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1. Nozaki M: [Effects of raloxifene on other organs without bone: uterus]. Clin Calcium; 2004 Oct;14(10):55-60
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  • [Title] [Effects of raloxifene on other organs without bone: uterus].
  • Tamoxifen leads re-enlargement of uterine myomas, recurrence of adenomyosis, atypical genital bleeding for endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women.
  • Unlike these drugs, raloxifene has an antagonistic action on uterine myometrium and endometrium.
  • From these standpoints, we consider that raloxifene use lower the risks of uterine myomas, adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Myometrium / pathology. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / drug therapy. Risk. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / pharmacology. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15577132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4F86W47BR6 / Raloxifene Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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2. Chiesa AG, Hart WR: Uterine artery embolization of leiomyomas with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (TGM): pathologic features and comparison with polyvinyl alcohol emboli. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2004 Oct;23(4):386-92
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  • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles have been the principal agent used for UAE.
  • It is the first embolic agent to be cleared specifically by the United States Food and Drug Administration for this use.
  • To date, information on the tissue effects, distribution, and morphology of UAE with TGM in resected human organs is very limited.
  • Histologically, a submucosal leiomyoma and an intramural uterine leiomyoma showed massive coagulative necrosis of the infarct-type with a peripheral zone of hyalinized fibrous tissue.
  • Non-targeted extrauterine sites also contained TGM, including the paracervical soft tissue and the mesosalpinx as well as the ovaries and omentum where they were adjacent to metastatic colonic carcinoma.
  • Other than the myomas, none of the embolized organs showed ischemic necrosis.
  • A thin rim of foreign body-type giant cells and mononuclear macrophages surrounded many of the TGM and focally involved the arterial wall.
  • Pathologists should be aware of the morphology of TGM in resected genital tract tissues.
  • Elastic stains are useful in the differential diagnosis of embolic agents.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GELATIN .
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  • (PMID = 15381909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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3. Firouzmand M, Barillot I, Truc G, Bossi E, Peignaux K, Vaillant D, Maingon P: [Critical organs and external irradiation in gynaecological cancers: can water be used as contrast agent to make easier the delineation of the small intestine?]. Cancer Radiother; 2004 Jun;8(3):148-54
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  • [Title] [Critical organs and external irradiation in gynaecological cancers: can water be used as contrast agent to make easier the delineation of the small intestine?].
  • [Transliterated title] Organes critiques et irradiation externe des cancers gynécologiques: l'eau peut-elle être utilisée comme produit de contraste pour faciliter la délinéation de l'intestin grêle?
  • PURPOSE: To validate the use of water as contrast agent for the delineation of the small intestine on the planning CT of external beam in patients treated with conformal radiotherapy for gynaecological tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From March to September 2003, 20 patients received an external irradiation for a gynaecological carcinoma (13 with cervix carcinoma, seven with endometrial carcinoma) in the radiotherapy department of the Centre G.F.
  • The protocol of opacification of the small intestine consisted in administration of a "negative" contrast agent: water.
  • RESULTS: The small bowel identification was possible in 100% of cases without any need of administration of a "positive" contrast agent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Water is an efficient "negative" contrast agent for the differentiation of the small bowel from the colon on the planning abdomino-pelvic CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / radiotherapy. Intestine, Small / anatomy & histology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Water

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  • (PMID = 15217582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 059QF0KO0R / Water
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4. Reynolds LP, Grazul-Bilska AT, Redmer DA: Angiogenesis in the female reproductive organs: pathological implications. Int J Exp Pathol; 2002 Aug;83(4):151-63
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis in the female reproductive organs: pathological implications.
  • The female reproductive organs (ovary, uterus, and placenta) are some of the few adult tissues that exhibit regular intervals of rapid growth.
  • As with many other tissues, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) appear to be major angiogenic factors in the female reproductive organs.
  • A variety of pathologies of the female reproductive organs are associated with disturbances of the angiogenic process, including dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, endometriosis, failed implantation and subnormal foetal growth, myometrial fibroids (uterine leiomyomas) and adenomyosis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, ovarian carcinoma, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • In the near future, angiogenic or antiangiogenic compounds may prove to be effective therapeutic agents for treating these pathologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Genitalia, Female / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology. Placenta / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Lymphokines / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 12485460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 99
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517679
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5. Hipp S, Berg D, Ergin B, Schuster T, Hapfelmeier A, Walch A, Avril S, Schmalfeldt B, Höfler H, Becker KF: Interaction of Snail and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase results in shorter overall survival of ovarian cancer patients. Virchows Arch; 2010 Dec;457(6):705-13
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  • Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic disease and the leading cause of death among cancer of the female genital tract.
  • We found a significant correlation of Snail with EGFR((Tyr1086)) and p38 MAPK((Thr180/Tyr182)) in primary ovarian carcinoma and with EGFR((Tyr1086)) in their corresponding metastasis.
  • Additionally, we showed that high expression levels of Snail in primary tumours combined with high expression levels of the phosphorylated p38 MAPK((Thr180/Tyr182)) in metastasis lead to an increased risk for death in ovarian carcinoma patients.
  • Thus, for future combinatorial cancer therapy, drug combinations that best target the deregulated protein network in each individual patient should be selected.






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