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1. Kempuraj D, Devi RS, Madhappan B, Conti P, Nazer MY, Christodoulou S, Reginald J, Suthinthirarajan N, Namasivayam A: T lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulins in intracranial tumor patients before and after treatment, and based on histological type of tumors. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2004 Jan-Apr;17(1):57-64
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  • [Title] T lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulins in intracranial tumor patients before and after treatment, and based on histological type of tumors.
  • We thus investigated total T cells (CD 11+), helper/inducer (CD4+) T cells, suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells, B cells (CD19+) and serum immunoglobulins in peripheral blood in certain ICT patients before and after treatment, and based on the histological type of the tumors.
  • Post treatment analysis were conducted 30 days after surgical removal of tumor tissue in benign brain tumor patients and 30 days after chemo therapy (CT)/radiotherapy (RT) following surgical removal of tumor tissue in malignant brain tumor patients.
  • Decreased CD11+, CD4+ and increased CD8+ T cell counts were observed in both benign and malignant tumor cases before treatment compared with control subjects.
  • After treatment, CD4+ T cell count increased and CD8+ T cell count decreased than their pre treatment levels.
  • Anaplastic malignant astrocytoma, medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme patients showed higher IgM level than astrocytoma, meningioma and ependymoma patients.
  • In conclusions, the depressed host cellular immunity in benign and malignant tumor patients before treatment may be due to the changes in CD4+ and CD8+ counts in addition to tumour specific immunosuppressive factors.
  • Treatment procedures such as surgery, CT and RT may play certain role in the post operative depressed immunosuppression in malignant tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Immunoglobulins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Analysis of Variance. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / immunology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / immunology. Ependymoma / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Meningioma / drug therapy. Meningioma / immunology. Meningioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / immunology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15000867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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2. Borrelli A, Mattiazzi L, Capucchio MT, Biolatti C, Cagnasso A, Gianella P, D'Angelo A: Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog. J Small Anim Pract; 2009 Oct;50(10):554-7
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  • [Title] Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog.
  • On physical examination, cachexia was the only reported abnormality.
  • Based on the morphological features of the tumour, marked parenchymal invasion, extensive necrosis and cellular atypia, the mass was classified as an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • This case report shows similarities to the diencephalic syndrome reported in human paediatric medicine in which the main clinical sign is a profound emaciation in spite of normal or slightly diminished caloric intake.
  • Weight loss and cachexia are clinically relevant problems in small animals and these clinical signs should raise a suspicion, among the other differentials, of a brain tumour, even in absence of neurologic signs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / veterinary. Cachexia / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Ependymoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female

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  • (PMID = 19796316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Patel R, Shervington L, Lea R, Shervington A: Epigenetic silencing of telomerase and a non-alkylating agent as a novel therapeutic approach for glioma. Brain Res; 2008 Jan 10;1188:173-81
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  • [Title] Epigenetic silencing of telomerase and a non-alkylating agent as a novel therapeutic approach for glioma.
  • While treatment with 5azadC downregulated hTERT and upregulated MGMT expression in two glioma cell lines, there was no change in the expression of these two genes in the normal cell line.
  • However, cell viability was reduced as a result of 5azadC treatment in all three cell lines.
  • 5azadC treatment reduced telomerase expression and activity and subsequently enhanced chemosensitivity towards cisplatin, taxol and tamoxifen but not with the alkylating agents temozolomide (TMZ), carmustine and chlorambucil.
  • To further evaluate the effect of these findings, the level of hTERT and MGMT expression was measured in a recurrent anaplastic ependymoma, seven glioblastoma and two normal brain tissues.
  • In addition, the work on cell lines can be repeated on tissues utilizing hTERT as the therapeutic target for demethylation using 5azadC in glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Silencing / drug effects. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / genetics. Telomerase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Aging / drug effects. Cell Aging / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Methyltransferases / antagonists & inhibitors. Methyltransferases / metabolism. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18021753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Inaba H, Rabah R, Meert KL, BhamBhani K: Herpes simplex virus pneumonia in a patient with ependymoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Feb;26(2):108-11
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  • [Title] Herpes simplex virus pneumonia in a patient with ependymoma.
  • The authors report a fatal outcome in a 4-year-old boy with herpes simplex virus (HSV) pneumonia and ependymoma.
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage showed intranuclear viral inclusions, and culture was positive for HSV type 1.
  • His T-cell count was significantly decreased.
  • HSV must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with interstitial pneumonia and T-cell deficiency, especially after craniospinal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Herpes Simplex / diagnosis. Herpesvirus 1, Human / isolation & purification. Pneumonia, Viral / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fatal Outcome. Foscarnet / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 14767198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 364P9RVW4X / Foscarnet; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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5. Kawakami M, Kawakami K, Takahashi S, Abe M, Puri RK: Analysis of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 expression in human pediatric brain tumors. Cancer; 2004 Sep 1;101(5):1036-42
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  • One hundred percent (11 of 11) high-grade astrocytoma, 79% (26 of 33) low-grade astrocytoma, 67% (4 of 6) medulloblastoma, and 67% (2 of 3) ependymoma samples were positive for IL-13Ralpha2.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Interleukin-13 / metabolism. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit. Male. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. RNA Probes. Receptors, Interleukin-13. Receptors, Interleukin-4 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15329913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL13RA1 protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit; 0 / RNA Probes; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-13; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-4
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6. Karajannis M, Allen JC, Newcomb EW: Treatment of pediatric brain tumors. J Cell Physiol; 2008 Dec;217(3):584-9
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  • Here we review four of the most common subtypes of pediatric brain tumors, low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas, highlighting their molecular features regarding their tumor biology, and promising potential therapeutic targets that may hold promise for finding new "molecular targeted" drugs.

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  • (PMID = 18651562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057829-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS057829; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057829; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS057829-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS66020; NLM/ PMC2574972
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