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1. Raderer M, Kurtaran A, Scheithauer W, Fiebiger W, Weinlaender G, Oberhuber G: Different response to the long-acting somatostatin analogues lanreotide and octreotide in a patient with a malignant carcinoid. Oncology; 2001;60(2):141-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Different response to the long-acting somatostatin analogues lanreotide and octreotide in a patient with a malignant carcinoid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Somatostatin (SST) analogues are cornerstones in the symptomatic management of patients suffering from carcinoid tumors, and antiproliferative activity has also been reported for these agents.
  • We report the case of a patient with a disseminated carcinoid, who progressed during dose-intensified treatment with slow-release LAN in combination with interferon-alpha, but developed a pronounced response after treatment was switched to the application of a depot formulation of OCT.
  • After a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoid had been established, treatment with LAN (30 mg i.m. every 10 days) along with interferon-alpha 3 x 5 MU/week was initiated.
  • As she refused chemotherapy, treatment was switched to a depot formulation of OCT (20 mg i.m. every 4 weeks), resulting both in a disappearance of symptoms as well as tumor regression as seen on CT scanning.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating both a symptomatic as well as objective response to OCT following progression during therapy with LAN in a patient with a carcinoid tumor.
  • Our results suggest that refractoriness to treatment including a long-acting SST analogue does not automatically imply resistance to a related agent and should alert clinicians to the potential of non-cross-resistance between SST analogues in neuroendocrine malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11244329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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2. Cook MR, Pinchot SN, Jaskula-Sztul R, Luo J, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H: Identification of a novel Raf-1 pathway activator that inhibits gastrointestinal carcinoid cell growth. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Feb;9(2):429-37
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel Raf-1 pathway activator that inhibits gastrointestinal carcinoid cell growth.
  • Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors (NET) that secrete hormones, including serotonin, resulting in the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • In addition to the significant morbidity associated with the syndrome, carcinoids are frequently metastatic at diagnosis, and untreated mortality at 5 years exceeds 70%.
  • We have previously shown that activation of Raf-1 inhibits carcinoid cell proliferation.
  • We investigated the ability of leflunomide (LFN), a Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and its active metabolite teriflunomide (TFN) as a potential anti-NET treatment.
  • LFN and TFN inhibit the in vitro proliferation of gastrointestinal carcinoid cells and induce G(2)-M phase arrest.
  • Daily oral gavage of nude mice with subcutaneous xenografted carcinoid tumors confirms that LFN can inhibit NET growth in vivo.
  • In summary, LFN and TFN inhibit carcinoid cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and alter the expression of NET markers.

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  • (PMID = 20103603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121115-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109053-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA121115
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Crotonates; 0 / Isoxazoles; 0 / Toluidines; 1C058IKG3B / teriflunomide; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; G162GK9U4W / leflunomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS167835; NLM/ PMC2820603
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3. Ducreux M, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: [Treatment strategy of neuroendocrine tumors]. Rev Prat; 2002 Feb 1;52(3):290-6
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy of neuroendocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Stratégie de traitement des tumeurs neuro-endocrines.
  • Therapeutic strategy of neuroendocrine tumours is complex, due to their heterogeneity and to the fact that although generally slow growing, a significant proportion demonstrates aggressive tumour growth.
  • Symptomatic carcinoid syndrome and various pancreatic endocrine tumours with symptomatic syndromes are well controlled with somatostatin analogues.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment if the tumour can be resected.
  • Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour are treated when resection is not feasible with combination chemotherapy using adriamycin and streptozotocin, which remains a standard of care.
  • In well differentiated tumour of the gut or the lung there is no clear standard of chemotherapy and treatment vary according to the tumour course.
  • Gastrinoma and other pancreatic tumours arising in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I disease need a specific therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormones / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Gastrinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplasm Metastasis. Streptozocin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11925720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Hormones; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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4. Molenaar JP, Baten A, Blokx WA, Hoogendam A: Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Eur Urol; 2009 Nov;56(5):874-7; quiz 876
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  • [Title] Development of carcinoid tumour in hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • We present the case of an 81-yr-old man with a prostatic adenocarcinoma and a metastatic carcinoid.
  • Simultaneous occurrence of hormonally treated adenocarcinoma of the prostate and a carcinoid has been described before.
  • Early recognition of the carcinoid syndrome is crucial, as surgical cure is not possible after metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19171417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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5. Jievaltas M, Stoskuviene L, Petrenkiene V, Barauskas G, Pundzius J: Results of treatment of primary liver cancer at Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital. Medicina (Kaunas); 2004;40(2):127-34
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  • [Title] Results of treatment of primary liver cancer at Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital.
  • From 1996 to 2001 we observed 54 patients with liver cancer: 46 hepatocellular and 6 cholangiocellular carcinomas, 1 malignant carcinoid, and 1 carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinosarcoma / complications. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Carcinosarcoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Female. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Injections, Intradermal. Liver / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Portal Vein. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15007271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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6. Auer J, Kirchgatterer A, Berent R, Allinger S, Hinterholzer G, Höbling W, Meindl S, Oppitz P, Kalchmair J, Neuwirth G, Knoflach P: [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage needing blood transfusion as the first manifestation of small bowel carcinoid tumor]. Z Gastroenterol; 2000 Aug;38(8):631-6
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  • [Title] [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage needing blood transfusion as the first manifestation of small bowel carcinoid tumor].
  • Carcinoid tumors arise from enterochromaffin or enterochromaffin-like cells that are present in the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and lungs.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is associated with small intestine carcinoids in about 40%.
  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding with melaena or hematochezia is a relatively rare early symptom of patients with small intestine carcinoid tumors.
  • Laparotomy revealed bleeding from a small submucosal malignant carcinoid tumor in small intestine and multiple large metastases within mesenteric tissue.
  • Small intestinal carcinoid tumor has to be considered as a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding with melaena or hematochezia.
  • Nevertheless, bleeding is a relatively rare early symptom of patients with small intestine carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Transfusion. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small
  • [MeSH-minor] Acenocoumarol / administration & dosage. Acenocoumarol / adverse effects. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Protein S Deficiency / drug therapy. Protein S Deficiency / genetics. Recurrence


7. Toumpanakis C, Garland J, Marelli L, Srirajaskanthan R, Soh J, Davies P, Buscombe J, Caplin ME: Long-term results of patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome receiving octreotide LAR. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Oct;30(7):733-40
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  • [Title] Long-term results of patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome receiving octreotide LAR.
  • BACKGROUND: Octreotide LAR is an established treatment for malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • AIM: To present long-terms results with octreotide LAR, assessing duration of clinical and objective response and treatment tolerance, in a large, homogeneous cohort of patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Octreotide LAR treatment provides a sustained symptomatic response in about half of the patients with malignant carcinoid syndrome and contributes to disease stabilization for a longer period than previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19573169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2036
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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8. Caplin ME, Mielcarek W, Buscombe JR, Jones AL, Croasdale PL, Cooper MS, Burroughs AK, Hilson AW: Toxicity of high-activity 111In-Octreotide therapy in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours. Nucl Med Commun; 2000 Jan;21(1):97-102
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  • Nuclear medicine techniques using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue, 111In-Octreotide, have been used for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours.
  • It has been suggested that high activities of such an agent may have a therapeutic effect.
  • Eight patients with known disseminated neuroendocrine tumours were enrolled in the study; six had carcinoid tumours, one had a medullary cell carcinoma of the thyroid and one patient had a malignant gastrinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Gastrinoma / radiotherapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / radiotherapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Radiopharmaceuticals / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10717909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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9. Santhanam S, Decatris M, O'Byrne K: Potential of interferon-alpha in solid tumours: part 2. BioDrugs; 2002;16(5):349-72
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  • In HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, rIFNalpha is active as monotherapy and in combination with antiretroviral agents, especially in patients with CD4 counts >200/mm(3), no prior opportunistic infections and nonvisceral disease. rIFNalpha has shown encouraging results when used in combination with retinoids in the chemoprevention of head and neck squamous cell cancers.
  • In neuroendocrine tumours, including carcinoid tumour, low-dosage (</=3 MU) or intermediate-dosage (5 to 10 MU) rIFNalpha is indicated as second-line treatment, either with octreotide or alone in patients resistant to somatostatin analogues.
  • Intracavitary IFNalpha may be useful in malignant pleural effusions from mesothelioma.
  • IFNalpha may have a role as a radiosensitising agent for the treatment of cervical cancer; however, this requires confirmation in randomised trials.
  • A better understanding of the biological mechanisms that determine response to rIFNalpha is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12408739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-8804
  • [Journal-full-title] BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BioDrugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 391
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10. Oberg K, Eriksson B: Nuclear medicine in the detection, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;19(2):265-76
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  • [Title] Nuclear medicine in the detection, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
  • Carcinoid tumours belong to the family of neuroendocrine tumours with a capacity to take up and concentrate amines and precursors as well as peptides, and can thereby be detected by nuclear medicine techniques.
  • A majority of carcinoid tumours express somatostatin receptors, particularly receptor type 2, and thus somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) can be used for detection and staging of carcinoid tumours.
  • The detection rate of carcinoid tumours has been reported to be somewhere between 80 and 100% in different studies.
  • The scintigraphy gives a good staging of the disease and detection of unexpected tumour sites, which were not determined by conventional imaging.
  • Another new non-invasive technique for detection of carcinoid tumours is positron emission tomography (PET).
  • The biological substance for study can be labelled for radioactive imaging with radionuclears, such as (11)C, (15)O and (18)F, with emission of positrons.
  • MIBG has been used for decades to visualize carcinoid tumours, because MIBG is concentrated in the endocrine cells.
  • The method can be used when other methods fail to localize carcinoid tumours and particularly when treatment with (131)I-MIBG is being considered.
  • Tumour-targeted treatment for malignant carcinoid tumour is still investigational, but has become of significant interest with the use of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues.
  • Since a majority of carcinoid tumours present somatostatin receptors and can therefore be visualized in vivo by using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, it seems logical to try to target these tumours with radioactive substances, not only for visualization but also for treatment. (111)Indium-DTPA-octreotide has been used as the first tumour-targeted treatment, with rather low response rates (in the order of 10-20%) and no significant tumour shrinkage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nuclear Medicine / methods. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15763700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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11. Waldherr C, Pless M, Maecke HR, Schumacher T, Crazzolara A, Nitzsche EU, Haldemann A, Mueller-Brand J: Tumor response and clinical benefit in neuroendocrine tumors after 7.4 GBq (90)Y-DOTATOC. J Nucl Med; 2002 May;43(5):610-6
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  • [Title] Tumor response and clinical benefit in neuroendocrine tumors after 7.4 GBq (90)Y-DOTATOC.
  • The aim of this prospective phase II study was to evaluate the tumor response of neuroendocrine tumors to high-dose targeted irradiation with 7.4 GBq/m(2) of the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecan-4,7,10-tricarboxy-methyl-1-yl-acetyl-D-Phe-Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTATOC).
  • In addition, we investigated the clinical benefit of (90)Y-DOTATOC regarding the malignant carcinoid syndrome and tumor-associated pain.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (mean age, 55 y) with progressive neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic and bronchial tumors were included.
  • For endocrine pancreatic tumors (13 patients), the objective response rate was 38%.
  • CONCLUSION: High-dose targeted radiotherapy with 7.4 GBq/m(2) (90)Y-DOTATOC is a well-tolerated treatment for neuroendocrine tumors, with remarkable clinical benefit and objective response.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Yttrium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2002 May;43(5):617-20 [11994523.001]
  • (PMID = 11994522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U194AS08HZ / Edotreotide
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12. Schell SR, Camp ER, Caridi JG, Hawkins IF Jr: Hepatic artery embolization for control of symptoms, octreotide requirements, and tumor progression in metastatic carcinoid tumors. J Gastrointest Surg; 2002 Sep-Oct;6(5):664-70
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  • [Title] Hepatic artery embolization for control of symptoms, octreotide requirements, and tumor progression in metastatic carcinoid tumors.
  • Hepatic artery embolization (HAE) has been utilized for treatment of advanced hepatic carcinoid metastases, with promising symptom palliation and tumor control.
  • Our institution employs transcatheter HAE using Lipiodol/Gelfoam for treatment of carcinoid hepatic metastases, and this report presents our experience with twenty-four patients, examining symptom control, quality-of-life, octreotide dependence, and tumor progression.
  • Twenty-four (11 male, 13 female, mean age = 59.4 +/- 2.5 yr) patients with carcinoid and unresectable hepatic metastases, confirmed by urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) measurement and biopsy, were treated with Lipiodol/Gelfoam HAE from 1993-2001.
  • Before HAE, 14 patients (58.3%) had malignant carcinoid syndrome, with symptoms quantified using our previously reported Carcinoid Symptom Severity Score, and 13 patients (54.2%) required octreotide for symptom palliation.
  • Following treatment, symptom severity, octreotide dose, and tumor response were measured.
  • This study demonstrates that Lipiodol/Gelfoam HAE produces excellent control of malignant carcinoid syndrome, allowing patients to decrease or eliminate use of octreotide, while controlling hepatic tumor burden.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Female. Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable / administration & dosage. Hemostatics / administration & dosage. Hepatic Artery / drug effects. Humans. Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid / urine. Iodized Oil / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 12399054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Hemostatics; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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13. Tomassetti P, Salomone T, Migliori M, Campana D, Corinaldesi R: Optimal treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and related conditions in elderly patients. Drugs Aging; 2003;20(14):1019-34
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  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is characterised by refractory peptic ulcer disease, severe diarrhoea and gastric acid hypersecretion associated with an islet-cell tumour of the pancreas (gastrinoma).
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is sporadic in 62-80% of cases and in 20-38% of cases is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1).
  • The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is certain when the plasma gastrin is >1000 pg/mL and the basal acid output is >15 mEq/h in patients with an intact stomach, >5 mEq/h in gastrectomised patients, or when this hypergastrinemia is associated with a pH <2.
  • The treatment is based on control of gastric acid hypersecretion and of the malignant tumour and its possible metastases.
  • Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective antisecretory drugs and can be administered in the elderly at high dosages without drug-related adverse effects.
  • Chemotherapy is not the therapy of choice in patients with gastrinomas and is indicated only in those with malignant progressive disease; interferon alpha, embolisation and chemoembolisation are not advisable for the elderly.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications

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  • (PMID = 14651442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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14. Stuart K, Levy DE, Anderson T, Axiotis CA, Dutcher JP, Eisenberg A, Erban JK, Benson III AB, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group: Phase II study of interferon gamma in malignant carcinoid tumors (E9292): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Invest New Drugs; 2004 Jan;22(1):75-81
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  • [Title] Phase II study of interferon gamma in malignant carcinoid tumors (E9292): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of treatment with gamma interferon (IFNgamma) in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • Seventy five percent of them had hormonally active tumors.
  • RESULTS: Patients received treatment with IFNgamma for a median of 17.9 weeks (range 2-175).
  • DISCUSSION: This Phase II study demonstrated that therapy with IFNgamma in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumor was well-tolerated, but did not produce significant antitumor effects.
  • The overall results were somewhat comparable to those previously seen with alpha interferons as well as cytotoxic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 14707497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80775
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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15. Valdés Olmos RA, Hoefnagel CA, Bais E, Boot H, Taal B, de Kraker J, Vote PA: [Therapeutic advances of nuclear medicine in oncology]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2001 Dec;20(7):547-57
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic advances of nuclear medicine in oncology].
  • [Transliterated title] Avances terapéuticos de medicina nuclear en Oncología.
  • With the development of new radiopharmaceuticals there is a tendency to apply nuclear medicine therapy for malignancies of higher incidence (lymphoma, prostate) than the ones which have been treated for many years (thyroid cancer, neuroendocrine tumours).
  • In this context, the radioimmunotherapy is showing important advances in the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma, malignant lymphomas en brain tumours with potential extension to neuroblastoma therapy.
  • The development of DOTA as a chelating agent has lead to the use of Y-90-DOTATOC in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours, particularly carcinoid tumours, and non-I131I-avid thyroid carcinomas.
  • In an effort to improve tumour targeting together with simultaneous reduction of physiological organ uptake, 131I-MIBG is being used in combination with interferon a and pre-targeting with unlabelled MIBG in the treatment of carcinoid tumours.
  • Some recent examples of combined therapy with demonstrated anti-tumour effect are found in neuroblastoma (131I-MIBG and chemotherapy), bone metastases of prostatic carcinoma (addition of 89Sr to chemotherapy schedules), brain malignancies (adjuvant use of radioimmnunotherapy in relation to surgery and external radiotherapy) and lymphoma (radioimmunotherapy combined with chemotherapy or immunotherapy).
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / trends. Nuclear Medicine / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Hyperbaric Oxygenation. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma / therapy. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 11709141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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16. Bushnell DL Jr, O'Dorisio TM, O'Dorisio MS, Menda Y, Hicks RJ, Van Cutsem E, Baulieu JL, Borson-Chazot F, Anthony L, Benson AB, Oberg K, Grossman AB, Connolly M, Bouterfa H, Li Y, Kacena KA, LaFrance N, Pauwels SA: 90Y-edotreotide for metastatic carcinoid refractory to octreotide. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr 01;28(10):1652-9
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  • [Title] 90Y-edotreotide for metastatic carcinoid refractory to octreotide.
  • PURPOSE: Metastatic carcinoid is an incurable malignancy whose symptoms, such as diarrhea and flushing, can be debilitating and occasionally life-threatening.
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of using (90)Y-edotreotide to treat symptomatic patients with carcinoid tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled had metastatic carcinoid, at least one sign/symptom refractory to octreotide, and at least one measurable lesion.
  • Using Southwest Oncology Group tumor response criteria, 67 (74.
  • CONCLUSION: (90)Y-edotreotide treatment improved symptoms associated with malignant carcinoid among subjects with no treatment alternatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Yttrium Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 20194865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA167632
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 90Y-octreotide, DOTA-Tyr(3)-; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4872330
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17. Schmidbauer S, Ladurner R, Jückstock H, Trupka AW, Mussack T, Hallfeldt KK: [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group]. Chirurg; 2001 Aug;72(8):945-52
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  • [Title] [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group].
  • INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid tumors are the most common neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Surgical treatment and prognosis depend on the location of the tumor.
  • METHOD: Between 01.01.1985 and 31.12.1999 25 patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract or their metastases were treated in our institution.
  • A malignant carcinoid syndrome was present in 8 patients.
  • In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, curative, radical tumor removal should be attempted.
  • Some patients with advanced disease needed some surgery for tumor debulking and resection of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Streptozocin / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. STREPTOZOTOCIN .
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  • (PMID = 11554141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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18. Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV: A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review). Int J Oncol; 2005 Feb;26(2):301-9
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  • [Title] A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review).
  • Carcinoid tumors were first described more than a century ago, but the treatment of patients with advanced disease remains a challenge to physicians.
  • The etiology of carcinoid tumors, the biologic determinants of the growth of these malignancies, as well as the high frequency of multiple carcinoid and/or non-carcinoid tumors in patients with this disease also remain to be elucidated.
  • A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors in the USA showed that distant metastases were demonstrated at the time of diagnosis in 12.9% of patients with this neoplasia.
  • The administration of long acting analogs of somatostatin can control the symptoms of diarrhea and flushing in patients with the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • However, a complete regression of metastatic carcinoid tumors following the administration of somatostatin analog octreotide has been reported so far in only 3 cases.
  • It is expected that advances in proteomics research will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and aid in designing new drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Peptides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gamma Cameras. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Proteomics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15645113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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19. Di Luzio S, Rigolin VH: Carcinoid Heart Disease. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med; 2000 Oct;2(5):399-406
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  • [Title] Carcinoid Heart Disease.
  • Carcinoid syndrome originates from metastatic carcinoid tumors localized in the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, biliary vessels, bronchi, ovaries, and testes; it is characterized by flushing, telangiectasias, diarrhea, bronchoconstriction, and fibrous endocardial plaques in the heart.
  • Right-sided valvular heart disease occurs frequently in patients with carcinoid syndrome, involving most commonly the tricuspid and pulmonary valves.
  • Medical therapy for carcinoid heart disease includes digitalis and diuretics for congestive heart failure symptoms; the effects of carcinoid syndrome can be treated with the use of somatostatin analogues.
  • The use of octreotide, a long-acting and potent somatostatin analogue, is a major advance in the management of carcinoid tumors.
  • In addition to providing effective symptom relief in malignant carcinoid syndrome, octreotide can also be used for diagnostic purposes.
  • Despite its expense, octreotide is the current agent of choice for the treatment of this condition.

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  • (PMID = 11096544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Buscombe JR, Cwikla JB, Caplin ME, Hilson AJ: Long-term efficacy of low activity meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine therapy in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours depends on initial response. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Nov;26(11):969-76
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  • However, so far there is limited information related to the efficacy of this agent beyond the normal 6-month assessment period.
  • Most of patients had carcinoid (17), two had phaeochromocytoma, two gastrinoma and two an undifferentiated NET, one had malignant paraganglioma and one had medullary cell carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • All had avid uptake for 123I-MIBG on diagnostic scanning.
  • Response to therapy was determined by changes in the size of the tumour on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging using the response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST).
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / epidemiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / radiotherapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / epidemiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 16208174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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