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1. Trivedy CR, Craig G, Warnakulasuriya S: The oral health consequences of chewing areca nut. Addict Biol; 2002 Jan;7(1):115-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites.
  • In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained.
  • Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Areca / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Leukoplakia, Oral / chemically induced. Mouth Neoplasms / chemically induced. Precancerous Conditions / chemically induced. Substance-Related Disorders / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Dental Caries / prevention & control. Humans. Mouth Mucosa / drug effects. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Periodontitis / chemically induced. Periodontitis / pathology. Risk Factors


2. Bloching M, Hofmann A, Lautenschläger C, Berghaus A, Grummt T: Exfoliative cytology of normal buccal mucosa to predict the relative risk of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract using the MN-assay. Oral Oncol; 2000 Nov;36(6):550-5
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  • [Title] Exfoliative cytology of normal buccal mucosa to predict the relative risk of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract using the MN-assay.
  • The micronuclei (MN)-assay was evaluated to provide evidence for the concept of field cancerisation and to quantify the premalignant field change of normal mucosa in order to predict the individual cancer risk.
  • MN-assay was carried out in 55 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, in 16 patients with a leucoplakia and in 99 healthy controls.
  • Buccal cytosmears of healthy mucosa of the study participants were examined for the MN count per 1000 cells.
  • There was a direct correlation between tobacco abuse and increasing MN count as a sign of a cytogenetic damage of buccal mucosa cells.
  • Both buccal sites were damaged in the same degree as proof of field cancerisation.
  • Our study underscores the importance of the MN-assay as a biomarker to predict the relative cancer risk in the upper aerodigestive tract under suspicion of the individual susceptibility and the exposition to known carcinogenic agents such as tobacco and alcohol.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective / metabolism. Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Leukoplakia / epidemiology. Male. Micronucleus Tests / methods. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Predictive Value of Tests. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11036250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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3. Bornstein MM, Benguerel MC, Magnin P, Meier E, Buser D: [Oral leukoplakia. A retrospective study of clinical and histological data]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2004;114(7):680-6
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  • [Title] [Oral leukoplakia. A retrospective study of clinical and histological data].
  • In this retrospective study, the charts of 91 patients who presented with oral leukoplakia at the Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology at the University of Berne from August 1995 to December 2001 were analyzed.
  • Critical points in the evaluation included the distribution of age and gender of the patients, type and localisation of the oral leukoplakias, grade of dysplasia, presence and type of potential noxious agents, type of surgical/nonsurgical therapy, and follow-up.
  • The most frequent localisation of oral leukoplakias was the buccal mucosa (24.5%) followed by the attached gingiva in the mandible including the so-called Trigonum retromolare (17.4%) and the floor of the mouth and ventral tongue (16.8%).

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  • (PMID = 15360103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] GER
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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4. Gaeta GM, Gombos F, Femiano F, Battista C, Minghetti P, Montanari L, Satriano RA, Argenziano G: Acitretin and treatment of the oral leucoplakias. A model to have an active molecules release. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2000 Nov;14(6):473-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one volunteers, 16 men, five women, with oral leucoplakia (histologically diagnosed), were included in this double-blind placebo-controlled study.
  • The results show that mucoadhesive tablets of topical acitretin are efficacious in the treatment of oral leucoplakia without systemic side-effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Acitretin / administration & dosage. Keratolytic Agents / administration & dosage. Leukoplakia / drug therapy. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Buccal. Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Delayed-Action Preparations. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values. Saliva / chemistry. Tablets. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000 Nov;14(6):446-7 [11444265.001]
  • (PMID = 11444269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 0 / Tablets; LCH760E9T7 / Acitretin
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5. Zhou Z, Tang G, Zhong W: [Experimental study on the influence of Gynostemma pentaphyllam Mak upon point mutation of Ha-ras oncogene in blocking leukoplakia from canceration]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2000 Mar;35(2):91-4
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  • [Title] [Experimental study on the influence of Gynostemma pentaphyllam Mak upon point mutation of Ha-ras oncogene in blocking leukoplakia from canceration].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of Gynostemma pentaphyllam Mak (GP) upon point mutation of Ha-ras oncogene the molecular mechanism of GP in blocking canceration, and the relationship between Ha-ras oncogene and canceration of leukoplakia.
  • METHODS: DMBA induced carcinogeneses of the buccal pouch mucosa of the hamsters were divided into leukoplakia model group(LKG) and GP treated group(GPG).
  • Mutation of Ha-ras oncogene plays an important role in leukoplakia canceration.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras / genetics. Gynostemma. Leukoplakia, Oral / prevention & control. Mouth Mucosa / drug effects. Plant Preparations / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / administration & dosage. Animals. Carcinogens / administration & dosage. Cricetinae. DNA / genetics. Phytotherapy. Point Mutation / drug effects. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational

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  • (PMID = 11780494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-0098
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Plant Preparations; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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6. Chekalina TL, Pozharitskaia MM, Bocharova OA: [Improving the efficiency of combined therapy of patients with leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa using Phytomix-40 combined plant preparation]. Stomatologiia (Mosk); 2004;83(5):24-30
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  • [Title] [Improving the efficiency of combined therapy of patients with leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa using Phytomix-40 combined plant preparation].
  • Today leukoplakia of the buccal mucosa is regarded as a typical pre-tumorous condition, both in medicine in general and in dentistry, in particular.
  • Leukoplakia is in fact resistant to conservative treatment, and therefore search for new approaches to therapy of this disease is a pressing problem.
  • Phytomix-40 (PM-40) is a mixture of natural extracts of 40 medicinal plants developed for practical oncology.
  • PM was used in combined therapy of patients with leukoplakia with good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukoplakia, Oral / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Vitamin A / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15477836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-1735
  • [Journal-full-title] Stomatologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stomatologiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plant Extracts; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A
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7. Armstrong WB, Kennedy AR, Wan XS, Atiba J, McLaren CE, Meyskens FL Jr: Single-dose administration of Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate in patients with oral leukoplakia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2000 Jan;9(1):43-7
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  • [Title] Single-dose administration of Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate in patients with oral leukoplakia.
  • The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean-derived serine protease inhibitor and a potential cancer chemopreventive agent for humans.
  • In this Phase I clinical trial, BBI concentrate was administered as a single oral dose to 24 subjects with oral leukoplakia.
  • BBI was taken up rapidly, and a metabolic product of BBI was excreted in the urine within 24-48 h.
  • Protease activity was also measured in buccal cells to evaluate usefulness as a biomarker.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukoplakia, Oral / drug therapy. Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean / therapeutic use. Trypsin Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Chemoprevention. Chymotrypsin / antagonists & inhibitors. Endopeptidases / analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 10667462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46496; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA 62203
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean; 0 / Trypsin Inhibitors; EC 3.4.- / Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.1 / Chymotrypsin
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8. Rabinovich IM, Banchenko GV, Rabinovich OF, Ivanova EV, Sabantseva EG, Efimovich OI: [Role of microflora in diseases of the buccal mucosa]. Stomatologiia (Mosk); 2002;81(5):48-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Role of microflora in diseases of the buccal mucosa].
  • The role of microflora was studied in patients with diseases of the buccal mucosa (aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, leukoplasia, desquamative glossitis, etc.).
  • Quantitative and qualitative composition of the microflora and its sensitivity to antibiotics, antifungal agents, and bacteriophages were studied.
  • The following changes in the microflora were distinguished: dysbiotic shift, dysbacteriosis of the I-II, III, and IV degree.
  • Microbiological status of patients with diseases of the buccal mucosa is essential for the course, outcome, and prognosis of the underlying diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Glossitis / microbiology. Humans. Leukoplakia, Oral / microbiology. Lichen Planus, Oral / microbiology. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Mouth Mucosa / microbiology. Prognosis. Stomatitis / microbiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12532888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-1735
  • [Journal-full-title] Stomatologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stomatologiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents
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