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1. Buss A, Assmus A, Weidemann J, Sellhaus B, Lorenzen J, Block F: [Diagnosis of an initial infratentorial central nervous system B-cell lymphoma during prolonged cortisone medication]. Nervenarzt; 2004 Dec;75(12):1217-21
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis of an initial infratentorial central nervous system B-cell lymphoma during prolonged cortisone medication].
  • Four months later, his health status had deteriorated, and at that time diagnostic methods pointed to a cerebral lymphoma.
  • Stereotactic biopsy with subsequent immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a highly malignant B-cell lymphoma of the CNS, despite prolonged corticosteroid treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System / diagnosis. Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Encephalitis / diagnosis. Encephalitis / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15224176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents
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2. Nejat F, El Khashab M, Rutka JT: Initial management of childhood brain tumors: neurosurgical considerations. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1136-48
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  • [Title] Initial management of childhood brain tumors: neurosurgical considerations.
  • Intracranial tumors are the most common solid tumors in children.
  • The infratentorial compartment will be the primary site for 60% to 70% of these tumors, including astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas.
  • Several technological advancements have increased our knowledge of the cell biology of pediatric brain tumors, facilitated earlier diagnosis, and improved neurosurgical resections while minimizing neurological deficits.
  • These in turn have not only improved the survival of children with brain tumors but also their quality of life.
  • We review current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and outcome for children harboring the most common pediatric brain tumors: astrocytomas (low-grade and high-grade glioma), ependymoma, medulloblastoma, and craniopharyngioma.
  • The emphasis will be on the neurosurgical management of children with these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18952580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS487102; NLM/ PMC3714852
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3. Roberts-Thomson R, Rosenthal MA, Gonzales M, Drummond K: Brain metastases in hormone refractory prostate cancer: a changing natural history? Intern Med J; 2009 Mar;39(3):205-6
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  • [Title] Brain metastases in hormone refractory prostate cancer: a changing natural history?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Infratentorial Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male


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4. Reddy AT, Janss AJ, Phillips PC, Weiss HL, Packer RJ: Outcome for children with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Cancer; 2000 May 1;88(9):2189-93
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  • [Title] Outcome for children with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The outcome of a child with a primitive neuroectodermal tumors arising supratentorially (SPNET) is not well characterized and may differ from the outcome of a patient with a histologically similar cerebellar tumor (medulloblastoma [MB]).
  • Tumor location included was 13 pineal, 6 cortical, and 3 thalamic or suprasellar.
  • There was no statistical association between tumor location and survival.
  • This suggests that there may be biologic differences between supratentorial and infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, thus requiring refinements in treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cranial Irradiation. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / radiation effects. Cerebral Cortex / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Linear Models. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Pinealoma / drug therapy. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Pinealoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thalamic Diseases / drug therapy. Thalamic Diseases / radiotherapy. Thalamic Diseases / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10813733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Hashizume R, Gupta N, Berger MS, Banerjee A, Prados MD, Ayers-Ringler J, James CD, VandenBerg SR: Morphologic and molecular characterization of ATRT xenografts adapted for orthotopic therapeutic testing. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Apr;12(4):366-76
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  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a malignant tumor of the central nervous system that most commonly arises in young children.
  • Large clinical trials that could test new therapeutic agents are difficult to conduct due to the low incidence of this cancer.
  • Our results indicate that following supratentorial or infratentorial injection in athymic mice, ATRT cells produce rapidly growing tumors, often with intraventricular spread or neuraxis dissemination.
  • When established as orthotopic xenografts, the tumors predominantly display cells with a rhabdoid-like cellular morphology that show a spectrum of immunophenotypes similar to primary ATRT tumors.
  • These data suggest that an orthotopic ATRT xenograft model, in which BLI is used for monitoring tumor growth and response to therapy, should contribute to the identification of effective therapeutics and regimens for treating this highly aggressive pediatric brain tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20308314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA097257
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940601
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6. Zhou L, Li Q, Luo L, Xu J, Zhang Y, Chen T, Wei Y, You C: Radiological features of craniopharyngiomas located in the posterior fossa. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Dec 15;287(1-2):119-25
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  • Seven tumors were of retrochiasmatic origin and 5 of 7 were of retrostalk growth pattern with location in the ventral area of brain stem.
  • On CT scans, tumors were isodense in solid component and hypodense in cystic component with (4/7) or without calcification (3 /7) and destruction in sellae turcia (2/7).
  • Tumors demonstrated cyst formation (7/7) with hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging in 5 cases, hyperintense both on T1- and T2-weighted imaging in 2 cases.
  • The solid components and capsule revealed mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement after administration of contrast agents.
  • Total tumor removal was accomplished in 5 cases, subtotal removal and partial removal in 1 case respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PFCPs are well demarcated, contrast-enhanced tumors, typically with cystic parts or purely cyst.
  • Tumor with cystic component arises from sellar region and then extends to posterior fossa, which should be strongly suspected as a PFCP.
  • The combined supra- and infratentorial approach is an ideal choice for surgical management of PFCP.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19758604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5883
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Sandberg DI, Crandall KM, Koru-Sengul T, Padgett KR, Landrum J, Babino D, Petito CK, Solano J, Gonzalez-Brito M, Kuluz JW: Pharmacokinetic analysis of etoposide distribution after administration directly into the fourth ventricle in a piglet model. J Neurooncol; 2010 Mar;97(1):25-32
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  • We hypothesize that infusion of chemotherapeutic agents directly into the fourth ventricle potentially may play a role in treating malignant posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • Piglets underwent daily neurological examinations, a 4.7 Tesla MRI scan, and then were sacrificed for post-mortem brain examination.
  • Serum etoposide was absent at two and four hours after intraventricular infusions in all animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / pharmacokinetics. Fourth Ventricle / drug effects. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Area Under Curve. Cell Count. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Confidence Intervals. Disease Models, Animal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neurologic Examination / methods. Swine. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19688296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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8. Soetrisno E, Tjahjadi G: Pathological aspects of brain tumors. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 May;27 Suppl 2:274-8
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  • [Title] Pathological aspects of brain tumors.
  • Brain tumors based on their histogenesis, consist of all tumors, derive from the entirely tissue in the intracranial space, both from the neuro-ectodermal/neuro-epithelial tissue and the mesenchymal tissue.
  • By their location they can be divided into infratentorial or supratentorial, and further into deep vs. superficial.
  • The interesting and unique, there are age distribution or location-sex specificity of some brain tumors (BT).
  • WHO Histopathological Typing of Tumors by the CNS, also showing progress on both of their members and new special types of some BT, especially for the meningiomas and neuro-epithelial/neuroglial type.
  • Periodic investigations by the Department of Anatomic Pathology, the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia did not show major changes in their BT types, but there was on their tumors ranging.
  • Astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforma) for a while was replaced by meningioma as the most common CNS/Intracranial tumor.
  • Diagnostic problems could be caused by tissue- or cell-sampling errors, which are influenced by the tumor location itself.
  • Thus, neurosurgeons encounter problems to pick biopsy intraoperative, or by mishandling by the laboratory of anatomic pathology.
  • Formerly, as final diagnosis, grading of CNS tumors must be put according to the Clinical interest for further management of the patient.
  • CNS grading ranges from grade I (benign looking) to IV (malignant).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10895165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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9. Cohen KJ, Broniscer A, Glod J: Pediatric glial tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Dec;2(6):529-36
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  • [Title] Pediatric glial tumors.
  • Glial neoplasms in children comprise many heterogeneous tumors that include pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas, ependymomas, and the diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
  • In contrast to adults, most of whom present with high-grade fibrillary neoplasms, alternate histologies represent most cases seen in the pediatric setting.
  • In addition, although most adult gliomas are supratentorial in location, in pediatrics infratentorial tumors (posterior fossa and brain stem) predominate.
  • We discuss three specific tumors: diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas; pilocytic astrocytomas; and ependymomas.
  • This therapy also is used in the treatment of pontine gliomas because radiation treatment appears to slow inevitable tumor progression.
  • Radiation therapy in pilocytic astrocytomas is generally reserved for patients who progress after an initial surgical resection or for those patients with midline tumors; these patients are poor candidates for aggressive surgical resection.
  • The role of chemotherapy in these tumors is in evolution.
  • Despite the application of various chemotherapeutics and other biologic agents, none of these therapies has improved the prognosis for patients with the uniformly lethal pontine glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care. Pons. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12057098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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10. Rivera E, Meyers C, Groves M, Valero V, Francis D, Arun B, Broglio K, Yin G, Hortobagyi GN, Buchholz T: Phase I study of capecitabine in combination with temozolomide in the treatment of patients with brain metastases from breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1348-54
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  • BACKGROUND: A single-institution Phase I clinical trial was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and define the safety profile of temozolomide and capecitabine when used in combination to treat brain metastases from breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients were eligible if they had bidimensionally measurable supratentorial or infratentorial brain metastasis from histologically confirmed breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Cohort Studies. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / chemically induced

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16909414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Hurwitz CA, Strauss LC, Kepner J, Kretschmar C, Harris MB, Friedman H, Kun L, Kadota R: Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jun-Jul;23(5):277-81
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and define the toxicity of paclitaxel given at a dosage of 350 mg/m2 every 3 weeks as a 24-hour continuous infusion to children with recurrent or progressive primary brain tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three eligible patients, ages 4 months to 19 years, with progressive or recurrent primary brain tumors were treated according to a Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) phase II protocol with paclitaxel (POG 9330).
  • Tumor histologic strata included: astrocytoma (n = 4), malignant glioma (n = 13), medulloblastoma (n = 16), brain stem glioma (n = 15), ependymoma (n = 13), and miscellaneous histologies (n = 12).
  • All patients had previous histologic confirmation of a primary intracranial or spinal cord tumor with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography documentation of unequivocally measurable progressive or recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel is well tolerated in children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors at this dosage and schedule and may result in short-term disease stabilization in this patient population.
  • The lack of a significant number of patients with measurable disease regression, however, precludes it from being identified as an active agent when administered as a single agent by 24-hour continuous infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Drug Hypersensitivity / prevention & control. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11464982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15525; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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12. Lutz RJ, Warren K, Balis F, Patronas N, Dedrick RL: Mixing during intravertebral arterial infusions in an in vitro model. J Neurooncol; 2002 Jun;58(2):95-106
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  • Regional delivery of drugs can offer a pharmacokinetic advantage in the treatment of localized tumors.
  • One method of regional delivery is by intra-arterial infusion into the basilar/vertebral artery network that provides local access to infratentorial tumors, which are frequent locations of childhood brain cancers.
  • Proper delivery of drug by infused solutions requires adequate mixing of the infusate at the site of infusion within the artery lumen.
  • Our mixing studies with an in vitro model of the vertebral artery network indicate that streaming of drug solution is likely to occur at low, steady infusion rates of 2 ml/min.
  • Streaming leads to maldistribution of drug to distal perfused brain regions and may result in toxic levels in some regions while concurrently yielding subtherapeutic levels in adjacent regions.
  • Careful thought and planning of the methods of intravertebral drug infusions for treating posterior fossa tumors are required to assure proper distribution of the drug to the desired tissue regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Models, Cardiovascular. Vertebral Artery

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  • (PMID = 12164691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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