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1. Charles GD, Kan HL, Schisler MR, Bhaskar Gollapudi B, Sue Marty M: A comparison of in vitro and in vivo EDSTAC test battery results for detecting antiandrogenic activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2005 Jan 1;202(1):108-20
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  • For the AR transactivation assay, AR(+) LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells were transfected with an inducible luciferase reporter construct (pGudLuc7ARE) and exposed for 24 h to test materials (< or = 10 microM) in the presence and absence of 1 nM of the AR agonist R-1881.
  • In vivo antiandrogenic activity was evaluated with the Hershberger assay, wherein castrated male CD rats were dosed by gavage for 10 days with (mg/kg per day): MXC (10, 50, 100, and 200), BAP (1, 10, 50, and 100), RU486 (1, 5, 10, and 25), and FLUT (10) in the presence of 0.4 mg/kg per day (sc) of testosterone propionate (TP).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Binding, Competitive. Body Weight / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Genitalia, Male / drug effects. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Spermatogenesis / drug effects. Transcriptional Activation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15589981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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2. Grynberg M, Fanchin R, Dubost G, Colau JC, Brémont-Weil C, Frydman R, Ayoubi JM: Histology of genital tract and breast tissue after long-term testosterone administration in a female-to-male transsexual population. Reprod Biomed Online; 2010 Apr;20(4):553-8
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  • [Title] Histology of genital tract and breast tissue after long-term testosterone administration in a female-to-male transsexual population.
  • As androgen administration may become more frequently used in reproductive medicine, this study aimed at describing the histological changes observed in the genital tract and the breast of female-to-male (FTM) transsexuals.
  • Breast examination revealed marked reduction of glandular tissue and increase of fibrous connective tissue in 93%, without atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / administration & dosage. Breast / pathology. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Testosterone / administration & dosage. Transsexualism / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Follicle / drug effects. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Reassignment Procedures

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20122869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6491
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biomedicine online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biomed. Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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3. Burton JL, Wells M: The effect of phytoestrogens on the female genital tract. J Clin Pathol; 2002 Jun;55(6):401-7
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  • Environmental oestrogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hormonally treated cancers (such as breast and prostate cancer), male infertility, and abnormalities of the male and female reproductive tracts.
  • They may be derived from plants (phytoestrogens), pharmaceuticals, or other synthetic compounds not originally intended to have oestrogenic activity (including soy based infant formulas).
  • This review will discuss the evidence from both animal studies and humans for an effect of these ubiquitous compounds on the development of the human female genital tract, in addition to prolonging the menstrual cycle, alleviating symptoms of the menopause, and protecting against the development of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Isoflavones
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Neoplasms / prevention & control. Environmental Exposure. Female. Humans. Menopause / drug effects. Menstrual Cycle / drug effects. Phytoestrogens. Plant Preparations

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  • (PMID = 12037019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Plant Preparations
  • [Number-of-references] 105
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1769669
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4. Higuchi TT, Palmer JS, Gray LE Jr, Veeramachaneni DN: Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or postpubertal exposure. Toxicol Sci; 2003 Apr;72(2):301-13
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  • [Title] Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or postpubertal exposure.
  • We evaluated sequelae in male rabbits following exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at a dose level known to adversely affect testicular function in rodents without causing systemic toxicity.
  • Rabbits were exposed to 0 or 400 mg DBP/kg/day in utero (gestation days [GD] 15-29) or during adolescence (postnatal weeks [PNW] 4-12), and male offspring were examined at 6, 12, and 25 weeks of age.
  • The most pronounced reproductive effects were in male rabbits exposed in utero.
  • Male offspring in this group exhibited reduction in numbers of ejaculated sperm (down 43%; p < 0.01), in weights of testes (at 12 weeks, down 23%; p < 0.05) and in accessory sex glands (at 12 and 25 weeks, down 36%; p < 0.01 and down 27%; p < 0.05, respectively).
  • Serum testosterone levels were down (at 6 weeks, 32%; p < 0.05); a slight increase in histological alterations of the testis (p < 0.05) and a doubling in the percentage (from 16 to 30%, p < 0.01) of abnormal sperm; and 1/17 males manifesting hypospadias, hypoplastic prostate, and cryptorchid testes with carcinoma in situ-like cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / etiology. Dibutyl Phthalate / toxicity. Genitalia, Male / drug effects. Maternal Exposure. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Reproduction / drug effects. Sexual Maturation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Pregnancy. Rabbits. Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms. Sperm Count. Spermatogenesis / drug effects. Testis / drug effects. Testis / pathology. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 12655036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD07031
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 2286E5R2KE / Dibutyl Phthalate; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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5. Treffers PE, Hanselaar AG, Helmerhorst TJ, Koster ME, van Leeuwen FE: [Consequences of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy; 50 years later still a significant problem]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2001 Apr 7;145(14):675-80
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  • [Title] [Consequences of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy; 50 years later still a significant problem].
  • [Transliterated title] Gevolgen van diëthylstilbestrol in de zwangerschap: na 50 jaar nog steeds een actueel probleem.
  • DES sons exhibit an increased frequency of several benign abnormalities of the genitalia.
  • The DES problem continues to be an important issue.
  • The entire cohort of DES mothers is in the age group with a high risk of mammary carcinoma.
  • The legally imposed destruction of patient files after a period of ten years is a serious threat to patient care and scientific investigation, notably in obstetrics and child medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinogens / adverse effects. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Genitalia / abnormalities. Medical Records / legislation & jurisprudence. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Female. Genital Diseases, Female / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Netherlands / epidemiology. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects

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  • (PMID = 11530703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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6. Wise GJ, Shteynshlyuger A: How to diagnose and treat fungal infections in chronic prostatitis. Curr Urol Rep; 2006 Jul;7(4):320-8
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  • Epidemiologic changes that include immune-compromised patients and drug-resistant fungi have caused an increase in nosocomial infections by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species.
  • Diagnosis can be established by urine cultures or needle biopsy of the prostate.
  • Prostate surgery for carcinoma or benign enlargement may detect latent fungal infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Mycoses / diagnosis. Mycoses / drug therapy. Prostatitis / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aspergillosis / diagnosis. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Blastomycosis / diagnosis. Blastomycosis / drug therapy. Candidiasis / diagnosis. Candidiasis / drug therapy. Chronic Disease. Coccidioidomycosis / diagnosis. Coccidioidomycosis / drug therapy. Comorbidity. Cryptococcosis / diagnosis. Cryptococcosis / drug therapy. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Genitalia, Male / microbiology. Histoplasmosis / microbiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male


7. Auepemkiate S, Thongsuksai P, Boonyaphiphat P: P16(INK4A) expression in Bowen's disease and Bowenoid papulosis. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Sep;89(9):1460-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Bowen's disease (BD) is a skin carcinoma in situ occurring over the entire body surface.
  • It shares similar histopathological features with Bowenoid papulosis (BP) of the genitalia, but differs in etiology and clinical course.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Biopsies of 46 cases of BD in the period 1994 - 2003 and 14 cases of BP during 1987 - 2003 in the Anatomical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand were studied by immunohistochemical methods using the P16 kit (CINTec Histology Kit, clone E6H4, Code-Nr.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Genes, p16. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17100385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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8. Van Den Top JG, Ensink JM, Gröne A, Klein WR, Barneveld A, Van Weeren PR: Penile and preputial tumours in the horse: literature review and proposal of a standardised approach. Equine Vet J; 2010 Nov;42(8):746-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several types of tumour of the male external genitalia have been described.
  • The most common type is the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is found mainly in older horses.
  • Reports of a breed predilection for penile tumour formation are equivocal, but castration, coat colour, poor hygiene and various infectious agents have all been suggested to predispose to the development of some types of tumour (e.g.
  • Invasiveness, differentiation grade, tumour size and presence of metastases are all relevant to the decision to pursue additional diagnostic procedures or specific treatment options.
  • Completeness of removal of the neoplasm and therefore risk of recurrence is highly dependent on the type of therapy chosen.
  • This review describes the most common penile and preputial neoplasms in the horse, and outlines a standard protocol aimed at arriving at a specific diagnosis and tailoring the therapeutic approach accordingly.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / veterinary. Horse Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Horses. Male

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 EVJ Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21039806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0425-1644
  • [Journal-full-title] Equine veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Equine Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Tamura H, Maness SC, Reischmann K, Dorman DC, Gray LE, Gaido KW: Androgen receptor antagonism by the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. Toxicol Sci; 2001 Mar;60(1):56-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our results demonstrate that fenitrothion is a competitive AR antagonist, comparable in potency to the pharmaceutical antiandrogen flutamide and more potent, based on in vitro assays, than the known environmental antiandrogens linuron and p,p'-, 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene ( p,p'-DDE).
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholinesterase / blood. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Cholinesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Flutamide / pharmacology. Genitalia, Male / drug effects. Genitalia, Male / pathology. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [CommentIn] Toxicol Sci. 2001 Jul;62(1):183 [11399807.001]
  • (PMID = 11222873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Insecticides; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.1.1.7 / Acetylcholinesterase; W8M4X3Y7ZY / Fenitrothion
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10. Laier P, Metzdorff SB, Borch J, Hagen ML, Hass U, Christiansen S, Axelstad M, Kledal T, Dalgaard M, McKinnell C, Brokken LJ, Vinggaard AM: Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2006 Jun 1;213(2):160-71
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  • Prochloraz caused mild dysgenesis of the male external genitalia as well as reduced anogenital distance and retention of nipples in male pups.
  • Effects on steroidogenesis in male fetuses became evident as decreased testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and increased levels of progesterone.
  • Immunohistochemistry of fetal testes showed increased expression of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) and a reduction in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type 10) expression, whereas no changes in expression of genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis were observed.
  • Increased expression of P450c17 mRNA was observed in fetal male adrenals, and the androgen-regulated genes ornithine decarboxylase, prostatic binding protein C3 as well as insulin-like growth factor I mRNA were reduced in ventral prostates PND 16.
  • In vitro studies on human adrenocortical carcinoma cells supported the findings in vivo as reduced testosterone and increased progesterone levels were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / toxicity. Feminization / chemically induced. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / drug effects. Genitalia / drug effects. Imidazoles / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fungicides, Industrial / toxicity. Gene Expression Profiling. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism. Humans. Leydig Cells / drug effects. Male. Maternal Exposure. Mice. Nipples / drug effects. Nipples / embryology. Pregnancy. Rats

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  • (PMID = 16375936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Imidazoles; 99SFL01YCL / prochloraz
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11. Petruska JM, Frank DW, Freeman GB, Evans EW, MacDonald JS: Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and p-cresidine in the p53 heterozygous mouse model. Toxicol Pathol; 2002 Nov-Dec;30(6):696-704
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  • The carcinogenic potential of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, a psychotropic agent, was assessed in the p53 heterozygous mouse assay.
  • In a 4-week dose range finding study in p53 wild-type mice, doses of 20,40, 60, and 80 mg/kg were poorly tolerated because of mortality secondary to the severe sedative and hypotensive effects of chlorpromazine.
  • The administration of chlorpromazine hydrochloride at dose levels up to and including 10 mg/kg to p53 heterozygous and wild-type mice did not result in a dose-related increase in tumor incidence or in the type of tumors seen in comparison to controls.
  • Findings related to the administration of chlorpromazine in the 26-week study were limited to minimal uterine and ovarian atrophy in p53 wild-type mice dosed with 10 mg/kg chlorpromazine hydrochloride.
  • [MeSH-major] Aniline Compounds / toxicity. Antipsychotic Agents / toxicity. Carcinogens / toxicity. Chlorpromazine / toxicity. Genes, p53. Neoplasms, Experimental / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Atrophy / chemically induced. Atrophy / pathology. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinogenicity Tests. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Heterozygote. Longevity / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Organ Size. Toxicity Tests, Chronic. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12512871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 4C11L78UR3 / cresidine; U42B7VYA4P / Chlorpromazine
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12. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2005 Jan;(513):1-316
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  • [Title] NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies).
  • Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to decalin (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years.
  • Groups of male NBR rats were exposed to decalin for 2 weeks.
  • Male NBR rats do not produce alpha2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of alpha2u-globulin and renal lesion induction.
  • 2-WEEK STUDIES IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats and five male NBR rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed in male F344/N and NBR rats.
  • The numbers of labeled cells and the labeling indices in the left kidney of 200 and 400 ppm F344/N male rats were significantly greater than those in the chamber controls.
  • Liver weights of male F344/N and NBR rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater were significantly increased, as were those of all exposed groups of females.
  • Kidney weights of male F344/N rats exposed to 50 ppm or greater were significantly increased.
  • Exposure-related hyaline droplet accumulation, degeneration and regeneration of renal cortical tubules, and granular casts occurred in the kidney of exposed F344/N male rats.
  • 2-WEEK STUDIES IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 17 days.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 25 male and 20 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 2 (five male renal toxicity rats), 6 (10 male and 10 female clinical pathology rats), or 14 (10 core study rats) weeks.
  • Absolute and/or relative kidney and liver weights of male rats exposed to 50 ppm or greater were increased.
  • Incidences of renal tubule regeneration and granular casts in the medulla of the kidney in exposed male rats were increased, and the severities of hyaline droplets generally increased with increasing exposure concentration.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks.
  • Incidences of centrilobular cytomegaly of the liver were increased in exposed male mice.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50 (male rats only), 100, or 400 ppm (female rats only) decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks.
  • A group of 20 male rats was exposed to 400 ppm.
  • Incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in 100 and 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • Nonneoplastic lesions related to decalin exposure occurred in the kidney of male rats.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to 0, 25, 100, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks.
  • Increased labeling indices in male rats were likely due to changes related to alpha2u-globulin.
  • A small but significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was noted in male mice exposed to decalin for 3 months; however, no induction of micronuclei was observed in female mice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of these studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms.
  • The increased incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in male rats were also considered to be exposure related.
  • There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in male B6C3F(1) mice exposed to 25, 100, or 400 ppm.
  • Exposure of male rats to decalin resulted in nonneoplastic lesions of the kidney characteristic of alpha2u-globulin accumulation.
  • Nonneoplastic lesions of the liver were observed in male mice exposed to decalin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Animal Feed / analysis. Animals. Atmosphere Exposure Chambers. Body Weight / drug effects. Female. Genitalia, Male / pathology. Kidney Diseases / chemically induced. Kidney Diseases / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mutagens / toxicity. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reproduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15891779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Naphthalenes; 88451Q4XYF / decalin
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13. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate (CAS No. 68603-42-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2001 Jan;479:5-226
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  • Coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate, a mixture of fatty acid diethanolamides of the acids found in coconut oil, is widely used in cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, and related consumer products.
  • Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate for 14 weeks or 2 years.
  • 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats received dermal applications of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol, five times per week for 14 weeks.
  • 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol, five times per week for 14 weeks.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats received dermal applications of 0, 50, or 100 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol five times a week for 104 weeks.
  • Survival, BODY WEIGHTS, AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: The survival rates of treated male and female rats were similar to those of the vehicle controls.
  • PATHOLOGY FINDINGS: There were marginal increases in the incidences of renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 50 mg/kg females.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of 0, 100, or 200 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol five times a week for 104 to 105 weeks.
  • SURVIVAL, BODY WEIGHTS, AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: Survival of dosed male and female mice was generally similar to that of the vehicle controls.
  • PATHOLOGY FINDINGS: The incidences of hepatic neoplasms (hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatoblastoma) were significantly increased in male and/or female mice.
  • The incidences of eosinophilic foci in dosed groups of male mice were increased relative to that in the vehicle controls.
  • The incidences of renal tubule adenoma and renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in 200 mg/kg males.
  • In contrast to the uniformly negative results in vitro, positive results were obtained in a peripheral blood micronucleus test in male and female mice from the 14-week dermal study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of these 2-year dermal studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate in male F344/N rats administered 50 or 100 mg/kg.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatic and renal tubule neoplasms and in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Estrous Cycle / drug effects. Estrous Cycle / physiology. Female. Genitalia / drug effects. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mutagenicity Tests. Organ Size / drug effects. Pregnancy. Quality Control. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12571684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ethanolamines; 0 / Plant Oils; 8001-31-8 / coconut oil; AZE05TDV2V / diethanolamine
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14. Stern RS, Bagheri S, Nichols K, PUVA Follow Up Study: The persistent risk of genital tumors among men treated with psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) for psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2002 Jul;47(1):33-9
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  • BACKGROUND: In the general population, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the male genitalia are rare.
  • Since May 1, 1989, the incidence of invasive penile and scrotal SCCs was elevated 52.6-fold (95% confidence interval, 19.3-114.6) compared with that expected for the general white population.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Ficusin / adverse effects. Genital Neoplasms, Male / etiology. Genitalia, Male / pathology. PUVA Therapy / adverse effects. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Cohort Studies. Confidence Intervals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Probability. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12077578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / N01 AR 44214
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] KTZ7ZCN2EX / Ficusin
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15. Buechner SA: Common skin disorders of the penis. BJU Int; 2002 Sep;90(5):498-506
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  • Diseases of the male genitalia range from infectious lesions to inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, including many genital manifestations of more general skin diseases.
  • This review highlights the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses of the male genitalia.
  • The most common causal agents for condyloma acuminatum are low-risk HPV 6 and 11; high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with premalignant and malignant lesions.
  • Imiquimod, a new topical immunotherapeutic agent, which induces interferon and other cytokines, has the potential to be a first-line therapy for genital warts.
  • Oral ivermectin, a highly active antiparasitic drug, is likely to be the treatment of choice, but until approval is granted it should be reserved for special forms of scabies.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, e.g. erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's disease, cannot be excluded clinically; their apparent clinical benignity may lead to lengthy periods of misdiagnosis and biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Balanitis / diagnosis. Balanitis / therapy. Humans. Male. Mite Infestations / diagnosis. Mite Infestations / therapy. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / therapy. Skin Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Viral / therapy


16. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of androstenedione (CAS No. 63-05-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Sep;(560):1, 7-31,33-171 passim
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  • In order to evaluate its subchronic and chronic toxicity, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered androstenedione (98% pure) by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years.
  • 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: groups of five male and five female rats were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 12 days.
  • The development of cytoplasmic vacuoles within centrilobular hepatocytes in male rats was the only treatment-related effect observed.
  • 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: groups of five male and five female mice were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 12 days.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: groups of 10 male and 10 female core study rats were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks; additional groups of 10 male and 10 female clinical pathology study rats received the same doses for 23 days.
  • The numbers of sperm per mg cauda epididymis in the 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg male groups and the total number of sperm per cauda epididymis in 50 mg/kg males were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were administered 0, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for at least 104 weeks.
  • Incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in 20 mg/kg males.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were administered 0, 2 (females only), 10, 20 (males only), or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for at least 104 weeks.
  • In females, the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma were significantly increased in all dosed groups.
  • Incidences of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in males and females were significantly increased in the 50 mg/kg groups.
  • No significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, indicators of chromosomal damage, were observed in bone marrow of male rats administered androstenedione by gavage once daily for 3 consecutive days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined).
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of multiple hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased incidence of hepatoblastoma.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Increased incidences of pancreatic islet adenoma in male and female mice were also considered chemical related.
  • Androstenedione administration caused increased incidences in nonneoplastic lesions of the liver in male and female rats and mice; pancreatic islets and exocrine pancreas of female rats; and clitoral gland, kidney, and submandibular salivary gland of female mice.
  • Decreases in the incidences of testicular interstitial cell adenoma in male rats, mammary gland fibroadenoma, cysts, and hyperplasia in female rats, and malignant lymphoma in female mice were considered related to androstenedione administration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animal Feed. Animals. Biomarkers. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinogenicity Tests. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / metabolism. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / pathology. Estrous Cycle. Female. Genitalia / drug effects. Intubation, Gastrointestinal. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Micronucleus Tests. Mutagens / toxicity. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 21037592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Mutagens; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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17. Neubauer BL, McNulty AM, Chedid M, Chen K, Goode RL, Johnson MA, Jones CD, Krishnan V, Lynch R, Osborne HE, Graff JR: The selective estrogen receptor modulator trioxifene (LY133314) inhibits metastasis and extends survival in the PAIII rat prostatic carcinoma model. Cancer Res; 2003 Sep 15;63(18):6056-62
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  • [Title] The selective estrogen receptor modulator trioxifene (LY133314) inhibits metastasis and extends survival in the PAIII rat prostatic carcinoma model.
  • Trioxifene administration also produced regression of male accessory sex organs.
  • In PAIII-tumor-bearing animals, trioxifene administration produced a maximal regression of 76% for ventral prostate and 64% for seminal vesicle (P < 0.05 for both).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrrolidines / pharmacology. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Estrogen Receptor alpha. Estrogen Receptor beta. Genitalia, Male / drug effects. Luciferases / antagonists & inhibitors. Luciferases / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Testis / anatomy & histology. Testis / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 14522935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; R0130F043H / trioxifene
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