies that have important associations with SMN's will then be discussed, in particular Hodgkin's disease, retinoblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • The important second malignancies will be highlighted, including tumours of the CNS and thyroid, osteosarcoma, secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and melanoma.
  • These are provided in combination with illustrations as a useful adjunct to the text, with a particular emphasis on radiological features, diagnosis and screening.
  • Finally, the important but different roles of causal agents, in particular chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Retinoblastoma / therapy. Risk Factors


36. Harjunpää A, Wiklund T, Collan J, Janes R, Rosenberg J, Lee D, Grillo-López A, Meri S: Complement activation in circulation and central nervous system after rituximab (anti-CD20) treatment of B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Aug;42(4):731-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complement activation in circulation and central nervous system after rituximab (anti-CD20) treatment of B-cell lymphoma.
  • Rituximab (IDEC-C2B8, Mabthera, Rituxan), a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the B-cell specific CD20-antigen, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL).
  • Previous in vitro studies have shown that direct complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), ADCC and apoptosis are important in the rituximab-induced killing of lymphoma cells.
  • Therefore, we studied rituximab levels and complement (C) activation in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following intravenous rituximab therapy in a patient with relapsing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement.
  • Although a minor and delayed C activation response was seen in the CSF the treatment did not clear CD20-positive cells away from the CNS.
  • Thus, it appears that an intact blood-brain barrier restricts the entry of rituximab into the CNS.
  • Possible options to circumvent this would be dose escalation or intrathecal rituximab treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Complement Activation / drug effects. Complement C3a / analogs & derivatives. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Blood Circulation / immunology. Blood-Brain Barrier. Central Nervous System / immunology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / chemistry. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 11697503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / complement C3a, des-Arg-(77)-; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 80295-42-7 / Complement C3a
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37. Berretta M, Cinelli R, Martellotta F, Spina M, Vaccher E, Tirelli U: Therapeutic approaches to AIDS-related malignancies. Oncogene; 2003 Sep 29;22(42):6646-59
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  • The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed dramatically the landscape of HIV disease.
  • Deaths from AIDS-related diseases have been reduced by 75% since protease inhibitor therapy and combination antiretroviral therapy came into use in late 1995.
  • While KS is declining, the situation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is more complex with a reduced incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma, but a relatively stability in the number of patients developing systemic NHL.
  • AIDS related NHL appears not to be markedly decreased by the introduction of HAART and it is the greatest therapeutic challenge in the area of AIDS oncology.
  • Furthermore, also for the prolongation of the survival expectancy of these patients, other non AIDS-defining tumors, such as Hodgkin's disease, anal and head and neck, lung and testicular cancer, and melanoma have been recently reported with increased frequency in patients with HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control


38. Aoyama Y, Yamamura R, Shima E, Nakamae H, Makita K, Hasegawa T, Sakamoto C, Terada Y, Kho G, Ohta K, Yamane T, Takubo T, Hino M: [Successful treatment with foscarnet for disseminated varicella-zoster infection after reduced intensity stem cell transplantation in a case of relapsed refractory central nervous system lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2003 Jul;44(7):451-5
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  • [Title] [Successful treatment with foscarnet for disseminated varicella-zoster infection after reduced intensity stem cell transplantation in a case of relapsed refractory central nervous system lymphoma].
  • Visceral disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection occurred with acute graft-versus-host disease in a 33-year-old Japanese male with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling after reduced intensity conditioning chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Foscarnet / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Herpes Zoster / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / pharmacology. Adult. Drug Resistance, Viral. Graft vs Host Disease / immunology. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 12931563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 364P9RVW4X / Foscarnet; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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39. Nasir S, DeAngelis LM: Update on the management of primary CNS lymphoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2000 Feb;14(2):228-34; discussion 237-42, 244
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  • [Title] Update on the management of primary CNS lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma restricted to the nervous system.
  • The incidence of this lymphoma is rising in the immunocompetent population but may be decreasing in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • A periventricular, diffusely enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is suggestive of primary CNS lymphoma, but a stereotactic biopsy is needed to make a definitive diagnosis.
  • Because primary CNS lymphoma is exquisitely sensitive to steroids, these drugs should be withheld until tissue is obtained for diagnosis.
  • Methotrexate in high doses is the single most effective chemotherapeutic agent for primary CNS lymphoma.
  • It substantially improves survival when combined with radiation therapy and is better than radiotherapy alone as a single agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 10736810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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40. Stern JI, Raizer JJ: Primary central nervous system lymphoma. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S63-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a stage 1E non-Hodgkin's lymphoma confined to the nervous system.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma can affect the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes.
  • The institution of high-dose methotrexate-based regimens and whole-brain radiation therapy has significantly increased survival, but neurotoxicity is high in patients over 60 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Salvage Therapy / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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41. Corn BW: Advances in the combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy against cancer. Drug News Perspect; 2004 Dec;17(10):705-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • October 3-7, 2004, the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology held its 46th Annual Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.
  • The meeting was devoted to the presentation of advances in management of malignant diseases with radiation modalities.
  • The educational elements of this program are targeted at oncologists of all disciplines (i.e., surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists), physicists, biologists, nurses, therapists and all health care workers who are involved in the treatment of patients with malignant diseases.
  • Specific clinical areas included gastrointestinal, breast, head and neck, central nervous system, pelvic and lung cancers.
  • Data on lymphomas (Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) were also presented.

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  • (PMID = 15696234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-0934
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug news & perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug News Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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42. Corns R, Crocker M, Kumar A, Salisbury J, Tolias C, Sadler G, Hill M: Low grade cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: a novel response to treatment; a case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Jun;152(6):1075-7
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  • [Title] Low grade cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: a novel response to treatment; a case report.
  • Low-grade primary T-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare.
  • Biopsy of this lesion revealed features of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with histochemical analysis confirming T-cell phenotype and a Ki67 proliferation index of only 1%.
  • Contrary to the prevailing view in the literature, the patient's clinical condition deteriorated following high-dose intravenous methotrexate and improved after a short course of whole-brain radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cerebellum / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurologic Examination. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19936608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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43. Fernandez HF, Tran HT, Albrecht F, Lennon S, Caldera H, Goodman MS: Evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics of administering intravenous busulfan in a twice-daily or daily schedule to patients with advanced hematologic malignant disease undergoing stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2002;8(9):486-92
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  • [Title] Evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics of administering intravenous busulfan in a twice-daily or daily schedule to patients with advanced hematologic malignant disease undergoing stem cell transplantation.
  • BU) has demonstrated safety when administered at 0.8 mg/kg per dose i.v. every 6 hours x 16 doses.
  • BU dose (3.2 mg/kg) either divided as a twice-daily infusion or as a single infusion to patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • Twelve patients with hematologic malignant disease were treated; 7 patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 4 patients had acute myeloid leukemia, and 1 patient had chronic myelogenous leukemia.
  • BU at 1.6 mg/kg per dose over 4 hours every 12 hours for 4 days (day -7 to day -4).
  • The second cohort (group B) received 3.2 mg/kg per dose of i.v.
  • BU (same total dose as group A) as a single infusion over 4 hours daily for 4 days.
  • Blood specimens were collected on the first, fifth, and seventh doses for group A and on the first and fourth doses for group B to determine the disposition of i.v. BU.
  • GVHD prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus plus methotrexate for recipients of allogeneic stem cells.
  • Significant regimen-related toxicity (grade III-IV) was limited to hepatic toxicity (2 cases) catheter infection (2 cases), epistaxis (3 cases), diarrhea (1 case), anorexia (1 case), mucositis (1 case), hyperglycemia (1 case), pneumonia (1 case), and sepsis (1).
  • In group B there was 1 case of mild venoocclusive disease, which resolved without sequelae.
  • No central nervous system or pulmonary toxicity was noted.
  • Pharmacokinetic parameters, including clearance, half-life, maximum concentration, and area under the curve, demonstrated that the first dose profile was highly predictive of later dose PK profiles.
  • No accumulation of the drug was noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Busulfan / pharmacokinetics. Busulfan / toxicity. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2002;8(9):465-7 [12374450.001]
  • (PMID = 12374453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; BUCY-2 protocol
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44. Pavlou G, Pal D, Bucur S, Chakrabarty A, van Hille PT: Intracranial non-Hodgkin's MALT lymphoma mimicking a large convexity meningioma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Jul;148(7):791-3; discussion 793
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial non-Hodgkin's MALT lymphoma mimicking a large convexity meningioma.
  • Primary presentation of an intradural Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare.
  • Recently these B cell lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) have gained acceptance as an important pathological subtype and are distinguishable from other primary CNS lymphomas that exhibit aggressive behaviour.
  • The authors outline such a case of marginal zone B cell lymphoma that clinically and radiologically resembled a meningioma.
  • This case illustrates the rare occurrence of low grade dural B cell lymphoma and the need to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of CNS lesions, if appropriate targeted therapy is to be administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Dura Mater / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiography. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / physiopathology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / physiopathology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16570114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Schulz H, Pels H, Schmidt-Wolf I, Zeelen U, Germing U, Engert A: Intraventricular treatment of relapsed central nervous system lymphoma with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. Haematologica; 2004 Jun;89(6):753-4
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  • [Title] Intraventricular treatment of relapsed central nervous system lymphoma with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab.
  • Most patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma or systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) involving the CNS relapse after an initial response to treatment, often presenting with leptomeningeal disease.
  • Since the majority of these lymphomas are B-cell neoplasms expressing the CD20 surface antigen treatment with the chimeric monoclonal antibody (Mab) rituximab might be a new therapeutic option.
  • Here, we report on 6 patients with relapsed CNS B-cell lymphoma who were treated with intraventricular or intrathecal applications of rituximab.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Humans. Injections, Intraventricular. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 15194546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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46. Iványi JL, Marton E, Plander M, Gyánó G, Czumbil L, Tóth C: [Therapeutic management of central nervous system lymphomas in a single hematological institute]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Oct 18;150(42):1937-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Therapeutic management of central nervous system lymphomas in a single hematological institute].
  • [Transliterated title] Központi idegrendszeri lymphomás betegek kezelése osztályunkon.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma is defined as an extranodal lymphoma arising in the central nervous system in the absence of systemic disease.
  • Because of their rare occurrence among lymphomas, optimal treatment could hardly be established.
  • AIMS: In this retrospective survey we analyzed the result of combined treatment (systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy followed by consolidation radiotherapy) in patients with primary or relapsed central nervous system lymphomas diagnosed and treated in our hematological department between 1998-2009.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During this period (mean follow-up of 13.2 months) from 427 patients with newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 22 primary central nervous system lymphoma was diagnosed (5.15%, 16 cerebral and 6 spinal cord lymphoma cases).
  • All central nervous system lymphoma specimens taken with neurosurgical resection or stereotaxic biopsies were confirmed histopathologically.
  • All cerebral lymphoma cases proved to be diffuse large B-cell of origin, while in epidural lymphomas low grade subtypes also occurred.
  • Epidural lymphomas were treated with local radiotherapy (30-40 Gy), except for patients with follicular lymphomas getting rituximab-containing polychemotherapy (R + CHOP regimen) before irradiation.
  • In cerebral lymphoma (every patients had supratentorial localization) the following combined therapy protocol was used: up to three courses of high dose methotrexate (HD MTX 3g/m 2 in a single dose for 4 hours lasting drop-infusion) were given at 4-week intervals, followed by leucovorin-rescue 24 hours after MTX infusion.
  • Intrathecal combination of methotrexate, cytosin-arabinosid and dexamethasone was given three times after HD MTX infusion.
  • In complete response after chemotherapy (evaluated by cranial MRI or CT, PET/CT), whole-brain irradiation was used in a total dose of 30 Gy.
  • In relapse or resistant cases, salvage regimen was applied: HD MTX course combined with high dose cytosin-arabinosid (HD Ara-C) 3g/m 2 /dose b.i.d. over 4 h c.i., repeated in three cycles every four weeks.
  • RESULTS: Complete remission has been achieved in 9 patients with cerebral and in 4 patients with spinal cord lymphoma (13/22; 59.0%), however, one relapsed patient became resistant and later expired, despite salvage therapy.
  • Primarily 9 patients were not evaluable for response: 5 received only one or two HD MTX because of side effects, 4 patients died due to progression of the disease.
  • Mean of the overall survival (OS) in cerebral lymphoma was 19.5 (3-46, median of 10) months, in epidural group 14.1 (2-76, median of 5) months, whilst mean time to progression (TTP) was 4.5 (2-6.5, median of 4 months).
  • CONCLUSION: In primary central nervous system lymphoma, basic treatment HD methotrexate together with intrathecal combination of methotrexate + cytosin-arabinosid + dexamethasone followed by whole-brain irradiation of at least 30 Gy could produce a medium response rate in our study.
  • In case of relapse or progression, other salvage regimens containing HD Ara-C alternating with HD MTX could reduce the treatment failure, as well.
  • After therapy PET/CT was negative in five patients with prolonged disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Epidural Space. Female. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Rituximab. Salvage Therapy / methods. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19812012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol
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47. Agarwal PA, Menon S, Smruti BK, Singhal BS: Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a profile of 26 cases from Western India. Neurol India; 2009 Nov-Dec;57(6):756-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a profile of 26 cases from Western India.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and it accounts for 1% of all intracranial tumors.
  • AIMS: This study attempts to further delineate the clinical, radiological and pathological profile of PCNSL in India, to evaluate response to treatment and to assess usefulness of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) score.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical features, IELSG prognostic score, imaging and pathological features, and response to treatment were evaluated.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 59 years.
  • High grade DLBCL is the commonest histological subtype.
  • Steroids should ideally be withheld until biopsy as they may confound the diagnosis.
  • Most immunocompetent patients respond well to high dose MTX-based chemotherapy with/without radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Lymphoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Humans. India / epidemiology. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Mental Status Schedule. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome






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