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1. Chen Q, Huang Z, Luck D, Beckers J, Brun PH, Wilson BC, Scherz A, Salomon Y, Hetzel FW: Preclinical studies in normal canine prostate of a novel palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09) photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of prostate cancers. Photochem Photobiol; 2002 Oct;76(4):438-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preclinical studies in normal canine prostate of a novel palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09) photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of prostate cancers.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light to activate a photosensitizer to achieve localized tumor control.
  • In this study, PDT mediated by a second-generation photosensitizer, palladium-bacteriopheophorbide WST09 (Tookad) was investigated as an alternative therapy for prostate cancer.
  • PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostate superficially or interstitially at 763 nm to different total fluences (100 or 200 J/cm2; 50, 100 or 200 J/cm) at 5 or 15 min after intravenous administration of the drug (2 mg/kg).
  • All animals recovered well, without urethral complications.
  • At therapeutic PDT levels, there was no structural or functional urethral damage even when the urethra was within the treated region.
  • Hence, Tookad-PDT appears to be a promising candidate for prostate ablation in patients with recurrent, or possibly even primary, prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteriochlorophylls / pharmacology. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Prostate / drug effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Male. Models, Animal

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  • (PMID = 12405153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA43892
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacteriochlorophylls; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / palladium-bacteriopheophorbide
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2. Trabulsi EJ, Hoffman-Censits J: Chemotherapy for penile and urethral carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am; 2010 Aug;37(3):467-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapy for penile and urethral carcinoma.
  • Although surgery is the mainstay of curative treatment of carcinomas of the penis and urethra, there is a role for systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy for locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic tumors.
  • Although this field is limited by a paucity of clinical trials or prospective data, the available single institutional retrospective reviews indicate that multi-agent cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy regimens have significant activity and may allow curative surgery for patients with otherwise unresectable tumors.
  • This article reviews the available literature on chemotherapy for carcinoma of the penis and urethra in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20674701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-318X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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3. Singh BP, Nyska A, Kissling GE, Lieuallen W, Johansson SL, Malarkey DE, Hooth MJ: Urethral carcinoma and hyperplasia in male and female B6C3F1 mice treated with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Apr;38(3):372-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Urethral carcinoma and hyperplasia in male and female B6C3F1 mice treated with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB).
  • B6C3F1 mice chronically exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB), a contaminant of dichloroaniline-derived herbicides, developed a number of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions, including carcinoma of the urinary tract.
  • Control animals received corn oil:acetone (99:1) vehicle.
  • Decreased survival of male mice in the mid-dose group and of male and female mice in the high-dose groups was related mainly to the occurrence of urethral transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma and resulting urinary obstruction.
  • Increased urethral transitional cell carcinomas were seen in all treated male groups in a dose-related manner as well as in the females treated with 30 mg/kg TCAB.
  • Administration of TCAB was also associated with increased transitional cell hyperplasia of the urethra.
  • Most nonneoplastic lesions of the urogenital tract were considered secondary to local invasion and urinary obstruction by the urethral transitional cell carcinomas.
  • The mechanism of tumor induction is uncertain, but the high frequency of tumors in the proximal urethra of male mice suggests that the neoplasms result from the exposure of a susceptible population of urothelial cells to a carcinogenic metabolite of TCAB.

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  • (PMID = 20233943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES045004; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 ES045004-11; United States / PHS HHS / / Z01 ESO45004-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Chlorobenzenes; 0 / Herbicides; 14047-09-7 / 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS220338; NLM/ PMC2918423
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4. Troiano M, Corsa P, Raguso A, Cossa S, Piombino M, Guglielmi G, Parisi S: Radiation therapy in urinary cancer: state of the art and perspective. Radiol Med; 2009 Feb;114(1):70-82
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy in urinary cancer: state of the art and perspective.
  • A systematic review of external radiation therapy studies in urinary cancers was performed.
  • There are few controlled clinical trials using adjuvant or radical radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in cancer of the kidney, ureter and urethra.
  • There are several reports on multimodality treatment in invasive bladder cancer: intravesical surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy to radiotherapy or concomitant radiochemotherapy with organ preservation.
  • The conclusions reached for renal cancer are controversial, and data on cancers of the urethra and ureter are few and inconclusive.
  • Sufficient data now exist in the literature to demonstrate that conservative management with organ preservation is a valuable alternative to radical cystectomy, the traditional gold standard, in invasive bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic. Cystectomy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Organ Preservation. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Ureter / pathology. Ureteral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ureteral Neoplasms / mortality. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology. Ureteral Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Urethra / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / mortality. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19082788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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5. Hong JY, Choi MK, Uhm JE, Park MJ, Lee J, Park SH, Park JO, Kim WS, Kang WK, Lee HM, Choi HY, Lim H: Palliative chemotherapy for non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract. Med Oncol; 2009;26(2):186-92
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  • Non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract comprise 5-10% of urothelial cancers.
  • The primary sites of involvement were the bladder, urethra, urachus, and ureter in 43%, 29%, 19%, and 10% of the patients, respectively.
  • Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type (67%); squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma comprised 24 and 10% of the histologic types, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urothelium
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18988001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Amling CL: Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;25(4):219-78
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • Bladder cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in American men, accounting for more than 12,000 deaths annually.
  • Currently, cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of bladder cancer, although occupational exposure to arylamines has been implicated in the past.
  • These radiologic studies are unable to provide adequate bladder imaging, and thus cystoscopy is required for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Most bladder cancers present as "superficial" disease, confined to the bladder mucosa or submucosal layer, without muscle invasion.
  • Superficial tumors consist of papillary tumors that are mucosally confined (Ta), papillary or sessile tumors extending into the lamina propria (T1), and carcinoma in situ, which occurs as "flat" mucosal dysplasia, which can be focal, diffuse, or associated with a papillary or sessile tumor.
  • Most superficial tumors can be stratified into high- or low-risk groups depending on tumor stage, grade, size, number, and recurrence pattern.
  • Many intravesical chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to reduce tumor recurrence when used in conjunction with transurethral tumor resection.
  • Unfortunately, however, none of these agents have proved to be of benefit in preventing disease progression.
  • Although all of these drugs have toxicity, they usually are well tolerated.
  • Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an immunotherapeutic agent that when given intravesically is very effective in the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Compared with controls, BCG has a 43% advantage in preventing tumor recurrence, a significantly better rate than the 16% to 21% advantage of intravesical chemotherapy.
  • In addition, BCG is particularly effective in the treatment of carcinoma in situ, eradicating it in more than 80% of cases.
  • In contrast to intravesical chemotherapy, BCG has also been shown to decrease the risk of tumor progression.
  • In high-risk cancers, maintenance BCG administered for 3 weeks every 6 months may be optimal in limiting recurrence and preventing progression.
  • With the development of orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction to the native urethra, the quality of life impact of radical cystectomy has been lessened.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Immunotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ABO Blood-Group System. Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Photochemotherapy. Risk Factors. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11514784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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7. Salom EM, Penalver M: Recurrent vulvar cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2002 Apr;3(2):143-53
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  • [Title] Recurrent vulvar cancer.
  • Recurrent vulvar cancer occurs in an average of 24% of cases after primary treatment after surgery with or without radiation.
  • The relatively few primary vulvar cancers, combined with the low proportion of recurrences, has made it difficult to perform randomized studies to document the most appropriate therapeutic modalities.
  • Traditionally, the most accepted treatment of vulvar cancer has been and continues to be surgery.
  • With a central pelvic recurrence with antecedent radiotherapy involving the urethra, upper vagina, and rectum, total pelvic exenteration is indicated in a select group of patients with curative intent.
  • The literature supports the use of 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin as single agents or in combination to have sensitivity against squamous cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 12057077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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8. Song Y, Muller B, Burman C, Mychalczak B, Song Y: A model-aided segmentation in urethra identification based on an atlas human autopsy image for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2007;2007:3532-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A model-aided segmentation in urethra identification based on an atlas human autopsy image for intensity modulated radiation therapy.
  • In order to protect urethra in radiation therapy of prostate cancer, the urethra must be identified and localized as an organ at risk (OAR) for the inverse treatment planning in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
  • Because the prostatic urethra and its surrounding prostate tissue have similar physical characteristics, such as linear attenuation coefficient and density, it is difficult to distinct the OAR from the target in CT images.
  • To localize the urethra without using contrast agent or additional imaging modalities other than planning CT images, a different approach was developed using a standard atlas of human anatomy image.
  • This paper reports an investigation, in which an adult urethra was modeled based on a human anatomic image.
  • [MeSH-major] Models, Biological. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiography. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Urethra / physiopathology. Urethra / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18002759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Xiao MZ, Gou X, He ZM: [Diagnosis and treatment of urethral condyloma acuminatum in male patients]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2002;8(2):112-4
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of urethral condyloma acuminatum in male patients].
  • OBJECTIVES: To present experience on the diagnosis and treatment of urethral condyloma acuminatum (CA) in male patients.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one cases of urethral CA were studied.
  • The lesion of urethral meatus and intraurethal were resected by electrofulguration or operation and Urethroscopy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transurethral endoscopy is a reliable diagnosis and treatment method.
  • Intraurethral instillation and local therapy of 5% 5-fluorouracil solution may prevent the recurrence of CA.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Urethral Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12479023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Koizumi T, Bando S, Kanda K, Inai T: [Two cases of primary female urethral cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Sep;98(6):790-4
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  • [Title] [Two cases of primary female urethral cancer].
  • Herein, we report two cases of female urethral cancer.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a urethral tumor in both cases.
  • Histopathological examination of transperineal biopsy specimens from both patients suggested clear cell adenocarcinoma in case 1 and squamous cell carcinoma in case 2.
  • For case 2, tumor marker failure was observed 5 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17929463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen
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