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1. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2005 Jan;(513):1-316
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  • Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to decalin (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years.
  • 2-WEEK STUDIES IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats and five male NBR rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days.
  • 2-WEEK STUDIES IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 17 days.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 25 male and 20 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 2 (five male renal toxicity rats), 6 (10 male and 10 female clinical pathology rats), or 14 (10 core study rats) weeks.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 14 weeks.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50 (male rats only), 100, or 400 ppm (female rats only) decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks.
  • Incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in 100 and 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F(1) mice were exposed to 0, 25, 100, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 105 weeks.
  • Increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms occurred in 25 and 400 ppm female mice, and the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy, necrosis, syncytial alteration, and erythrophagocytosis of the liver in 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • The incidences of uterine stromal polyp and stromal polyp or stromal sarcoma (combined) occurred with positive trends in female mice.
  • A small but significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was noted in male mice exposed to decalin for 3 months; however, no induction of micronuclei was observed in female mice.
  • There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in female F344/N rats exposed to 25, 100, or 400 ppm.
  • There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in female B6C3F(1) mice based on marginally increased incidences of hepatocellular and uterine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Animal Feed / analysis. Animals. Atmosphere Exposure Chambers. Body Weight / drug effects. Female. Genitalia, Male / pathology. Kidney Diseases / chemically induced. Kidney Diseases / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mutagens / toxicity. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reproduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15891779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Naphthalenes; 88451Q4XYF / decalin
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2. Bronz L, Dreher E, Almendral A, Studer A, Haller U: [Guideline for the diagnosis of postmenopausal bleeding. PMPB Working Group of the SGGG]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2000;40(2):71-9
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  • [Title] [Guideline for the diagnosis of postmenopausal bleeding. PMPB Working Group of the SGGG].
  • Drug intake should be recorded, and risk factors for the development of endometrial carcinoma should be considered.
  • The causes of infrauterine bleeding may easily be diagnosed by means of inspection of the external genitalia and further by using a speculum.
  • Cytology and colposcopy, supported by bimanual investigation, exclude cervical carcinoma as a cause of bleeding.
  • Atypical endometrial cells on the cytological smear arouse suspicion of endometrial carcinoma. 2.2.
  • A definite diagnosis is possible only on the basis of a histological investigation.
  • If TVS or SS show evidence of a polypoid state, removal under hysteroscopic control is the diagnostic method of choice.
  • If the biopsy specimen does not yield representative diagnostic material, one should proceed as described above.
  • [MeSH-major] Menopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colposcopy. Curettage. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysteroscopy. Leiomyoma / complications. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Recurrence. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 10971089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8843
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynakologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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3. Premkumar A, Venzon DJ, Avila N, Johnson DV, Remaley AT, Forman MR, Eng-Wong J, Zujewski J, Stratton P: Gynecologic and hormonal effects of raloxifene in premenopausal women. Fertil Steril; 2007 Dec;88(6):1637-44
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  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma / prevention & control. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Premenopause / drug effects. Raloxifene Hydrochloride / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium Carbonate / administration & dosage. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Menstrual Cycle / blood. Middle Aged. Polyps / chemically induced. Polyps / diagnostic imaging. Risk Factors. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / administration & dosage. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Ultrasonography. Uterine Diseases / chemically induced. Uterine Diseases / diagnostic imaging

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  • [CommentIn] Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2017 Mar;51(3):294 [27687775.001]
  • (PMID = 17662283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 4F86W47BR6 / Raloxifene Hydrochloride; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; H0G9379FGK / Calcium Carbonate
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4. Treffers PE, Hanselaar AG, Helmerhorst TJ, Koster ME, van Leeuwen FE: [Consequences of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy; 50 years later still a significant problem]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2001 Apr 7;145(14):675-80
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  • [Title] [Consequences of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy; 50 years later still a significant problem].
  • [Transliterated title] Gevolgen van diëthylstilbestrol in de zwangerschap: na 50 jaar nog steeds een actueel probleem.
  • DES sons exhibit an increased frequency of several benign abnormalities of the genitalia.
  • The DES problem continues to be an important issue.
  • The entire cohort of DES mothers is in the age group with a high risk of mammary carcinoma.
  • The legally imposed destruction of patient files after a period of ten years is a serious threat to patient care and scientific investigation, notably in obstetrics and child medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinogens / adverse effects. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Genitalia / abnormalities. Medical Records / legislation & jurisprudence. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Female. Genital Diseases, Female / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Netherlands / epidemiology. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects

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  • (PMID = 11530703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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5. Yüce K, Tuncer ZS, Oncüloğlu C, Ayhan A, Baltali E, Güier N: Reproductive tract pathology in asymptomatic women treated with tamoxifen. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(6):466-8
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  • PURPOSE: To determine the long-term effects of tamoxifen on the female reproductive tract in patients with breast cancer.
  • Three of them had atypical Pap smears, one with cervical carcinoma and the other two with chronic cervicitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estrogen Antagonists / adverse effects. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Endometrium / drug effects. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / pathology. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11874085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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6. Garbow JR, Santeford AC, Anderson JR, Engelbach JA, Arbeit JM: Magnetic resonance imaging defines cervicovaginal anatomy, cancer, and VEGF trap antiangiogenic efficacy in estrogen-treated K14-HPV16 transgenic mice. Cancer Res; 2009 Oct 15;69(20):7945-52
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  • Vascular permeability as measured by DCE-MRI, K(trans), was similar in transgenic (0.053 +/- 0.020 min(-1); n = 32 mice) and nontransgenic (0.056 +/- 0.029 min(-1); n = 17 mice) animals despite a 2-fold increase in microvascular area in the former compared with the latter.
  • DCE-MRI did detect a significant decrease in vascular permeability accompanying diminution of dysplastic microvasculature by the antiangiogenic agent, vascular endothelial growth factor Trap (K(trans) = 0.052 +/- 0.013 min(-1) pretreatment; n = 6 mice versus K(trans) = 0.019 +/- 0.008 min(-1) post-treatment; n = 5 mice).
  • Thus, we determined that the threshold of microvessel leakage associated with cervical dysplasia was <17 kDa and highlighted the potential of DCE-MRI to noninvasively monitor the efficacy of antiangiogenic drugs or chemoprevention regimens targeting the vasculature in premalignant cervical dysplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19789343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA083060-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA83060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA083060-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA083060
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; 15C2VL427D / aflibercept; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140263; NLM/ PMC2782788
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7. Grynberg M, Fanchin R, Dubost G, Colau JC, Brémont-Weil C, Frydman R, Ayoubi JM: Histology of genital tract and breast tissue after long-term testosterone administration in a female-to-male transsexual population. Reprod Biomed Online; 2010 Apr;20(4):553-8
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  • [Title] Histology of genital tract and breast tissue after long-term testosterone administration in a female-to-male transsexual population.
  • As androgen administration may become more frequently used in reproductive medicine, this study aimed at describing the histological changes observed in the genital tract and the breast of female-to-male (FTM) transsexuals.
  • Breast examination revealed marked reduction of glandular tissue and increase of fibrous connective tissue in 93%, without atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / administration & dosage. Breast / pathology. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Testosterone / administration & dosage. Transsexualism / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Follicle / drug effects. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Reassignment Procedures

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20122869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6491
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biomedicine online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biomed. Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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8. Laitman CJ: DES exposure and the aging woman: mothers and daughters. Curr Womens Health Rep; 2002 Oct;2(5):390-3
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  • In 1971, the US Food and Drug Administration contraindicated its use in pregnancy when DES was associated with the development of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in daughters exposed in utero.
  • In daughters whose mothers took DES during pregnancy, the drug has been associated with congenital malformations of the reproductive tract, fertility problems, a possible increased risk of cervical carcinoma in situ, and a presumed lifetime risk of vaginal and cervical CCA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms / chemically induced. Carcinoma in Situ / chemically induced. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Humans. Mothers. Nuclear Family. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / prevention & control. Pregnancy, High-Risk. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 12215312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-5874
  • [Journal-full-title] Current women's health reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Womens Health Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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9. Auepemkiate S, Thongsuksai P, Boonyaphiphat P: P16(INK4A) expression in Bowen's disease and Bowenoid papulosis. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Sep;89(9):1460-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Bowen's disease (BD) is a skin carcinoma in situ occurring over the entire body surface.
  • It shares similar histopathological features with Bowenoid papulosis (BP) of the genitalia, but differs in etiology and clinical course.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Biopsies of 46 cases of BD in the period 1994 - 2003 and 14 cases of BP during 1987 - 2003 in the Anatomical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand were studied by immunohistochemical methods using the P16 kit (CINTec Histology Kit, clone E6H4, Code-Nr.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Genes, p16. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17100385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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10. Nagai N, Kaneyasu Y, Komatsu M, Shiroyama Y, Oshita T, Watasaki S, Ito K: Distribution of platinum in the female genital tract and efficacy of radiotherapy combined with transcatheter arterial infusion of cisplatin for locally advanced stage IIIb carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Oncol Rep; 2009 Mar;21(3):585-91
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  • [Title] Distribution of platinum in the female genital tract and efficacy of radiotherapy combined with transcatheter arterial infusion of cisplatin for locally advanced stage IIIb carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The current main treatment for locally advanced stage III/IV cervical cancer involves chemoradiotherapy.
  • In this study, we investigated the distribution of platinum in the female genital tract by intra-arterial infusion of platinum (carboplatin 150 mg) during surgery and examined the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy with transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) of cisplatin for locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The platinum concentration in each regional lymph node was 1.10-1.48 microg/g wt, and its level of platinum was equal to that in the female genital tract.
  • Based on these results, intra-arterial infusion of platinum produced a therapeutic effect on the primary cervical cancer site and the other parts of the female genital tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Platinum / analysis. Radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Nodes / chemistry. Lymph Nodes / drug effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


11. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of androstenedione (CAS No. 63-05-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Sep;(560):1, 7-31,33-171 passim
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  • In order to evaluate its subchronic and chronic toxicity, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered androstenedione (98% pure) by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years.
  • 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: groups of five male and five female rats were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 12 days.
  • 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: groups of five male and five female mice were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 12 days.
  • One vehicle control female, one 20 mg/kg female, and one 50 mg/kg female died early due to gavage accidents.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: groups of 10 male and 10 female core study rats were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks; additional groups of 10 male and 10 female clinical pathology study rats received the same doses for 23 days.
  • The mean body weights of the 20 mg/kg female group was significantly greater than those of the vehicle control group and there was significant increased weight gain in the 1, 20, and 50 mg/kg female groups.
  • Female thymus weights were significantly increased in the 20 and 50 mg/kg groups, which may be related to the increase in mean body weight.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE: groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were administered 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for 14 weeks.
  • Except for one 10 mg/kg female that died early due to a dosing accident, all mice survived to the end of the study.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: groups of 50 male and 50 female rats were administered 0, 10, 20, or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for at least 104 weeks.
  • Incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in 20 mg/kg males.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: groups of 50 male and 50 female mice were administered 0, 2 (females only), 10, 20 (males only), or 50 mg androstenedione/kg body weight in a 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose solution by gavage, 5 days per week for at least 104 weeks.
  • In females, the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma were significantly increased in all dosed groups.
  • Incidences of hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in males and females were significantly increased in the 50 mg/kg groups.
  • The incidence of glomerular metaplasia of the kidney was significantly increased in 50 mg/kg females, and the incidences of cytoplasmic alteration of the submandibular salivary gland were significantly increased in all dosed female groups.
  • The increased incidences of cytoplasmic alteration of the submandibular salivary gland and glomerular metaplasia of the kidney in female mice indicated a masculinizing effect from androstenedione treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: under the conditions of these 2-year gavage studies, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma and alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined).
  • There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in female F344/N rats based on increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of multiple hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased incidence of hepatoblastoma.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of androstenedione in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Increased incidences of pancreatic islet adenoma in male and female mice were also considered chemical related.
  • Androstenedione administration caused increased incidences in nonneoplastic lesions of the liver in male and female rats and mice; pancreatic islets and exocrine pancreas of female rats; and clitoral gland, kidney, and submandibular salivary gland of female mice.
  • Decreases in the incidences of testicular interstitial cell adenoma in male rats, mammary gland fibroadenoma, cysts, and hyperplasia in female rats, and malignant lymphoma in female mice were considered related to androstenedione administration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animal Feed. Animals. Biomarkers. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinogenicity Tests. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / metabolism. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / pathology. Estrous Cycle. Female. Genitalia / drug effects. Intubation, Gastrointestinal. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Micronucleus Tests. Mutagens / toxicity. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 21037592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Mutagens; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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12. Ballagh SA: Vaginal hormone therapy for urogenital and menopausal symptoms. Semin Reprod Med; 2005 May;23(2):126-40
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  • Therefore, even these low dose therapies should be opposed by occasional progestogen to prevent endometrial carcinoma.
  • No combination estrogen/progestogen vaginal product is currently available.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Genital Diseases, Female / drug therapy. Menopause / drug effects. Urologic Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravaginal. Female. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Urinary Incontinence / drug therapy. Urinary Tract / physiopathology. Urinary Tract Infections / drug therapy. Vaginitis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15852198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8004
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 161
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13. Petruska JM, Frank DW, Freeman GB, Evans EW, MacDonald JS: Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and p-cresidine in the p53 heterozygous mouse model. Toxicol Pathol; 2002 Nov-Dec;30(6):696-704
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  • The carcinogenic potential of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, a psychotropic agent, was assessed in the p53 heterozygous mouse assay.
  • In a 4-week dose range finding study in p53 wild-type mice, doses of 20,40, 60, and 80 mg/kg were poorly tolerated because of mortality secondary to the severe sedative and hypotensive effects of chlorpromazine.
  • The administration of chlorpromazine hydrochloride at dose levels up to and including 10 mg/kg to p53 heterozygous and wild-type mice did not result in a dose-related increase in tumor incidence or in the type of tumors seen in comparison to controls.
  • Findings related to the administration of chlorpromazine in the 26-week study were limited to minimal uterine and ovarian atrophy in p53 wild-type mice dosed with 10 mg/kg chlorpromazine hydrochloride.
  • [MeSH-major] Aniline Compounds / toxicity. Antipsychotic Agents / toxicity. Carcinogens / toxicity. Chlorpromazine / toxicity. Genes, p53. Neoplasms, Experimental / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Atrophy / chemically induced. Atrophy / pathology. Body Weight / drug effects. Carcinogenicity Tests. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Heterozygote. Longevity / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Organ Size. Toxicity Tests, Chronic. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12512871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 4C11L78UR3 / cresidine; U42B7VYA4P / Chlorpromazine
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14. Higuchi TT, Palmer JS, Gray LE Jr, Veeramachaneni DN: Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or postpubertal exposure. Toxicol Sci; 2003 Apr;72(2):301-13
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  • Serum testosterone levels were down (at 6 weeks, 32%; p < 0.05); a slight increase in histological alterations of the testis (p < 0.05) and a doubling in the percentage (from 16 to 30%, p < 0.01) of abnormal sperm; and 1/17 males manifesting hypospadias, hypoplastic prostate, and cryptorchid testes with carcinoma in situ-like cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / etiology. Dibutyl Phthalate / toxicity. Genitalia, Male / drug effects. Maternal Exposure. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Reproduction / drug effects. Sexual Maturation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Pregnancy. Rabbits. Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms. Sperm Count. Spermatogenesis / drug effects. Testis / drug effects. Testis / pathology. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 12655036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD07031
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 2286E5R2KE / Dibutyl Phthalate; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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15. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate (CAS No. 68603-42-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2001 Jan;479:5-226
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  • Coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate, a mixture of fatty acid diethanolamides of the acids found in coconut oil, is widely used in cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, and related consumer products.
  • Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate for 14 weeks or 2 years.
  • 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats received dermal applications of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol, five times per week for 14 weeks.
  • 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol, five times per week for 14 weeks.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats received dermal applications of 0, 50, or 100 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol five times a week for 104 weeks.
  • Survival, BODY WEIGHTS, AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: The survival rates of treated male and female rats were similar to those of the vehicle controls.
  • PATHOLOGY FINDINGS: There were marginal increases in the incidences of renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in 50 mg/kg females.
  • The severity of nephropathy increased with increasing dose in female rats.
  • The incidences of chronic active inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and epithelial ulcer of the forestomach increased with dose in female rats, and the increases were significant in the 100 mg/kg group.
  • 2-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice received dermal applications of 0, 100, or 200 mg coconut oil acid diethanolamine condensate/kg body weight in ethanol five times a week for 104 to 105 weeks.
  • SURVIVAL, BODY WEIGHTS, AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: Survival of dosed male and female mice was generally similar to that of the vehicle controls.
  • PATHOLOGY FINDINGS: The incidences of hepatic neoplasms (hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatoblastoma) were significantly increased in male and/or female mice.
  • The incidences of renal tubule adenoma and renal tubule adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in 200 mg/kg males.
  • In contrast to the uniformly negative results in vitro, positive results were obtained in a peripheral blood micronucleus test in male and female mice from the 14-week dermal study.
  • There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in female F344/N rats based on a marginal increase in the incidences of renal tubule neoplasms.
  • There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatic and renal tubule neoplasms and in female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of hepatic neoplasms.
  • There were increases in the incidences of chronic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and epithelial ulcer in the forestomach of female rats.
  • The severities of nephropathy in dosed female rats were increased.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Estrous Cycle / drug effects. Estrous Cycle / physiology. Female. Genitalia / drug effects. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mutagenicity Tests. Organ Size / drug effects. Pregnancy. Quality Control. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12571684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ethanolamines; 0 / Plant Oils; 8001-31-8 / coconut oil; AZE05TDV2V / diethanolamine
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16. Castillo-Vico MT, Checa-Vizcaíno MA, Payà-Panadés A, Rueda-García C, Carreras-Collado R: Periurethral granuloma following injection with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer for stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct; 2007 Jan;18(1):95-7
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  • Periurethral injection of bulk-enhancing agents provides a simpler and cost-effective therapeutic approach for stress incontinence in women.
  • A 73-year-old woman with history of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma at the age of 55 presented with stress urinary incontinence.
  • At 4 months postoperatively, a 3-4 cm noninflammatory painless mass in the external genitalia was noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Dextrans / adverse effects. Granuloma / diagnosis. Granuloma / etiology. Hyaluronic Acid / adverse effects. Urethral Diseases / diagnosis. Urethral Diseases / etiology. Urinary Incontinence, Stress / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Injections. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • [Journal-full-title] International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dextrans; 0 / dextranomer-hyaluronic acid copolymer; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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17. McPherson T, Cooper S: Vulval lichen sclerosus and lichen planus. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):523-32
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  • Lichen sclerosus (LS) and lichen planus (LP) are both immunologically mediated diseases with a preference for the genitalia.
  • Second-line therapies include topical calcineurin inhibitors and systemic agents.
  • The risk of vulval squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is increased in both LP and LS, and it is not known how treatment affects this risk.
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoimmune Diseases / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Female. Humans. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20868406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Reynolds LP, Grazul-Bilska AT, Redmer DA: Angiogenesis in the female reproductive organs: pathological implications. Int J Exp Pathol; 2002 Aug;83(4):151-63
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis in the female reproductive organs: pathological implications.
  • The female reproductive organs (ovary, uterus, and placenta) are some of the few adult tissues that exhibit regular intervals of rapid growth.
  • As with many other tissues, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) appear to be major angiogenic factors in the female reproductive organs.
  • A variety of pathologies of the female reproductive organs are associated with disturbances of the angiogenic process, including dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, endometriosis, failed implantation and subnormal foetal growth, myometrial fibroids (uterine leiomyomas) and adenomyosis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, ovarian carcinoma, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • In the near future, angiogenic or antiangiogenic compounds may prove to be effective therapeutic agents for treating these pathologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Genitalia, Female / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology. Placenta / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Lymphokines / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 12485460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 99
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517679
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19. Laier P, Metzdorff SB, Borch J, Hagen ML, Hass U, Christiansen S, Axelstad M, Kledal T, Dalgaard M, McKinnell C, Brokken LJ, Vinggaard AM: Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2006 Jun 1;213(2):160-71
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  • Prochloraz caused mild dysgenesis of the male external genitalia as well as reduced anogenital distance and retention of nipples in male pups.
  • An increased anogenital distance indicated virilization of female pups.
  • Immunohistochemistry of fetal testes showed increased expression of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) and a reduction in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type 10) expression, whereas no changes in expression of genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis were observed.
  • In vitro studies on human adrenocortical carcinoma cells supported the findings in vivo as reduced testosterone and increased progesterone levels were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / toxicity. Feminization / chemically induced. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / drug effects. Genitalia / drug effects. Imidazoles / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fungicides, Industrial / toxicity. Gene Expression Profiling. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism. Humans. Leydig Cells / drug effects. Male. Maternal Exposure. Mice. Nipples / drug effects. Nipples / embryology. Pregnancy. Rats

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  • (PMID = 16375936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Imidazoles; 99SFL01YCL / prochloraz
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20. Burton JL, Wells M: The effect of phytoestrogens on the female genital tract. J Clin Pathol; 2002 Jun;55(6):401-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of phytoestrogens on the female genital tract.
  • Environmental oestrogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hormonally treated cancers (such as breast and prostate cancer), male infertility, and abnormalities of the male and female reproductive tracts.
  • They may be derived from plants (phytoestrogens), pharmaceuticals, or other synthetic compounds not originally intended to have oestrogenic activity (including soy based infant formulas).
  • This review will discuss the evidence from both animal studies and humans for an effect of these ubiquitous compounds on the development of the human female genital tract, in addition to prolonging the menstrual cycle, alleviating symptoms of the menopause, and protecting against the development of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Genitalia, Female / drug effects. Isoflavones
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Neoplasms / prevention & control. Environmental Exposure. Female. Humans. Menopause / drug effects. Menstrual Cycle / drug effects. Phytoestrogens. Plant Preparations

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  • (PMID = 12037019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Plant Preparations
  • [Number-of-references] 105
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1769669
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21. Kallehauge JF, Tanderup K, Haack S, Nielsen T, Muren LP, Fokdal L, Lindegaard JC, Pedersen EM: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) as a quantitative parameter in diffusion weighted MR imaging in gynecologic cancer: Dependence on b-values used. Acta Oncol; 2010 Oct;49(7):1017-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radiography. Models, Theoretical
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Diffusion. Female. Genitalia, Female / blood supply. Genitalia, Female / radiography. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / standards. Reference Values. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Statistics as Topic. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20831490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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