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1. Yi SK, Yoder M, Zaner K, Hirsch AE: Palliative radiation therapy of symptomatic recurrent bladder cancer. Pain Physician; 2007 Mar;10(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Palliative radiation therapy of symptomatic recurrent bladder cancer.
  • RT is effective at palliating both locally advanced and metastatic cancer, including related symptoms of pain, bleeding, or obstruction.
  • There are also data that support RT palliation for locally advanced or recurrent rectal, prostate, and gynecological cancers.
  • With regard to bladder cancer there is some evidence of the benefit of palliative RT for the control of urinary symptoms and hematuria; however, there is little evidence for the use of palliative RT for pain associated with locally recurrent bladder cancer.
  • We report a case of locally advanced recurrent bladder cancer which was refractory to medical pain management, and was found to be highly responsive to palliative RT.
  • CASE REPORT: An 80-year-old woman with recurrent bladder cancer and intractable pelvic pain refractory to oral and transdermal pain medications, received palliative pelvic RT to a dose of 50 Gy (5000 cGy) in 25 fractions with complete resolution of pain.
  • The patient was originally found to have dysuria, frequency, and hematuria, secondary to an invasive high grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with an adenocarcinoma component, AJCC pT2b N1 M0 Stage IV, for which she underwent a radical cystectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, partial vaginectomy, and ileal conduit reconstruction.
  • The patient was treated with another course of chemotherapy and pain was managed with relatively low doses of opioid medication (25mcg transdermal fentanyl patch, and oxycodone 5mg bid).
  • Ultimately a pain medication regimen of 200mcg transdermal fentanyl patch q2 days, oxycontin 20mg bid, oxycodone 5 - 10mg q 4 hours, ibuprofen 400mg q 8 hours, and gabapentin 600mg TID was not effective in controlling pain.
  • She was able to decrease pain medications, increase overall activity, and gain significant improvement in sleep quality and appetite even early on in the course of her radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Palliative radiation therapy has been well studied in the setting of bone metastases and treatment of hematuria for locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • There is little data that we are aware of on the use of RT for pain control with patients that have recurrent, locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • RT is an excellent option for pain management in recurrent bladder cancer and should be offered to patients whose pain is not otherwise optimally controlled.
  • Palliative RT is an important component in the multimodality approach to cancer pain management and optimization of quality of life.


2. Goldberg GL, Sukumvanich P, Einstein MH, Smith HO, Anderson PS, Fields AL: Total pelvic exenteration: the Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center Experience (1987 to 2003). Gynecol Oncol; 2006 May;101(2):261-8
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  • [Title] Total pelvic exenteration: the Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center Experience (1987 to 2003).
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the trends, modifications and results of 103 consecutive total pelvic exenterations (TPE) performed at the Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 1987 to 2003.
  • Indications for TPE were recurrent cancers of the cervix (95), endometrium (2), colon and rectum (5), vulva (1).
  • 5-year survival for pts with recurrent cervix cancer was 48%.
  • 14 pts (14%) had ureteral anastomotic leaks (no difference between ileal conduit 9/65 (14%) versus 5/38 (13%) continent conduit (P = 0.92).
  • 21/39 (54%) of pts with continent conduits would choose an ileal conduit if they had the option again.
  • Long-term renal function was similar in pts with ileal and continent conduits.
  • Mesh of any type for pelvic floor reconstruction is associated with infection and bowel/urinary fistulas.
  • Mesh of any type is associated with sepsis and bowel/urinary fistulas.

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  • (PMID = 16426668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Reubi JC, Waser B: Concomitant expression of several peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumours: molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2003 May;30(5):781-93
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  • Peptide receptors have been found to represent excellent targets for in vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy.
  • Recent in vitro studies have shown that many cancers can overexpress not only one but several peptide receptors concomitantly.
  • One of the challenges for nuclear medicine in this field in the coming decade will be to take advantage of the co-expression of peptide receptors for multireceptor tumour targeting.
  • Ileal carcinoids expressed sst(2) and VPAC(1) receptors in virtually all cases and had CCK(1), CCK(2), sst(1) or sst(5) in approximately half of the cases; they were the only tumours of this series to express NMB receptors.
  • These data provide evidence for the vast biological diversity of these neuroendocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Receptors, Peptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor. Humans. Receptors, Bombesin / metabolism. Receptors, Cholecystokinin / metabolism. Receptors, Glucagon / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12707737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLP1R protein, human; 0 / Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor; 0 / Receptors, Bombesin; 0 / Receptors, Cholecystokinin; 0 / Receptors, Glucagon; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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4. Chrétien Y, Oudard S, Durdux C: [Bladder cancer: realities and perspectives]. Bull Cancer; 2003 Jan;90(1):61-7
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  • [Title] [Bladder cancer: realities and perspectives].
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans les cancers de la vessie.
  • Bladder cancer is an urologic common tumor after prostatic carcinoma.
  • Treatment of bladder cancer requires an interdisdisciplinary approach, including urologist, medical oncologist and radiation oncologist.
  • At present, ileal reconstructions could be largely proposed, in men as in women, for better quality of life.
  • Recently, new drugs like paclitaxel, gemcitabine or Herceptin are available to improve the management of metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 12609806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4551
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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5. Tóth L, Nemes Z, Gomba S, Asztalos L, Molnár C, András C, Szentirmay Z, Molnár P: Primary rhabdoid cancer of the ileum: a case report and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Feb 15;206(2):110-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary rhabdoid cancer of the ileum: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Since the first publication of a rhabdoid cancer, described as an infrequent variant of Wilms' tumor, several cases of extrarenal rhabdoid tumor have been reported in the literature.
  • Here, we report on a primary rhabdoid cancer of the small intestine, and give a review of the data available in the literature.
  • An 81-year-old male patient was admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with subileus and bloody stools.
  • Ileus-mandated laparotomy disclosed an obstructive tumor of the ileum.
  • The cancer cells were round-to-polygonal, and scattered bizarre pleomorphic cells with prominent nucleoli were common.
  • A thorough search of the literature revealed additional 22 cases of primary rhabdoid GI cancers.
  • This report aims to call the pathologist's attention to the differential diagnostic importance of this entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19369011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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6. Muto A, Ashino Y, Miyazawa M, Sato M, Kanno A, Kawahara Y, Fujita Y, Matsushiro T: [Home anti-cancer therapy with a venous port]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Dec;27 Suppl 3:619-22
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  • [Title] [Home anti-cancer therapy with a venous port].
  • Home anti-cancer chemotherapy and palliation in the terminal stage were performed for patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system, using a venous port implanted beneath the skin via the subclavian vein.
  • Patients under 75 years of age (5 with esophageal, 61 gastric, 59 colorectal, 5 cholangio, 5 pancreatic, 1 hepatic and 1 ileal cancer) were treated.
  • Therefore, the present technique is useful in a series of cancer treatments including surgery, chemotherapy and the amelioration of symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infusion Pumps, Implantable / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Costs and Cost Analysis. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11190304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen
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7. Jäger M, Schoberth A, Ruf P, Hess J, Lindhofer H: The trifunctional antibody ertumaxomab destroys tumor cells that express low levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;69(10):4270-6
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  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is an important target for the treatment of the breast cancers in which it is overexpressed.
  • However, no approved anti-HER2/neu therapy is available for the majority of breast cancer patients, who express HER2/neu at low levels (with scores of 1+ or 2+/fluorescence in situ hybridization-negative).
  • In a phase I trial with metastatic breast cancer patients, ertumaxomab could be applied safely and resulted in radiographically confirmed clinical responses.
  • In this study, we compare ertumaxomab- and trastuzumab-mediated killing of cancer cell lines that express HER2/neu at low and high levels.
  • The ability of ertumaxomab to induce cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, including those with low HER2/neu antigen density, may provide a novel therapeutic option for breast cancer patients who are not eligible for trastuzumab treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19435924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bispecific; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / ertumaxomab; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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8. Oble DA, Mino-Kenudson M, Goldsmith J, Hodi FS, Seliem RM, Dranoff G, Mihm M, Hasserjian R, Lauwers GY: Alpha-CTLA-4 mAb-associated panenteritis: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Aug;32(8):1130-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) molecule are used as an adjuvant to experimental tumor immunization protocols in the treatment of malignant melanomas and ovarian cancers.
  • Cryptitis and glandular inflammation were observed in the colon, ileum, and stomach, whereas villous blunting was present in the ileal and duodenal mucosa.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antigens, CD / immunology. Gastric Mucosa / drug effects. Gastroenteritis / chemically induced. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. CTLA-4 Antigen. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Diarrhea / immunology. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / immunology. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome






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