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1. Dutot M, Pouzaud F, Larosche I, Brignole-Baudouin F, Warnet JM, Rat P: Fluoroquinolone eye drop-induced cytotoxicity: role of preservative in P2X7 cell death receptor activation and apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Jul;47(7):2812-9
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  • [Title] Fluoroquinolone eye drop-induced cytotoxicity: role of preservative in P2X7 cell death receptor activation and apoptosis.
  • METHODS: Corneal and conjunctival cell lines were incubated with preserved (benzalkonium chloride [BAC]) or unpreserved ofloxacin solutions for 15 minutes.
  • Several concentrations of BAC were also tested (0.0025%-0.01%).
  • P2X7 cell death receptor activation was evaluated using the YO-PRO-1 assay and apoptosis (chromatin condensation and translocation of phosphatidylserine) using the Hoechst 33342 and annexin V-FITC dyes.
  • RESULTS: The preserved solution and all tested BAC concentrations induced a significant decrease in membrane integrity, unlike the unpreserved ofloxacin.
  • Reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion productions observed for all solutions were significantly higher for the preserved ofloxacin and BAC solutions, which also induced apoptosis (chromatin condensation and translocation of phosphatidylserine) through P2X7 pore opening, whereas unpreserved ofloxacin did not.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cytotoxicity observed with fluoroquinolone eye drops seems to be caused mainly by the preservative, which induced P2X7 cell death receptor activation associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / toxicity. Apoptosis / drug effects. Benzalkonium Compounds / toxicity. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Cornea / drug effects. Ofloxacin / toxicity. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / toxicity. Receptors, Purinergic P2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Rabbits. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Receptors, Purinergic P2X7. Superoxides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16799018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / P2RX7 protein, human; 0 / P2rx7 protein, rat; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2X7; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin
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2. Nilsson L, Ng YY, Christiansen JN, Jørgensen BL, Grótinum D, Gram L: The contribution of bacteriocin to inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Carnobacterium piscicola strains in cold-smoked salmon systems. J Appl Microbiol; 2004;96(1):133-43
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  • Two plasmids present in the wild-type were lost in the variant that was also more sensitive to bavaricin and leucocin A than the wild-type indicating cross-resistance to class IIa bacteriocins.
  • The growth rate of the bac- mutant was higher than that of the wild-type at 5 and 37 degrees C but not at 25 or 30 degrees C.
  • In salmon juice the maximum cell density of L. monocytogenes was suppressed 3 and 6 log by co-culture with C. piscicola A9b bac- and bac+, respectively, as compared with the control.
  • Sterile filtered cultures of C. piscicola A9b bac- caused a limited suppression of the maximum cell density of L. monocytogenes similar to that observed when sterile buffer was added in equal amounts.
  • Semi-purified carnobacteriocin B2 caused a 3.5 log decline in viable cell count after 6 day of incubation in cold-smoked salmon juice at 5 degrees C.
  • High resistance level to carnobacteriocin B2 was observed for L. monocytogenes cells exposed to semi-purified and in situ produced carnobacteriocin B2.
  • SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Due to the emergence of resistance, a bacteriocin negative lactic acid bacteria may be more suited for practical use as a bioprotective agent against L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis. Bacteriocins / biosynthesis. Food Preservation / methods. Lactobacillaceae / physiology. Listeria monocytogenes / growth & development. Salmon / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibiosis. Culture Media. Food Microbiology. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 14678166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5072
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Bacteriocins; 0 / Culture Media; 155982-38-0 / bacteriocin B2 protein, Carnobacterium piscicola
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3. Hein I, McLean K, Chalhoub B, Bryan GJ: Generation and screening of a BAC library from a diploid potato clone to unravel durable late blight resistance on linkage group IV. Int J Plant Genomics; 2007;2007:51421
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  • [Title] Generation and screening of a BAC library from a diploid potato clone to unravel durable late blight resistance on linkage group IV.
  • We describe the construction and screening of a large insert genomic library from the diploid potato clone HB171(13) that has been shown to express durable quantitative field resistance to Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight disease.
  • Integrated genetic mapping of the field resistance quantitative trait locus with markers developed from populations segregating for Rpi-blb3, Rpi-abpt, R2, and R2-like resistance, all located on linkage group IV, has positioned the field resistance QTL within the proximity of this R gene cluster.
  • The library has been successfully screened with resistance gene analogues (RGA) potentially linked to the R gene cluster.
  • Over 30 positive BAC clones were identified and confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridisations to harbour RGA-like sequences.
  • In addition, BAC end sequencing of positive clones has corroborated two BAC clones with a very high level of nucleotide similarity to the RGA probes utilised.

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  • (PMID = 18273389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of plant genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Plant Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2216072
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4. Kobayashi S, Fujino N, Suzuki S, Yanai M: Successful treatment of refractory bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with S-1 (oral fluoropyrimidine). Respirology; 2009 Jul;14(5):771-2
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of refractory bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with S-1 (oral fluoropyrimidine).
  • Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a distinct subtype of non-small cell lung cancer for which there is no optimal therapy for non-resectable or recurrent disease.
  • This report describes a patient with BAC refractory to conventional chemotherapy but with a partial response to S-1, oral fluoropyrimidine, resulting in symptom improvement and weaning from oxygen supplementation.
  • Our observation suggests that S-1 is a novel option for the treatment of advanced BAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19659655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1843
  • [Journal-full-title] Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respirology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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5. Andela VB, Altuwaijri S, Wood J, Rosier RN: Inhibition of beta-oxidative respiration is a therapeutic window associated with the cancer chemo-preventive activity of PPARgamma agonists. FEBS Lett; 2005 Mar 14;579(7):1765-9
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  • [Title] Inhibition of beta-oxidative respiration is a therapeutic window associated with the cancer chemo-preventive activity of PPARgamma agonists.
  • We demonstrate expression and coordinate induction of PPARgamma and lipogenic enzymes (HMG-CoA synthase, HMG-CoA reductase and fatty acid synthase) in a murine lung alveolar carcinoma cell line (Line 1) treated with the PPARgamma agonist troglitazone (TRO) [0-100 microM].
  • These findings, suggest that inhibition of beta-oxidative respiration is a therapeutic window associated with the cancer chemo-preventive activity of PPARgamma agonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Chromans / pharmacology. Fatty Acids / metabolism. Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology. Trimetazidine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / prevention & control. Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Respiration / drug effects. Coenzyme A Ligases / genetics. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Fatty Acid Synthases / genetics. Fatty Acid Synthases / metabolism. Gene Expression / drug effects. Glucose / metabolism. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / genetics. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / metabolism. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mice. Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15757673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] FEBS letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chromans; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases; EC 2.3.3.10 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases; I66ZZ0ZN0E / troglitazone; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; N9A0A0R9S8 / Trimetazidine
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6. Liu HZ, Yang HZ, Mi S, Cui B, Hua F, Hu ZW: Toll like receptor 2 mediates bleomycin-induced acute lung injury, inflammation and fibrosis in mice. Yao Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Aug;45(8):976-86
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  • [Title] Toll like receptor 2 mediates bleomycin-induced acute lung injury, inflammation and fibrosis in mice.
  • Anti-cancer drug bleomycin (BLM) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) which often results in pulmonary fibrosis due to a failure of resolving acute inflammatory response.
  • TLR2 inhibition attenuated BLM-induced increase of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and reversed the immunosuppressive microenvironment by enhancing TH1 response (P<0.05) and inhibiting TH2 (P<0.001), Treg (P<0.01) and TH17 (P<0.01) responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Lung Injury / metabolism. Cytokines / secretion. Inflammation / metabolism. Pulmonary Fibrosis / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptor 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bleomycin / toxicity. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Cells, Cultured. Dendritic Cells / cytology. Dendritic Cells / metabolism. Interleukin-17 / secretion. Interleukin-23 / secretion. Interleukin-6 / secretion. Lung / metabolism. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / drug effects. Th1 Cells / drug effects. Th2 Cells / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 21348427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-4870
  • [Journal-full-title] Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yao Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-17; 0 / Interleukin-23; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tlr2 protein, mouse; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 2; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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7. White A, Kavanagh D, Stallman H, Klein B, Kay-Lambkin F, Proudfoot J, Drennan J, Connor J, Baker A, Hines E, Young R: Online alcohol interventions: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res; 2010;12(5):e62
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  • BACKGROUND: There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems.
  • Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect size of 0.66.

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  • (PMID = 21169175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8871
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical Internet research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Internet Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3057310
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8. Fabbri A, Marchesini G, Morselli-Labate AM, Rossi F, Cicognani A, Dente M, Iervese T, Ruggeri S, Mengozzi U, Vandelli A: Positive blood alcohol concentration and road accidents. A prospective study in an Italian emergency department. Emerg Med J; 2002 May;19(3):210-4
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  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine if a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of crash (>or=0.50 g/l), independently of any clinical evidence and laboratory results indicating acute alcohol intoxication, is associated with specific features of patients involved, specific types of injury, and characteristics of the accident.
  • METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, the BAC was measured in adult patients who had been injured and who were admitted to an Italian emergency department within four hours after a road accident.
  • RESULTS: BAC exceeded 0.50 g/l in 425 subjects (18.1%), but was in a toxic range (>1.00 g/l) in only 179 subjects (7.6%).
  • BAC positivity was significantly more common in men, in young subjects, in subjects driving cars or trucks, and in persons involved in a crash during night time and at weekends.
  • It was associated with higher trauma severity, but no differences were found in injury body distribution according to vehicle type.
  • In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of a positive BAC in injured patients at the time of crash was independently associated with night time (odds ratio: 3.48; 95% confidence intervals: 2.46 to 4.91), male sex (3.08 (2.36 to 4.01)), weekend nights (1.21 (1.05 to 1.41)), and age (0.92 (0.86 to 0.99) per decades).
  • CONCLUSION: In injured patients after a road accident, a BAC at the time of crash in a non-toxic range (>or=0.50 g/l) is associated with specific characteristics of crash, as well as increased risk of higher trauma severity.
  • More careful monitoring is needed in young men during weekend nights for highest risk of BAC positivity after a road accident.

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  • (PMID = 11971829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-0205
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency medicine journal : EMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1725851
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9. Dennis ML, Funk R, Godley SH, Godley MD, Waldron H: Cross-validation of the alcohol and cannabis use measures in the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) and Timeline Followback (TLFB; Form 90) among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. Addiction; 2004 Nov;99 Suppl 2:120-8
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  • [Title] Cross-validation of the alcohol and cannabis use measures in the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) and Timeline Followback (TLFB; Form 90) among adolescents in substance abuse treatment.
  • Alcohol and cannabis measures were compared and used to predict the number of past-month substance abuse and dependence symptoms.
  • MEASUREMENT: Self-report measures of days of alcohol and cannabis use in the 90 days prior to intake, peak number of drinks/joints used, peak blood alcohol content (BAC) and alcohol and cannabis abuse and dependence symptom counts.
  • (b) deteriorating reliability after reported peak BAC levels exceeded 0.50 and peak joints exceeding 19; and (c) similar and strong relationships between use measures and the number of abuse/dependence symptoms across measures and instruments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of 101 adolescents who were admitted to residential treatment for alcohol or drug dependence, the corresponding measures from the two instruments produced comparable results.
  • [MeSH-major] Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15488110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0965-2140
  • [Journal-full-title] Addiction (Abingdon, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Addiction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / 2R01AA010368; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01AA10368
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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10. West HL, Franklin WA, McCoy J, Gumerlock PH, Vance R, Lau DH, Chansky K, Crowley JJ, Gandara DR: Gefitinib therapy in advanced bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: Southwest Oncology Group Study S0126. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr 20;24(12):1807-13
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  • [Title] Gefitinib therapy in advanced bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: Southwest Oncology Group Study S0126.
  • PURPOSE: Advanced bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a distinct subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for which there is currently no optimal therapy.
  • Based on preclinical and clinical data suggesting relevance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) axis in BAC, the Southwest Oncology Group initiated a phase II trial (S0126) to evaluate the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in chemotherapy-naïve and chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced BAC.
  • The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response rate was 17%, with 6% complete responses (CRs) among 69 previously untreated patients with measurable disease, and 9% with no CRs among 22 pretreated patients.
  • Toxicity consisted mainly of rash and diarrhea, but 2% of patients died of presumed interstitial lung disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Gefitinib is an active agent in advanced stage BAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16622257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12644; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22433; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35119; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35176; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35261; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58416; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63848; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67663; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA74547; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA86780
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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11. Bertrand S, Nouel D, Morin F, Nagy F, Lacaille JC: Gabapentin actions on Kir3 currents and N-type Ca2+ channels via GABAB receptors in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Synapse; 2003 Nov;50(2):95-109
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  • [Title] Gabapentin actions on Kir3 currents and N-type Ca2+ channels via GABAB receptors in hippocampal pyramidal cells.
  • These activities appeared controversial and we therefore sought to further clarify gabapentin actions in rat hippocampal slices by characterizing K(+) currents and Ca(2+) channels targeted by gabapentin using whole-cell recording and multiphoton Ca(2+) imaging.
  • 1) We found that gabapentin and baclofen induced inwardly rectifying K(+) currents (K(Gbp) and K(Bac), respectively), sensitive to Ba(2+) and Cs(+).
  • 3) K(Gbp), K(Bac), and K(IR) currents showed some differences in sensitivity to Ba(2+) and Cs(+), indicating the possible activation of distinct Kir3 currents, independent of K(IR), by gabapentin and baclofen.
  • 4) Gabapentin inhibition of Ca(2+) channels was abolished by omega-conotoxin GVIA, but not by omega-agatoxin IVA and nimodipine, indicating a predominant action of gabapentin on N-type Ca(2+) channels.
  • 5) Gabapentin actions were linked to activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins since N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) blocked K(Gbp) activation and Ca(2+) channel inhibition by gabapentin.
  • The anticonvulsant actions of gabapentin in hippocampal cells may thus involve GABA(B) receptor coupling to G-proteins and modulation of Kir3 and N-type Ca(2+) channels.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetates / pharmacology. Amines. Anticonvulsants / pharmacology. Calcium Channels, N-Type / drug effects. Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids. Hippocampus / drug effects. Potassium Channels / drug effects. Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying. Pyramidal Cells / drug effects. Receptors, GABA-B / drug effects. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / drug effects. Action Potentials / physiology. Animals. Baclofen / pharmacology. Barium / pharmacology. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cesium / pharmacology. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Epilepsy / metabolism. Epilepsy / physiopathology. Ethylmaleimide / pharmacology. G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels. GTP-Binding Proteins / drug effects. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Male. Organ Culture Techniques. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. omega-Conotoxin GVIA / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12923812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-4476
  • [Journal-full-title] Synapse (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Synapse
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Amines; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Calcium Channels, N-Type; 0 / Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids; 0 / G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B; 1KSV9V4Y4I / Cesium; 24GP945V5T / Barium; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; 6CW7F3G59X / gabapentin; 92078-76-7 / omega-Conotoxin GVIA; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; H789N3FKE8 / Baclofen; O3C74ACM9V / Ethylmaleimide
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12. Carlini-Cotrim B, da Matta Chasin AA: Blood alcohol content and death from fatal injury: a study in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. J Psychoactive Drugs; 2000 Jul-Sep;32(3):269-75
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  • This study analyzed 5,690 toxicological screenings carried out on blood and viscera of fatally injured victims at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the Metropolitan area of São Paulo during 1994.
  • Almost half of the victims (48.3%) presented a positive blood alcohol content (BAC).
  • Few cases tested positive for drugs other than alcohol, and of those who did, the majority were positive for cocaine.

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  • (PMID = 11061677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0279-1072
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Psychoactive Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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13. Nadella P, Shapiro C, Otterson GA, Hauger M, Erdal S, Kraut E, Clinton S, Shah M, Stanek M, Monk P, Villalona-Calero MA: Pharmacobiologically based scheduling of capecitabine and docetaxel results in antitumor activity in resistant human malignancies. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun 1;20(11):2616-23
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  • Antitumor responses (n = 7) occurred in patients with hepatocellular, non-small-cell lung, and chemotherapy-refractory breast, bladder, and colorectal carcinomas.
  • Prolonged stabilizations occurred in patients with metastatic mesothelioma (n = 2), chemorefractory non-small-cell lung carcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Synergism. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Thymidine Phosphorylase / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12039922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Freimuth RR, Raftogianis RB, Wood TC, Moon E, Kim UJ, Xu J, Siciliano MJ, Weinshilboum RM: Human sulfotransferases SULT1C1 and SULT1C2: cDNA characterization, gene cloning, and chromosomal localization. Genomics; 2000 Apr 15;65(2):157-65
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  • Sulfate conjugation catalyzed by sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes is an important pathway in the biotransformation of many drugs, other xenobiotics, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
  • We then cloned and structurally characterized the SULT1C1 gene from a human genomic BAC library.
  • Because the sequence of SULT1C2 was closely related to that of SULT1C1 and because the genes for other human SULT paralogues occur in clusters, we screened the BAC clones that had been positive for SULT1C1 to search for SULT1C2 and discovered a clone that contained both genes.
  • That BAC was used to sequence and structurally characterize SULT1C2.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. COS Cells. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Exons. Fetus / chemistry. Gene Library. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Kidney / chemistry. Lung / chemistry. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Stomach / chemistry. Substrate Specificity. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Transcription, Genetic. Transfection

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10783263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-7543
  • [Journal-full-title] Genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AF186251/ AF186252/ AF186253/ AF186254/ AF186255/ AF186256/ AF186257/ AF186258/ AF186259/ AF186260/ AF186261/ AF186262/ AF186263
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA34936; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM28157; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM35720
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases
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15. Osterberg L, Levan K, Partheen K, Staaf J, Sundfeldt K, Horvath G: High-resolution genomic profiling of carboplatin resistance in early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2009;125(1):8-18
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  • [Title] High-resolution genomic profiling of carboplatin resistance in early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle to successful treatment of ovarian cancer patients.
  • Standard treatment for ovarian carcinoma is surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • In this study, we aimed to search for genes or genomic regions involved in platinum resistance in ovarian carcinoma.
  • Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to identify genetic alterations in 32 early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinomas homogeneously treated with single-agent carboplatin.
  • The arrays contain 33,370 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and form a contiguous and tiling coverage of the human genome with an average resolution of approximately 100 kb.
  • Gain in 8q was found highly associated with serous and clear cell subtypes, and an SRO was identified at 8q24.22-q24.23.
  • Identifying predictive markers of chemosensitive and chemoresistant disease would greatly help in the choice of chemotherapy in the clinic, and thus improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carboplatin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / genetics. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19617691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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16. Moxnes E, Jensen L: Drunker than intended: misperceptions and information treatments. Drug Alcohol Depend; 2009 Nov 1;105(1-2):63-70
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  • BACKGROUND: Juveniles becoming overly intoxicated by alcohol is a widespread problem with consequences ranging from hangovers to deaths.
  • It is well known that the dynamics of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is complicated by a temporary accumulation of alcohol in the stomach delaying the uptake into the blood stream.
  • We hypothesize that juveniles use an overly simplified drinking strategy, where drinking is guided by the difference between intended BAC and perceived BAC, and where the delay is not properly accounted for.
  • If so, BAC will overshoot intended BAC.
  • This hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested before; nor has the consequent and challenging educational problem.
  • METHOD: High school students made drinking decisions in a laboratory experiment employing a personalized BAC simulator.
  • RESULTS: A long stomach delay causes much larger overshoots in BAC than a short delay.
  • Written information about the delay does not reduce overshoots, pre-test experience with a simulator parameterized for a mouse does.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study warrants further studies to see if simulator training, analogies, and rules of thumb can help juveniles not to overshoot intended BAC in real drinking situations.

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  • [CommentIn] Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jun 1;109(1-3):1-3; author reply 4-5 [20137869.001]
  • (PMID = 19625144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug and alcohol dependence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Alcohol Depend
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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17. Verster JC, Wester AE, Goorden M, van Wieringen JP, Olivier B, Volkerts ER: Novice drivers' performance after different alcohol dosages and placebo in the divided-attention steering simulator (DASS). Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2009 May;204(1):127-33
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  • Subjects received alcohol to gain a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.08%, and 0.10% or alcohol-placebo.
  • Performance at all BAC levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) from alcohol-placebo, except BAC 0.02%.
  • With increasing BAC levels, subjects made more errors and reacted slower on the peripheral visual search task, but these effects did not reach significance.
  • CONCLUSION: With increasing BAC, dose-dependent impairment was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Attention / drug effects. Automobile Driving / psychology. Ethanol / blood. Ethanol / pharmacology. Reaction Time / drug effects. Task Performance and Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Auditory Perception / drug effects. Computer Simulation. Cross-Over Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Problem Solving / drug effects. Single-Blind Method. Visual Perception

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  • [Cites] Thorax. 2004 Jan;59(1):56-9 [14694250.001]
  • [Cites] J Psychosom Res. 2003 Sep;55(3):197-200 [12932791.001]
  • [Cites] Eur Respir J. 2000 Mar;15(3):590-5 [10759458.001]
  • [Cites] Thorax. 2000 Mar;55(3):224-31 [10679542.001]
  • [Cites] Sleep. 2001 Sep 15;24(6):695-8 [11560183.001]
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  • (PMID = 19125236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2072
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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18. Do JH, Kim IS, Park TK, Choi DK: Genome-wide examination of chromosomal aberrations in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Mol Cells; 2007 Aug 31;24(1):105-12
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  • The DNA microarray consisting of 4000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was able to detect chromosomal regions with aberrations.

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  • (PMID = 17846504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-8478
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecules and cells
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cells
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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19. Kläger SL, Watson A, Achukwi D, Hultmark D, Hagen HE: Humoral immune response of Simulium damnosum s.l. following filarial and bacterial infections. Parasitology; 2002 Oct;125(Pt 4):359-66
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  • [Title] Humoral immune response of Simulium damnosum s.l. following filarial and bacterial infections.
  • The time-course of the humoral immune response of female blackflies after a challenge with bacteria, different Onchocerca microfilariae species, bacterial endotoxin and microfilarial extract was investigated.
  • Strong bacteriolytic and growth inhibition activities against the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus were induced by all agents.
  • The active agent was identified to be a peptide with a molecular weight of around 4-4.5 kDa.
  • Similarities of the immune response kinetics between bacterial and filarial infections suggested that intracellular Wolbachia bacteria, released from microfilariae, could be responsible for the antibacterial response.
  • This is supported by the observation that the induction of an immune response in the Drosophila melanogaster mbn-2 cell line by the filarial extract is blocked by polymyxin B, which forms inactive complexes with bacterial LPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Infections / immunology. Lipopolysaccharides / immunology. Onchocerca / immunology. Onchocerciasis / immunology. Simuliidae / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Formation. Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / biosynthesis. Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / immunology. Cattle. Cell Extracts / immunology. Cell Line. Drosophila melanogaster. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Escherichia coli / immunology. Female. Hemolymph / chemistry. Hemolymph / immunology. Micrococcus luteus / immunology. Peptides / blood. Peptides / immunology. Time Factors. Wolbachia / immunology

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  • (PMID = 12403324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-1820
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasitology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Cell Extracts; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Peptides; 80451-04-3 / cecropin A
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20. Browne ML, Lewis-Michl EL, Stark AD: Unintentional drownings among New York State residents, 1988-1994. Public Health Rep; 2003 Sep-Oct;118(5):448-58
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  • OBJECTIVE: This study examines situations in which drownings occur (environmental risk factors) and the victims' personal risk factors (age, gender, use of personal flotation device, medical condition, alcohol or drug use) to provide guidance for future drowning prevention efforts.
  • The child usually gained access to the pool via inadequate fencing, an open or ineffective gate, or a ladder (to an above-ground pool) left in the "down" position.
  • Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) tests were positive for 44% of 250 persons 15 years of age and older for whom valid toxicology results were provided; 30% had BACs of 100 mg/dl or more.

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  • [Cites] Med J Aust. 1980 Nov 1;2(9):510-1 [7207350.001]
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  • (PMID = 12941857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Public Health Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1497570
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21. Foulk BW, Pappas G, Hirai Y, Hirai H, Williams DL: Adenylosuccinate lyase of Schistosoma mansoni: gene structure, mRNA expression, and analysis of the predicted peptide structure of a potential chemotherapeutic target. Int J Parasitol; 2002 Nov;32(12):1487-95
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  • Sequencing of the cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 1454 nucleotides that codes for a protein with a predicted mass of about 54.5 kDa.
  • Genomic analysis using S. mansoni adenylosuccinate lyase-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones revealed a gene of approximately 19.4 kb consisting of eight exons and seven introns.
  • Intron 6 was found to contain a novel 2.9 kb long terminal repeat retrotransposon with direct terminal repeats of 500 nucleotides.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation mapping localised S. mansoni adenylosuccinate lyase to the Z and W chromosomes.
  • Analysis of S. mansoni adenylosuccinate lyase mRNA expression levels using real time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that S. mansoni adenylosuccinate lyase is expressed at higher levels in the female worms than in the male worms and is expressed at different levels than other purine nucleotide salvage enzymes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenylosuccinate Lyase / chemistry. Adenylosuccinate Lyase / genetics. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Drug Design. Schistosoma mansoni / enzymology. Schistosoma mansoni / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cloning, Molecular. Exons / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Introns / genetics. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Molecular Weight. Physical Chromosome Mapping. Purines / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retroelements / genetics. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Sex Characteristics. Terminal Repeat Sequences / genetics

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  • (PMID = 12392914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7519
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal for parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AF448819/ AF448820/ AF448821/ AF448822/ BQ457430/ BQ457431
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-41197; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01-AI-55270
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Purines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Retroelements; EC 4.3.2.2 / Adenylosuccinate Lyase
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22. Desapriya EB, Shimizu S, Pike I, Smith D: Impact of lowering the legal BAC limit to .03 on teenage drinking and driving related crashes in Japan. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi; 2006 Dec;41(6):513-27
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  • [Title] Impact of lowering the legal BAC limit to .03 on teenage drinking and driving related crashes in Japan.
  • Most notably, the legal BAC limit for driving lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml.
  • The rationale for the new lower BAC limit in Japan was predicated on the assumption that drinking drivers will comply with the new lower limit by reducing the amount of alcohol they consume prior to driving, thereby lowering their risk of crash involvement.
  • The chief objective of this research is to quantify the extent to which lowering the legal limit of BAC has reduced teenager involved motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in Japan since 2002.
  • Most notably, the introduction of reduced BAC limit legislation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the number of alcohol impaired young drivers on the road in Japan, indicating responsiveness to the legal change among this group.
  • Since the introduction of the 0.03 BAC law, statistically significant decreases were observed in alcohol-related crashes, alcohol related injuries and single vehicle night time crashes among 16-19 year old drivers, as we hypothesized.
  • In comparison, the rates of total crashes, injuries and pedestrian fatalities showed no statistically significant decline or increase in the period following the introduction of the BAC law.


23. Nonneman DJ, Wise TH, Ford JJ, Kuehn LA, Rohrer GA: Characterization of the aldo-keto reductase 1C gene cluster on pig chromosome 10: possible associations with reproductive traits. BMC Vet Res; 2006;2:28
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  • RESULTS: Screening the porcine CHORI-242 BAC library with a full-length AKR1C4 cDNA identified 7 positive clones and sample sequencing of 5 BAC clones revealed 5 distinct AKR1C genes (AKR1CL2 and AKR1C1 through 4), which mapped to 126-128 cM on SSC10.
  • Comparison of sequence data with the porcine BAC fingerprint map show that the cluster of genes resides in a 300 kb region.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldehyde Reductase. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Chromosome Mapping. Female. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Nipples / anatomy & histology. Ovulation / genetics. Phylogeny


24. Ramaekers JG, Kuypers KP: Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavioral measures of impulsivity: alone and in combination with alcohol. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2006 May;31(5):1048-55
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  • Alcohol dosing was designed to achieve a peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.06 g/dl during laboratory testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Ethanol / antagonists & inhibitors. Impulsive Behavior / chemically induced. N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / diagnosis. Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System / physiopathology. Central Nervous System Depressants / adverse effects. Central Nervous System Depressants / antagonists & inhibitors. Cross-Over Studies. Decision Making / drug effects. Decision Making / physiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Double-Blind Method. Drug Interactions. Female. Hallucinogens / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Neural Inhibition / drug effects. Neural Inhibition / physiology. Neuropsychological Tests. Placebos. Psychomotor Performance / drug effects. Psychomotor Performance / physiology. Reaction Time / drug effects. Reaction Time / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16160704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Hallucinogens; 0 / Placebos; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; KE1SEN21RM / N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine
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25. Chang JM, Lee HJ, Goo JM, Lee HY, Lee JJ, Chung JK, Im JG: False positive and false negative FDG-PET scans in various thoracic diseases. Korean J Radiol; 2006 Jan-Mar;7(1):57-69
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  • Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT).
  • However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported.
  • Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan.
  • On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Diseases / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thoracic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cryptococcosis / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperglycemia / diagnosis. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Paragonimiasis / diagnosis. Tuberculoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16549957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667579
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26. Sun YH, Zhang Q, Wang JK, Cui Y: [Effects of sevoflurane on membrane permeability of alveolar capillaries in rats with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2004 Aug 22;42(16):1014-7
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  • [Title] [Effects of sevoflurane on membrane permeability of alveolar capillaries in rats with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of sevoflurane on membrane permeability of alveolar capillaries in rats with acute lung injury and the ratio of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats with acute endotoxin lung injury.
  • For the rats in group S1L and S2L, 1.0 or 1.5 minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane was inhaled with mechanical ventilation after injection of endotoxin 5 mg/kg.
  • Evans blue was not injected into 6 rats of each group in order that the 6 rats could be used for pathological examination and alveoli lavage, lung pathomorphological score of the lung, lung wet/dry weight ratio, the content of lung water, lung permeability index, content of evans blue, total amount and ratio of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were all determined.
  • RESULTS: Sevoflurane of 1.0 MAC and 1.5 MAC made lung wet/dry weight ratio and content of lung water change insignificantly; lung permeability index, content of evans blue and pathomorphological score in group S1L decreased from 4.86 +/- 0.82, 112.21 +/- 11.44 ng/mg, 9.17 +/- 0.90 to 3.98 +/- 0.50, 92.85 +/- 11.80 ng/mg, 7.50 +/- 0.96; group S2L decreased to 3.91 +/- 0.34, 96.33 +/- 8.79 ng/mg, 7.67 +/- 0.75.
  • CONCLUSION: Membrane permeability of alveolar capillaries after acute endotoxin lung injury decreased by inhalation of sevoflurane of 1.0 MAC and 1.5 MAC and pathological injury of lung tissue relieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood-Air Barrier / drug effects. Methyl Ethers / pharmacology. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Capillary Permeability / drug effects. Capillary Permeability / physiology. Endotoxins / toxicity. Female. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 15363242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endotoxins; 0 / Methyl Ethers; 38LVP0K73A / sevoflurane
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27. Jones AW: Evidence-based survey of the elimination rates of ethanol from blood with applications in forensic casework. Forensic Sci Int; 2010 Jul 15;200(1-3):1-20
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  • Reliable information about the elimination rate of alcohol (ethanol) from blood is often needed in forensic science and legal medicine when alcohol-related crimes, such as drunken driving or drug-related sexual assault are investigated.
  • The courts usually want to know the suspect's blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) at some earlier time, such as the time of driving.
  • Making these back calculations or retrograde extrapolations of BAC in criminal cases has many proponents and critics.
  • Ethanol is an example of a drug for which the Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetic model applies and the Michaelis constant (k(m)) for Class I ADH is at a BAC of 2-10mg/100mL.
  • This means that the enzyme is saturated with substrate after the first few drinks and that zero-order kinetics is adequate to describe the declining phase of the BAC profile in most forensic situations (BAC>20mg/100mL).
  • The slope of the BAC declining phase is slightly steeper in women compared with men, which seems to be related to gender differences in liver weight in relation to lean body mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Depressants / pharmacokinetics. Ethanol / pharmacokinetics. Forensic Medicine
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics. Alcohol Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / genetics. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Algorithms. Automobile Driving / legislation & jurisprudence. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 / metabolism. Drug Interactions. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Male. Sex Factors. Street Drugs / adverse effects. Substance Abuse Detection. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. Tissue Distribution

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20304569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6283
  • [Journal-full-title] Forensic science international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forensic Sci. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Street Drugs; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; EC 1.1.1.1 / Alcohol Dehydrogenase; EC 1.14.13.- / Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
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28. Hegeman J, Weerdesteyn V, van den Bemt BJ, Nienhuis B, van Limbeek J, Duysens J: Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals. BMC Res Notes; 2010;3:243
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  • BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1.
  • To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries) or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK).
  • Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol.
  • Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed.
  • Biceps femoris response times were significantly delayed from BACs of 0.035% onwards and were strongly associated with increasing levels of BAC (r = 0.6; p < 0.001).
  • Chances of hitting the obstacle were doubled with increased BACs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small.

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  • (PMID = 20863363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-0500
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC research notes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Res Notes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955582
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29. Grant SA, Millar K, Kenny GN: Blood alcohol concentration and psychomotor effects. Br J Anaesth; 2000 Sep;85(3):401-6
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  • Comparisons were made between three European drink-driving limits of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (20, 50 and 80 mg 100 ml-1) and an oral dose of alcohol 0.75 mg kg-1.
  • At targets of 20, 50 and and 80 mg 100 ml-1, the mean (SD) BAC was 22.1 (3.7), 51.5 (3.3) and 80.5 (4.2) mg 100 ml-1, respectively.
  • The peak BAC following an oral dose of alcohol 0.75 mg kg-1 ranged from 19 to 68 mg 100 ml-1.
  • In psychomotor testing, choice reaction time deteriorated with increasing BAC and showed significant differences between baseline and the 50 (P < 0.05) and 80 mg 100 ml-1 (P < 0.01) conditions.
  • Dual-task secondary reaction time deteriorated with increasing BAC and showed a statistically significant difference between all groups and baseline (oral and 20 mg groups, P < 0.05; 50 and 80 mg groups, P < 0.01).
  • Oral dosing resulted in widely variable BACs, making it difficult to assess psychomotor impairment reliably.
  • An intravenous infusion enables the BAC to be maintained within a narrow range.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Central Nervous System Depressants / pharmacology. Ethanol / blood. Ethanol / pharmacology. Psychomotor Performance / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Breath Tests. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Reaction Time / drug effects. Reflex / drug effects

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Anaesth 2001 Feb;86(2):302
  • (PMID = 11103181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0912
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of anaesthesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Anaesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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30. Murata K, Kawashima M, Inaba R: Auditory threshold reduction on alcohol ingestion. Psychopharmacology (Berl); 2001 Sep;157(2):188-92
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  • OBJECTIVE: The fact that blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is influenced by the dose of alcohol and the time of measurement suggests that the effects of alcohol may also be altered by the same factors.
  • RESULTS: The AT was significantly reduced within 30 min after the ingestion of 250 and 500 ml of beer, occurring on and after peak BAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking. Auditory Threshold / drug effects. Central Nervous System Depressants / pharmacology. Ethanol / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 11594444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3158
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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31. Kuznetsov SG, Chang S, Sharan SK: Functional analysis of human BRCA2 variants using a mouse embryonic stem cell-based assay. Methods Mol Biol; 2010;653:259-80
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  • [Title] Functional analysis of human BRCA2 variants using a mouse embryonic stem cell-based assay.
  • We describe here a comprehensive and reliable assay to test the functional significance of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) identified in the human breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2.
  • The procedure involves generation of a desired mutation in BRCA2 present in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and the introduction of the BAC into ES cells engineered for the assay.
  • These ES cells have one null and one conditional allele of Brca2.
  • First, the effect of the BRCA2 variants on the viability of ES cells is tested by Cre-mediated deletion of the conditional allele.
  • Subsequently, variants that result in viable ES cells are examined for their effect on known functions of BRCA2 using a variety of functional assays such as sensitivity to genotoxic agents, in vivo and in vitro proliferation, effect on homologous recombination and genomic stability.
  • This approach can also be used for functional analysis of variants identified in other human disease genes that result in a phenotype detectable in ES cells.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA2 Protein / genetics. BRCA2 Protein / physiology. Biological Assay / methods. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Genetic Techniques. Genetic Variation / physiology. Humans. Mice. Mutant Proteins / genetics. Mutant Proteins / physiology. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 20721749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 protein, human; 0 / Mutant Proteins
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32. Liu Q, Zhang LP, Liu WJ, Nie XB, Zhang SX, Zhang S: [Genotoxicity of drinking water during chlorine and chloramine disinfection and the influence of disinfection conditions using the umu-test]. Huan Jing Ke Xue; 2010 Jan;31(1):93-8
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  • In this study, the effects of disinfectant dosage, reaction time and the ratio of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) during chlorine or chloramine disinfection were investigated using umu-test.
  • It was found that, the genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC before disinfection ranged from 20-70 ng/L, and it increased after disinfection by chlorine or chloramines.
  • With the dosage of 3 mg/L and reaction time increasing from 0 h to 72 h, no matter for chlorine or chloramines disinfection, genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC both increased firstly, and got the maximum value at about 2 h, then decreased and got the minimum value at about 18 h, and finally increased again, and genotoxicity after chlorine disinfection (83-120 ng/L) was higher than that after chloramines disinfection (20-62 ng/L) under same reaction time.
  • Further more, effects of the different ratios of Cl2 to N of disinfectant on genotoxicity of effluent of O3-BAC were also studied.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHLORAMINE .
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  • (PMID = 20329522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3301
  • [Journal-full-title] Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Huan Jing Ke Xue
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chloramines; 0 / Disinfectants; 10599-90-3 / chloramine; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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33. Stjernbrandt A, Oström M, Eriksson A, Björnstig U: Land motor vehicle-related drownings in Sweden. Traffic Inj Prev; 2008 Dec;9(6):539-43
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  • METHODS: The cases were identified in the National Board of Forensic Medicine database and crosschecked against the official statistics.
  • One third (32%) of the drivers tested positive for alcohol (mean BAC of 2.0 g/L; range 0.16-2.6).

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  • (PMID = 19058100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-957X
  • [Journal-full-title] Traffic injury prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Traffic Inj Prev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Frère SG, Lüthi A: Pacemaker channels in mouse thalamocortical neurones are regulated by distinct pathways of cAMP synthesis. J Physiol; 2004 Jan 1;554(Pt 1):111-25
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  • Activation of beta-adrenergic receptors with (-)-isoproterenol (Iso) led to a small steady enhancement of Ih amplitude, whereas activation of GABAB receptors with (+/-)-Baclofen (Bac) reduced Ih, consistent with an up- and down-regulation of basal cAMP levels, respectively.
  • In contrast, a transient (taudecay, approximately 200 s), supralinear up-regulation of Ih was observed upon coapplication of Iso and Bac that was larger than that observed with Iso alone.
  • GABA, in the presence of the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin, mimicked, whereas N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of Gi-proteins, blocked the up-regulation, supporting a requirement for GABAB receptor activation in the potentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Clocks / physiology. Cerebral Cortex / cytology. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Neurons / physiology. Thalamus / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenylyl Cyclases / metabolism. Adrenergic beta-Agonists / pharmacology. Animals. Baclofen / pharmacology. Drug Synergism. Female. GABA Agonists / pharmacology. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / metabolism. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / metabolism. Isoproterenol / pharmacology. Male. Mice. Neural Pathways. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Receptors, Neurotransmitter / metabolism. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 14678496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3751
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Agonists; 0 / GABA Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Neurotransmitter; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs; EC 4.6.1.1 / Adenylyl Cyclases; H789N3FKE8 / Baclofen; L628TT009W / Isoproterenol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1664735
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35. Wang T, Huang W, Chen F: Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Life Sci; 2008 Feb 27;82(9-10):536-41
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  • [Title] Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
  • Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been reported to affect cancer development, but the activation of its type B receptor (GABABR) has shown contradictory effects on the progress of human carcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of the GABABR agonist baclofen (Bac) on growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo.
  • We found Bac induced G(0)/G(1) phase arrest which was associated with down-regulation of intracellular cAMP level, and up-regulation of p21(WAF1) protein expression as well as its phosphorylation level.
  • Moreover, systemic administration of Bac significantly suppressed Bel-7402 xenograft tumor growth.
  • Our data support the inhibitory effect of GABABR activation on HCC development, which would raise the possibility to develop Bac as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Baclofen / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / prevention & control. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. GABA-B Receptor Agonists. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. GABA Agonists / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay. Receptors, GABA-B / genetics. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18222491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / GABA Agonists; 0 / GABA-B Receptor Agonists; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; H789N3FKE8 / Baclofen
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36. Gotow T, Nishi T: Involvement of a Go-type G-protein coupled to guanylate cyclase in the phototransduction cGMP cascade of molluscan simple photoreceptors. Brain Res; 2007 May 4;1144:42-51
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  • [Title] Involvement of a Go-type G-protein coupled to guanylate cyclase in the phototransduction cGMP cascade of molluscan simple photoreceptors.
  • Simple photoreceptors, namely photoresponsive neurons, designated as A-P-1, Es-1, Ip-2 and Ip-1, exist in the sea slug Onchidium ganglion.
  • Previous works has shown that, of these, Ip-2 and Ip-1 respond to light with a hyperpolarizing receptor potential, caused by the opening of light-dependent, cGMP-gated K+ channels, whereas A-P-1 and Es-1 are depolarized by light, owing to the closing of the same K+ channels.
  • The present study of Ip-2 or Ip-1 cells was undertaken to identify the G-proteins that couple light to the activation of guanylate cyclase (GC), thereby leading to the opening of K+ channels and the consequent hyperpolarizing photocurrents.
  • N-ethylmaleimide and GDP-beta-S also inhibited this photocurrent, consistent with the involvement of G-proteins.
  • Mastoparan an activator of both Go- and Gi-type G-proteins, induced an outward current.
  • Furthermore, benzalkonium chloride (C(16)BAC), a selective activator of Go, dose-dependently generated an outward current similar to that induced by mastoparan.
  • Taken together, these results suggest that phototransduction in Ip-2 or Ip-1 cells is triggered by a Go-type G-protein coupled to GC.
  • Thus, this new cGMP cascade contrasts with the conventional phototransduction cGMP cascade mediated by the Gt-type G-protein coupled to phosphodiesterase, seen in the vertebrate photoreceptors and the above A-P-1 or Es-1 cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Interactions. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Ethylmaleimide / pharmacology. Ganglia, Invertebrate / cytology. In Vitro Techniques. Membrane Potentials / drug effects. Membrane Potentials / physiology. Mollusca. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Peptides / pharmacology. Photic Stimulation / methods. Wasp Venoms / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17320058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Wasp Venoms; 72093-21-1 / mastoparan; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 4.6.1.2 / Guanylate Cyclase; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP; O3C74ACM9V / Ethylmaleimide
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37. Kotzamanis G, Abdulrazzak H, Gifford-Garner J, Haussecker PL, Cheung W, Grillot-Courvalin C, Harris A, Kittas C, Kotsinas A, Gorgoulis VG, Huxley C: CFTR expression from a BAC carrying the complete human gene and associated regulatory elements. J Cell Mol Med; 2009 Sep;13(9A):2938-48
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  • [Title] CFTR expression from a BAC carrying the complete human gene and associated regulatory elements.
  • For gene therapy of cystic fibrosis though, no bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), containing the whole CFTR gene is available.
  • We have used Red homologous recombination to add a to a previously described vector to construct a new BAC vector with a 250.3-kb insert containing the whole coding region of the CFTR gene along with 40.1 kb of DNA 5' to the gene and 25 kb 3' to the gene.
  • We evaluated expression by RT-PCR in CMT-93 cells and showed that the gene is expressed both from integrated copies of the BAC and also from episomes carrying the oriP/EBNA-1 element.
  • Sequencing of the human CFTR mRNA from one clone showed that the BAC is functional and can generate correctly spliced mRNA in the mouse background.
  • The BAC described here is the only CFTR genomic construct available on a convenient vector that can be readily used for gene expression studies or in vivo studies to test its potential application in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

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  • (PMID = 18657227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-4934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 126880-72-6 / Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4498948
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38. Michels E, Hoebeeck J, De Preter K, Schramm A, Brichard B, De Paepe A, Eggert A, Laureys G, Vandesompele J, Speleman F: CADM1 is a strong neuroblastoma candidate gene that maps within a 3.72 Mb critical region of loss on 11q23. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:173
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  • METHODS: To refine the critical region of 11q loss, the chromosome 11 status of 100 primary neuroblastoma tumours and 29 cell lines was analyzed using a BAC array containing a chromosome 11 tiling path.
  • The DNA methylation status of the resulting candidate gene was determined using re-expression experiments by treatment of neuroblastoma cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and bisulphite sequencing.
  • Methylation analysis provided no evidence for a two-hit mechanism in 11q deleted cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neuroblastoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion Molecules. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Mapping. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression. Humans. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18559103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CADM1 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2442116
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39. Koski A, Vuori E, Ojanperä I: Newer antidepressants: evaluation of fatal toxicity index and interaction with alcohol based on Finnish postmortem data. Int J Legal Med; 2005 Nov;119(6):344-8
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  • In fatal poisonings involving alcohol in combination with venlafaxine, mianserin, moclobemide, or mirtazapine, the median blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ranged from 2.35 to 2.7 mg/g, whereas in those involving alcohol in combination with citalopram or fluoxetine the median BAC was 2.9 and 3.4 mg/g, respectively.
  • The BAC was significantly lower in venlafaxine-related deaths than in those involving fluoxetine or citalopram.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / poisoning. Central Nervous System Depressants / poisoning. Ethanol / poisoning. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / poisoning
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidents / statistics & numerical data. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Interactions. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Forensic Medicine. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Suicide / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15739105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-9827
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of legal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Legal Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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40. Wang CK, Chang LW, Chang H, Yang CH, Tsai MH, Tsai HT, Lin P: Pulmonary changes induced by trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, a component of cooking oil fumes. Eur Respir J; 2010 Mar;35(3):667-75
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  • Cooking oil fumes (COF) are known to be associated with respiratory diseases and risk of lung cancer.
  • Total numbers and types of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as pathological changes, and inflammatory gene modulations in the lung tissues were assessed.
  • We demonstrated that the number of alveolar macrophages in the BALF was significantly increased in tt-DDE-exposed animals.
  • Histologically, there was a dose-correlated increase in epithelial hyperplasia and granulomatous nodules at the bronchioloalveolar junctions (BAJ).
  • Although both Clara and alveolar type II cells were present in the BAJ lesion, only Clara cells were actively proliferative.
  • However, only alveolar type II cells were found in the BAJ granulomatous nodules.
  • Enhanced accumulation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), a known pro-carcinogenic factor, was also detected in many alveolar type II cells at the BAJ lesions.
  • As both BAJ hyperplasia and enhanced pSTAT3 accumulation are known risk factors associated with increased lung adenocarcinoma development, these findings suggest that tt-DDE may pose a risk in lung carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Air Pollutants / adverse effects. Aldehydes / adverse effects. Bronchioles / drug effects. Macrophages, Alveolar / drug effects. Respiratory Mucosa / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / administration & dosage. Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / adverse effects. Hyperplasia / chemically induced. Instillation, Drug. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Oxidative Stress. STAT3 Transcription Factor / drug effects. Volatile Organic Compounds

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  • (PMID = 19797125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 0 / Volatile Organic Compounds; 2363-88-4 / 2,4-decadienal
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41. Reymann S, Borlak J: Transcription profiling of lung adenocarcinomas of c-myc-transgenic mice: identification of the c-myc regulatory gene network. BMC Syst Biol; 2008;2:46
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  • [Title] Transcription profiling of lung adenocarcinomas of c-myc-transgenic mice: identification of the c-myc regulatory gene network.
  • Targeted overexpression of this gene in mice results in distinct types of lung adenocarcinomas.
  • By using microarray technology, alterations in the expression of genes were captured based on a female transgenic mouse model in which, indeed, c-Myc overexpression in alveolar epithelium results in the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma (BAC) and papillary adenocarcinoma (PLAC).
  • In this study, we analyzed exclusively the promoters of induced genes by different in silico methods in order to elucidate the c-Myc transcriptional regulatory network.
  • We determined molecular rules for transcriptional regulation to explain, in part, the carcinogenic effect seen in mice overexpressing the c-Myc oncogene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Models, Biological. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Computer Simulation. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Transcriptional Activation / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18498649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC systems biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Syst Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2430022
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42. Passler NH, Chan HM, Stewart AJ, Duran SH, Welles EG, Lin HC, Ravis WR: Distribution of voriconazole in seven body fluids of adult horses after repeated oral dosing. J Vet Pharmacol Ther; 2010 Feb;33(1):35-41
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  • Body fluid drug concentrations were determined by the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
  • Voriconazole concentrations in the bronchoalveolar cell pellet were below the limit of detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / pharmacokinetics. Body Fluids / chemistry. Horses / metabolism. Pyrimidines / pharmacokinetics. Triazoles / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Voriconazole

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  • (PMID = 20444023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2885
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Triazoles; JFU09I87TR / Voriconazole
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43. Yamamoto N, Suzuki S, Shirai A, Suzuki M, Nakazawa M, Nagashima Y, Okubo T: Dendritic cells are associated with augmentation of antigen sensitization by influenza A virus infection in mice. Eur J Immunol; 2000 Jan;30(1):316-26
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  • [Title] Dendritic cells are associated with augmentation of antigen sensitization by influenza A virus infection in mice.
  • To study the mechanisms responsible for enhanced sensitization of inhaled antigen in respiratory viral infections, we examined the contribution of dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes to the development of inhalation sensitization during infection with influenza A virus in mice.
  • The numbers of eosinophils and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were also increased.
  • These changes were not observed in animals only sensitized with OA or only inoculated with the virus.
  • In animals only inoculated with the virus, DC were immunohistochemically detected on the bronchial epithelium on days 2-5.
  • These results show that influenza virus infection induces the migration of DC to the bronchial epithelium, and that simultaneous inhalation of antigen causes the loading of antigen-peptide / class II molecule complex on DC.
  • Thus, the migration of DC in viral infection may play some role in the augmentation of antigen sensitization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigen Presentation / drug effects. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Cytokines / analysis. Immunization. Immunoglobulin E / blood. Immunophenotyping. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Lung / immunology. Lung / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C

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  • (PMID = 10602055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 9006-59-1 / Ovalbumin
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44. Shvartsbeyn M, Edelman MJ: Pemetrexed-induced typhlitis in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Oct;3(10):1188-90
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  • [Title] Pemetrexed-induced typhlitis in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Food and Drug Administration-approved as a second line, single-agent treatment of recurrent metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
  • The diagnosis is supported by the findings of bowel wall thickening on computed tomographic imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Typhlitis / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / radiography. Adult. Female. Humans. Pemetrexed. Thymidylate Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18827618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
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45. Zhang XH, Guo XN, Zhong L, Luo XM, Jiang HL, Lin LP, Ding J: Establishment of the active catalytic domain of human PDGFRbeta tyrosine kinase-based ELISA assay for inhibitor screening. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2007 Oct;1770(10):1490-7
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  • In an effort towards therapeutic PDGFR inactivation, we expressed the catalytic domain of PDGFRbeta as a soluble active kinase using Bac-to-Bac expression system, and studied the correlations between PDGFRbeta activity and enzyme concentration, ATP concentration, substrate concentration and divalent cation type.
  • Our data collectively indicated that PDGFRbeta-based ELISA assay is a new method available for screening inhibitors targeting PDGFRbeta kinase and TKI-30 is a potential novel anti-cancer agent worthy of being further investigated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Humans. Magnesium / pharmacology. Manganese / pharmacology. Moths. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17719179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / TKI-30; 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
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46. Schloegl H, Dresen S, Spaczynski K, Stoertzel M, Wurst FM, Weinmann W: Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples. Int J Legal Med; 2006 Mar;120(2):83-8
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  • When stored at 4 degrees C in airtight test tubes, EtG concentrations remained relatively constant; when stored at room temperature (RT) for 5 weeks in ventilated vials, variations of EtG concentrations ranged from a 30% decrease to an 80% increase, with an average of 37.5% increase.
  • Liver and skeletal muscle tissue of three corpses with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BAC; ranging from 0.106 to 0.183 g%) were stored for 4 weeks and analysed periodically.
  • EtG concentrations decreased 27.7% on average in 4 weeks storage at RT but EtG was still detectable in all samples with initial EtG concentrations higher than 1 mug/g.
  • Blood and liver samples of four corpses with negative BACs were stored at RT after addition of 0.1 g% ethanol, and no new formation of EtG was observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alcohol Drinking. Biomarkers / analysis. Central Nervous System Depressants / analysis. Drug Stability. Ethanol / analysis. Female. Forensic Toxicology. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Postmortem Changes. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 16059713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-9827
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of legal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Legal Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Glucuronates; 17685-04-0 / ethyl glucuronide; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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47. Walsh MJ: Bac-stat offers a bacteriostatic ring for LASIK. J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol; 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):268-9
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  • [Title] Bac-stat offers a bacteriostatic ring for LASIK.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Eye Infections, Bacterial / prevention & control. Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacteria / drug effects. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11933517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0744-7132
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ophthalmic nursing & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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48. Buron N, Micheau O, Cathelin S, Lafontaine PO, Creuzot-Garcher C, Solary E: Differential mechanisms of conjunctival cell death induction by ultraviolet irradiation and benzalkonium chloride. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Oct;47(10):4221-30
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  • [Title] Differential mechanisms of conjunctival cell death induction by ultraviolet irradiation and benzalkonium chloride.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the molecular mechanisms of conjunctival cell death on exposure to the quaternary ammonium preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation.
  • METHODS: Chang conjunctival cells, either wild-type or stably transfected with various constructs encoding antiapoptotic molecules or transiently transfected with siRNA targeting the beclin-1 gene, were exposed to BAC or UV radiation Cell death was analyzed morphologically with fluorescence and electron microscopy, and molecular mechanisms of death were studied by using immunofluorescence, cell fractionation, caspase substrates, and immunoblot analysis, with or without immunoprecipitation.
  • RESULTS: Both agents induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, caspase activation, and nuclear chromatin condensation, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptosis.
  • Both agents also induced a redistribution of Fas in plasma membrane rafts and the Fas-ligand-independent formation of a death-inducing complex leading to caspase-8 activation.
  • Stable expression of either a dominant negative construct of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or the long or short isoform of FADD-like interleukin-1-beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (FLIP) inhibited caspase-8 activation in response to both UV radiation and BAC.
  • However, these proteins, as well as permeant peptides and baculovirus p35 caspase-inhibitors, delayed more efficiently the UV irradiation-induced than the BAC-induced nuclear chromatin condensation.
  • BAC specifically activated a caspase-independent pathway by inducing the mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor.
  • BAC-treated cells contain autophagosomes/autolysosomes, a characteristic feature of autophagy, and siRNA-mediated downregulation of the beclin-1 gene, whose product is crucial for autophagy, increases BAC toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UV irradiation induces typical, caspase-dependent cell death, whereas death induced by BAC associates features of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis counteracted by an autophagic process.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / radiation effects. Benzalkonium Compounds / pharmacology. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Conjunctiva / radiation effects. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. Apoptosis Inducing Factor / metabolism. Autophagy / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Culture Techniques. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Enzyme Activation. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / radiation effects. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoblotting. Mitochondria / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 17003409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Apoptosis Inducing Factor; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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49. Meng N, Zhang SQ, Zhou NL, Shen J: Biopolymer-modified graphite oxide nanocomposite films based on benzalkonium chloride-heparin intercalated in graphite oxide. Nanotechnology; 2010 May 7;21(18):185101
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  • Heparin is a potent anticoagulant agent that interacts strongly with antithrombin III to prevent the formation of fibrin clots.
  • In the present work, poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS)/graphite oxide-benzalkonium chloride-heparin (PDMS/modified graphite oxide) nanocomposite films were obtained by the solution intercalation technique as a possible drug delivery system.
  • The heparin-benzalkonium chloride (BAC-HEP) was intercalated into graphite oxide (GO) layers to form GO-BAC-HEP (modified graphite oxide).
  • Cell culture assay indicated that PDMS/GO-BCA-HEP nanocomposite films showed enhanced cell adhesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopolymers / chemistry. Blood Coagulation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Hemolysis. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. P-Selectin / metabolism. Platelet Adhesiveness / drug effects. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Thermogravimetry. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 20378948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1361-6528
  • [Journal-full-title] Nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nanotechnology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Nylons; 0 / Oxides; 0 / P-Selectin; 0 / poly(dimethylsiloxane)-polyamide copolymer; 7782-42-5 / Graphite; 9005-49-6 / Heparin
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50. Clapp JD, Min JW, Trim RS, Reed MB, Lange JE, Shillington AM, Croff JM: Predictors of error in estimates of blood alcohol concentration: a replication. J Stud Alcohol Drugs; 2009 Sep;70(5):683-8
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  • Estimates of BAC were calculated using Matthews and Miller's formula (1979).
  • A three-category dependent variable was created based on the estimation accuracy of eBAC relative to breath alcohol concentration: accurate (within .02), underestimate of BAC, and overestimate of BAC.

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  • (PMID = 19737492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Stud Alcohol Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA013968
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2741548
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51. Lino dos Santos Franco A, Domingos HV, Damazo AS, Breithaupt-Faloppa AC, de Oliveira AP, Costa SK, Oliani SM, Oliveira-Filho RM, Vargaftig BB, Tavares-de-Lima W: Reduced allergic lung inflammation in rats following formaldehyde exposure: long-term effects on multiple effector systems. Toxicology; 2009 Feb 27;256(3):157-63
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  • [Title] Reduced allergic lung inflammation in rats following formaldehyde exposure: long-term effects on multiple effector systems.
  • This study aimed to investigate the repercussion of FA exposure on the course of a lung allergic process triggered by an antigen unrelated to FA.
  • The OVA challenge in rats after FA inhalation (FA/OVA group) evoked a low-intensity lung inflammation as indicated by the reduced enumerated number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage as compared to FA-untreated allergic rats (OVA/OVA group).
  • Treatment with FA also reduced the number of bone marrow cells and blood leukocytes in sensitized animals challenged with OVA, which suggests that the effects of FA had not been only localized to the airways.
  • As indicated by passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction, FA treatment did not impair the anti-OVA IgE synthesis, but reduced the magnitude of OVA challenge-induced mast cell degranulation.
  • Moreover, FA treatment was associated to a diminished lung expression of PECAM-1 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) in lung endothelial cells after OVA challenge and an exacerbated release of nitrites by BAL-cultured cells.
  • Keeping in mind that rats subjected solely to either FA or OVA challenge were able to significantly increase the cell influx into lung, our study shows that FA inhalation triggers long-lasting effects that affect multiple mediator systems associated to OVA-induced allergic lung such as the reduction of mast cells activation, PECAM-1 expression and exacerbation of NO generation, thereby contributing to the decrease of cell recruitment after the OVA challenge.
  • In conclusion, repeated expositions to air-borne FA may impair the lung cell recruitment after an allergic stimulus, thereby leading to a non-responsive condition against inflammatory stimuli likely those where mast cells are involved.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD31 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD31 / immunology. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / immunology. Cell Count. Cell Degranulation / drug effects. Cell Degranulation / immunology. Leukocytes / cytology. Male. Mast Cells / drug effects. Mast Cells / immunology. Mast Cells / pathology. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Ovalbumin / immunology. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19071189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9006-59-1 / Ovalbumin
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52. Bellis MA, Hughes K, Quigg Z, Morleo M, Jarman I, Lisboa P: Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy; 2010;5:5
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  • Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings.
  • Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood).
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohol Drinking / blood. Alcoholic Intoxication / blood. Drinking Behavior / drug effects. Ethanol / blood. Recreation / psychology

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  • (PMID = 20406433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-597X
  • [Journal-full-title] Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873259
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53. Zheng J, Zhang G, Lu Y, Fang F, He J, Li N, Talbi A, Zhang Y, Tang Y, Zhu J, Chen X: Effect of pulmonary surfactant and phospholipid hexadecanol tyloxapol on recombinant human-insulin absorption from intratracheally administered dry powders in diabetic rats. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo); 2010 Dec;58(12):1612-6
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  • The hypoglycemic effect caused by PS or PHT containing rh-insulin was analyzed and the area above the curves (AAC) of serum glucose levels versus time, the minimum glucose concentration (C(min)), the time to C(min) (T(min)) and the pharmacological availability (PA%) were derived from the serum glucose profiles.
  • In addition, PHT as well as PS did not change the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and N-acetyl-β-D-glucoaminidase (NAG) activity in bronch fluid which are sensitive indicators of acute toxicity to lung cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).
  • It is concluded that PS and PHT is a promising absorption enhancer for pulmonary delivery systems of large molecule drugs as rh-insulin.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Insulin / pharmacokinetics. Phospholipids / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Pulmonary Surfactants / chemistry. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Acetylglucosaminidase / metabolism. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Animals. Blood Glucose / analysis. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy. Drug Administration Routes. Humans. Hydro-Lyases / metabolism. Lung Injury / metabolism. Powders / chemistry. Rats. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacokinetics. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Trachea

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  • (PMID = 21139264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-5223
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Powders; 0 / Pulmonary Surfactants; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.2.1.52 / Acetylglucosaminidase; EC 4.2.1.- / Hydro-Lyases; EC 4.2.1.54 / lactate dehydratase; Y27PUL9H56 / tyloxapol
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54. Yelland LN, Burns JP, Sims DN, Salter AB, White JM: Inter- and intra-subject variability in ethanol pharmacokinetic parameters: effects of testing interval and dose. Forensic Sci Int; 2008 Feb 25;175(1):65-72
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  • Calculation of a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of an offence by forward or back-extrapolation, using population average values for ethanol pharmacokinetic parameters or a single estimate of individual specific parameters, ignores the possibility of inter- and intra-subject variability.
  • In order to estimate inter- and intra-subject variability in the elimination rate and absorption rate, BAC was measured over time in 12 male volunteers on 4 occasions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alcohol Drinking / legislation & jurisprudence. Automobile Driving / legislation & jurisprudence. Chromatography, Liquid. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Forensic Toxicology. Humans. Linear Models. Male

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  • (PMID = 17597320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6283
  • [Journal-full-title] Forensic science international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forensic Sci. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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55. Furonaka O, Takeshima Y, Awaya H, Kushitani K, Kohno N, Inai K: Aberrant methylation and loss of expression of O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Jun;55(6):303-9
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  • [Title] Aberrant methylation and loss of expression of O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein that protects cells against the carcinogenic effects of alkylating agents.
  • The methylation status of the MGMT gene was investigated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expression status was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 70 cases of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (pulmonary SqCC), including 23 cases of the central type and 47 cases of the peripheral type, and in 53 cases of the peripheral type of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (AC).
  • In SqCC, the frequency of MGMT methylation was 26% in the central type and 40% in the peripheral type; a significant correlation was not found (P = 0.29).
  • In AC with mixed subtypes showing MGMT methylation, the level of MGMT expression in the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) area (non-invasive status) was significantly higher than that in the papillary or acinar AC area (invasive status; P = 0.0002).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15943786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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56. May PA, Miller JH, Goodhart KA, Maestas OR, Buckley D, Trujillo PM, Gossage JP: Enhanced case management to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Northern Plains communities. Matern Child Health J; 2008 Nov;12(6):747-59
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  • Heavy drinking resulted in estimated blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) as high as .576 using the BACCUS methodology.
  • Thirty-one percent of the women entered some type of formal alcohol or drug treatment while in CM.
  • However, mean peak BACs for the heavy drinking sessions were still problematic for those who continued to drink.
  • Other measures of CM success include enrolling in school, regaining custody of children, completing substance abuse treatment, probation from the criminal justice system, substantial periods of abstinence, enrolling in programs to improve life skills, and employment.


57. McCadams JS, Daley BJ, Enderson BL: Does alcohol intoxication alter the assessment and outcome of "observation-status" trauma patients? Am Surg; 2001 Nov;67(11):1110-2
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  • We assessed the effect of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on the evaluation, outcome, and hospital charges of our observation-status trauma patient population.
  • We conducted a retrospective study over 18 months; any patient initially admitted with <24-hour observation status, Glasgow Coma Score of 15, and negative drug screen was eligible.
  • Patients were divided on the basis of BAC (BAC+ = >80 mg/dL; BAC- = <80 mg/dL).
  • For the 66 BAC+ patients (range 90-392 mg/dL) there was a strong male predominance.
  • There was no difference in diagnostic evaluation schema, delayed diagnosis, complications, cost, or conversions to full admission between the groups.
  • We conclude that evaluation, outcome, and charges of observation trauma patients are the same regardless of BAC.
  • Intoxication did not mask injury; therefore BAC+ patients do not require observation on the sole basis of intoxication if their evaluation is otherwise negative.

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  • (PMID = 11730232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Williams SA, Lizotte-Waniewski MR, Foster J, Guiliano D, Daub J, Scott AL, Slatko B, Blaxter ML: The filarial genome project: analysis of the nuclear, mitochondrial and endosymbiont genomes of Brugia malayi. Int J Parasitol; 2000 Apr 10;30(4):411-9
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  • To elucidate the structure of the Brugia genome and to provide a basis for comparison to the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, the FGP is also constructing a physical map of the Brugia chromosomes and is sequencing genomic BAC clones.
  • In addition to the nuclear genome, B. malayi possesses two other genomes: the mitochondrial genome and the genome of a bacterial endosymbiont.
  • The bacterial endosymbiont genome found in B. malayi is closely related to the Wolbachia group of rickettsia-like bacteria that infects many insect species.
  • A set of overlapping BAC clones is being assembled to cover the entire bacterial genome.
  • Currently, half of the bacterial genome has been assembled into four contigs.
  • The sequence and mapping data provided by the FGP is being utilised by the nematode research community to develop a better understanding of the biology of filarial parasites and to identify new vaccine candidates and drug targets to aid the elimination of human filariasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosome Mapping. DNA, Mitochondrial / chemistry. Expressed Sequence Tags. Filariasis / genetics. Humans. Wolbachia / genetics

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  • (PMID = 10731564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7519
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal for parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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59. Kozawa S, Yukawa N, Liu J, Shimamoto A, Kakizaki E, Fujimiya T: Effect of chronic ethanol administration on disposition of ethanol and its metabolites in rat. Alcohol; 2007 Mar;41(2):87-93
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  • Simultaneous multiline fitting was performed using mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC)-time curves fitted to the one-compartment open model with parallel first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics.
  • Chronic alcohol consumption increases ethanol oxidation and AcT metabolism in rats, as observed at high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs).
  • These effects were observed at BACs of 3.5-4.5 mg/ml, and were not observed at lower doses.
  • Thus, with general alcohol consumption, interindividual differences and intra-individual changes in alcohol metabolism may not take into account increased or accelerated metabolism due to alcohol tolerance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetates / blood. Animals. Area Under Curve. Biotransformation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Tolerance. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Models, Biological. Oxidation-Reduction. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 17517325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-8329
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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60. Lewis RA, Katz GJ, Weiss MJ, Landry TA, Dickerson JE, James JE, Hua SY, Sullivan EK, Montgomery DB, Wells DT, Bergamini MV, Travoprost BAC-free Study Group: Travoprost 0.004% with and without benzalkonium chloride: a comparison of safety and efficacy. J Glaucoma; 2007 Jan;16(1):98-103
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  • PURPOSE: To compare the safety and efficacy of travoprost 0.004% without benzalkonium chloride (BAC) to that of the marketed formulation of travoprost 0.004% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
  • Adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with qualifying intraocular pressure (IOP) on 2 eligibility visits received either travoprost 0.004% with BAC (n=346), or travoprost 0.004% without BAC (n=344) dosed once-daily each evening.
  • Patients were followed for a period of 3 months.
  • RESULTS: Mean IOP reductions, across all 9 study visits and times ranged from 7.3 to 8.5 mm Hg for travoprost 0.004% without BAC and from 7.4 to 8.4 mm Hg for travoprost 0.004% with BAC.
  • Adverse events due to hyperemia occurred in 6.4% and 9.0% of patients treated with travoprost 0.004% without BAC and travoprost 0.004% with BAC, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Travoprost 0.004% without BAC is equivalent to travoprost 0.004% with BAC in both safety and efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage. Benzalkonium Compounds / administration & dosage. Cloprostenol / analogs & derivatives. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Double-Blind Method. Female. Gonioscopy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage. Ophthalmic Solutions / adverse effects. Ophthalmic Solutions / therapeutic use. Tonometry, Ocular. Travoprost. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17224758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 4208238832 / Cloprostenol; WJ68R08KX9 / Travoprost
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61. Kim DY, Ryu SY, Lim JE, Lee YS, Ro JY: Anti-inflammatory mechanism of simvastatin in mouse allergic asthma model. Eur J Pharmacol; 2007 Feb 14;557(1):76-86
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  • Ovalbumin-specific serum IgE levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissues was measured by Diff-Quik staining and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, respectively, the expressions of CD40, CD40 ligand (CD40L), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by immunohistochemistry, the mRNA and protein expressions of cytokines in lung tissues by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or ELISA, epithelial hyperplasia by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by zymography, the activities of small G proteins, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and lung tissues by western blot and EMSA, respectively.
  • Simvastatin reduced ovalbumin-specific IgE level, the number of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the expressions of CD40, CD40L or VCAM-1, the mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, the numbers of goblet cells, activities of MMPs, and further small G proteins, MAP kinases and NF-kappaB activities in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and lung tissues increased in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice.
  • Our data suggest that simvastatin may be used as a therapeutic agent in asthma, based on reductions of various allergic responses via regulating small G proteins/MAP kinases/NF-kappaB in mouse allergic asthma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Asthma / drug therapy. Simvastatin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD40 / metabolism. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / chemistry. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. CD40 Ligand / metabolism. Cytokines / genetics. Cytokines / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Female. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoglobulin E / blood. Leukocyte Count. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Ovalbumin. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17169357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2999
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E; 9006-59-1 / Ovalbumin; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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62. Sadowy E, Matynia B, Hryniewicz W: Population structure, virulence factors and resistance determinants of invasive, non-invasive and colonizing Streptococcus agalactiae in Poland. J Antimicrob Chemother; 2010 Sep;65(9):1907-14
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  • RESULTS: GBS isolates represented 30 different sequence types (STs), grouped in four clonal complexes (CCs), and belonged to seven serotypes.
  • Serotype III was predominant (36.0%), followed by Ia, V, Ib, II, IV and VI.
  • The bac gene encoding the beta-compound of the surface C-protein was present in 17.5% of isolates.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of bacterial serotypes, alp genes and antimicrobial resistance determinants in the background of MLST-based population structure strengthened evidence of the importance of horizontal gene transfer in GBS evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Typing Techniques. Carrier State / microbiology. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Streptococcal Infections / microbiology. Streptococcus agalactiae / classification. Streptococcus agalactiae / genetics. Virulence Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. DNA Fingerprinting. DNA Transposable Elements. DNA, Bacterial / chemistry. DNA, Bacterial / genetics. Female. Genes, Bacterial. Genotype. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Phenotype. Poland. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Serotyping

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  • (PMID = 20584746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2091
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ GU318218/ GU318219/ GU318220/ GU318221/ GU318222/ GU318223/ GU318224
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / DNA Transposable Elements; 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / Virulence Factors
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63. Brophy VH, Hastings MD, Clendenning JB, Richter RJ, Jarvik GP, Furlong CE: Polymorphisms in the human paraoxonase (PON1) promoter. Pharmacogenetics; 2001 Feb;11(1):77-84
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  • Paraoxonase (PON1) is a protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that protects against oxidative damage to both low-density lipoprotein and HDL and detoxifies organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents.
  • We conducted a deletion analysis of the PON1 promoter region in transient transfection assays and found that cell-type specific promoter elements for liver and kidney are present in the first 200bp upstream of the coding sequence.
  • Sequence analysis of DNA from a BAC clone and a YAC clone identified five polymorphisms in the first 1000 bases upstream of the coding region at positions -108, -126, -162, -832 and -909.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aryldialkylphosphatase. Cell Line. Gene Expression Regulation. Haplotypes. Humans. Mutagenesis, Site-Directed. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11207034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-314X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenetics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 1 P01 ES09601; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES09883; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES07033; etc
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.- / Esterases; EC 3.1.8.1 / Aryldialkylphosphatase; EC 3.1.8.1 / PON1 protein, human
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64. Lee P, de Bree R, Brokx HA, Leemans CR, Postmus PE, Sutedja TG: Primary lung cancer after treatment of head and neck cancer without lymph node metastasis: is there a role for autofluorescence bronchoscopy? Lung Cancer; 2008 Dec;62(3):309-15
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  • [Title] Primary lung cancer after treatment of head and neck cancer without lymph node metastasis: is there a role for autofluorescence bronchoscopy?
  • BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the 5th most common cancer worldwide.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine if autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AF) played a role in the detection of second primary lung cancer (SPLC), and impact of SPLC on survival of patients with HNC and no cervical lymph node metastasis (N0).
  • METHODS: Patients with HNC(N0) referred for symptoms and/or radiology suspicious for lung cancer were assessed with AF.
  • Data on patient demographics, smoking, cancer characteristics, and outcome were prospectively collected.
  • Median age was 70 years, all were current or former smokers of 35 pack years, and 25 had chronic obstructive lung disease.
  • Forty-two SPLC were found; 12 (29%) affected the tracheobronchial tree and 30 (71%) involved the lung parenchyma.
  • Five radiographically occult lung cancers detected by AF were successfully treated with endobronchial therapy.
  • Lung cancer mortality was 24%.
  • Close surveillance with AF and CT for SPLC combined with aggressive treatment of early stage lung cancer might be a strategy to improve outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchoscopy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / drug therapy. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / diagnosis. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / drug therapy. Smoking. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


65. Zhang W, Li H, Li Y, Zeng Z, Li S, Zhang X, Zou Y, Zhou T: Effective inhibition of HCMV UL49 gene expression and viral replication by oligonucleotide external guide sequences and RNase P. Virol J; 2010;7:100
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  • The emergence of drug-resistant strains of HCMV has posed a need for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies.
  • Antisense molecules are promising gene-targeting agents for specific regulation of gene expression.
  • External guide sequences (EGSs) are oligonucleotides that consist of a sequence complementary to a target mRNA and recruit intracellular RNase P for specific degradation of the target RNA.
  • The UL49-deletion BAC of HCMV was significantly defective in growth in human foreskin fibroblasts.
  • Therefore, UL49 gene may serve as a potential target for novel drug development to combat HCMV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytomegalovirus / physiology. Cytomegalovirus Infections / virology. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / drug effects. Oligonucleotides / pharmacology. Ribonuclease P / metabolism. Viral Structural Proteins / genetics. Virus Replication / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20482805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-422X
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virol. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Viral Structural Proteins; EC 3.1.26.5 / Ribonuclease P
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2885339
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66. Tagawa M, Kano M, Okamura N, Itoh M, Sakurai E, Watanabe T, Yanai K: Relationship between effects of alcohol on psychomotor performances and blood alcohol concentrations. Jpn J Pharmacol; 2000 Jul;83(3):253-60
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  • Ethanol is a social drug and has been generally known to be a CNS depressant.
  • A large fluctuation of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is well-known to occur due to main factors such as the genetic polymorphism of the main alcohol metabolizing enzymes and the effect of blood.
  • Few studies have substantially discussed the relationship between impaired CNS activities and BAC.
  • In this study, focusing on the correlation of BAC, we investigated the acute effects of alcohol intake on cognitive performance in humans by objective evaluation methods consisting of the attention-demanding cognitive tasks.
  • With increased BAC, we observed prolongation of reaction time performances and lowering of a coordination performance.
  • From the results, we concluded that cognitive performance deteriorates with an increase of BAC.
  • Additionally, the BAC threshold that causes significant impairment of cognitive performance was estimated to be approximately 50 mg/dl (ca. 10 mM).
  • [MeSH-major] Ethanol / blood. Ethanol / pharmacology. Psychomotor Performance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 10952075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5198
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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67. Han SJ, Jeong J, Demayo FJ, Xu J, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW: Dynamic cell type specificity of SRC-1 coactivator in modulating uterine progesterone receptor function in mice. Mol Cell Biol; 2005 Sep;25(18):8150-65
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  • [Title] Dynamic cell type specificity of SRC-1 coactivator in modulating uterine progesterone receptor function in mice.
  • Regulation of gene transcription by the progesterone receptor (PR) in cooperation with coactivator/corepressor complexes coordinates crucial processes in female reproduction.
  • To investigate functional relationships between PR and steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) in distinct cell types of uterine tissue during gene transcription, we generated a new transgenic mouse model utilizing a Progesterone Receptor Activity Indicator (PRAI) system that could monitor PR activity in vivo.
  • The PRAI system consists of a modified PR bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone in which the DNA binding domain of the PR was replaced with the yeast Gal4 DNA binding domain.
  • A humanized green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) reporter controlled by the Upstream Activating Sequences for the Gal4 gene (UAS(G)) was inserted in tandem with the modified PR gene.
  • Expression of hrGFP in the uterus demonstrated that the PRAI animal model faithfully replicated PR signaling under various endocrine states.
  • Bigenic PRAI-SRC-1(-/-) mice revealed that SRC-1 modulates PR activity in the uterus in a cell-specific fashion and is involved in PR gene activation in stroma and myometrium of the uterus in response to estrogen and progesterone.
  • In contrast, SRC-1 was involved in the down-regulation of PR target gene expression in the luminal and glandular epithelial compartments of the uterus after chronic progesterone treatment.
  • Finally, we dissected the means by which SRC-1 dynamically regulates PR activity in each uterine cell compartment and demonstrated that it involves the differential ability of SRC-1 to modulate expression levels of distinct coactivators, corepressors, and PR in a cell-specific fashion.

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  • (PMID = 16135805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-7306
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD07857; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK59280
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / GAL4 protein, S cerevisiae; 0 / Ncoa1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1234322
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68. Sazanov LA, Carroll J, Holt P, Toime L, Fearnley IM: A role for native lipids in the stabilization and two-dimensional crystallization of the Escherichia coli NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). J Biol Chem; 2003 May 23;278(21):19483-91
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  • [Title] A role for native lipids in the stabilization and two-dimensional crystallization of the Escherichia coli NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I).
  • NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I or NDH-1) was purified from the BL21 strain of Escherichia coli using an improved procedure.
  • The complex was effectively stabilized by addition of divalent cations and lipids, making the preparation suitable for structural studies.
  • Analysis of the crystals showed that they are formed by fully intact complex I in an L-shaped conformation.
  • Activity assays and single particle analysis indicated that complex I maintains this structure in detergent solution and does not adopt a different conformation in the active state.
  • Thus, we provide the first experimental evidence that complex I from E. coli has an L-shape in a lipid bilayer and confirm that this is also the case for the active enzyme in solution.
  • This suggests strongly that bacterial complex I exists in an L-shaped conformation in vivo.
  • Our results also indicate that native lipids play an important role in the activation, stabilization and, as a consequence, crystallization of purified complex I from E. coli.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Calcium Chloride / pharmacology. Cations, Divalent / pharmacology. Cholic Acids. Crystallization. Dimerization. Electron Transport Complex I. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Stability. Lipid Bilayers / chemistry. Microscopy, Electron. Molecular Sequence Data. Osmolar Concentration. Protein Conformation. Sodium Chloride / pharmacology. Solutions

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  • (PMID = 12637579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations, Divalent; 0 / Cholic Acids; 0 / Lipid Bilayers; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Solutions; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 75621-03-3 / 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonium)-1-propanesulfonate; EC 1.6.- / NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases; EC 1.6.5.3 / Electron Transport Complex I; M4I0D6VV5M / Calcium Chloride
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69. Ohlsson H, Brünner N, Engelholm LH, Lundholt BK, Weidle U, Briand P, Lykkesfeldt AE: Identification of two estrogen regulated genes associated with growth regulation of human breast cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2001 Aug 20;182(1):1-11
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  • [Title] Identification of two estrogen regulated genes associated with growth regulation of human breast cancer.
  • We have identified two estrogen regulated gene products in the E(2) growth inhibited human breast cancer xenograft, T61; one showing 100% homology to the human BAC clone RP11-112E16, the other 100% homology to the human CPR3/DNJ3 gene.
  • Verification by Northern blot analyses showed an up-regulation of the BAC clone RP11-112E16 and the CPR3/DNJ3 mRNAs upon E(2) treatment.
  • Treatment of T61 tumors with tamoxifen, leading to static tumor growth, also increased the expression of the BAC clone RP11-112E16 and the CPR3/DNJ3 mRNAs.
  • A similar association between growth inhibition and BAC clone RP11-112E16 and CPR3/DNJ3 mRNA induction was observed in MCF-7 cells treated with ICI 182.780.
  • In MCF-7 cells, treatment with E(2) resulted in growth stimulation concomitant with a decrease in the BAC clone RP11-112E16 and CPR3/DNJ3 mRNA expression.
  • Treatment with a combination of E(2) and ICI 182.780 abolished the anti-estrogen induced increase in BAC clone RP11-112E16 and CPR3/DNJ3 mRNA expression, indicating that regulation of the gene products is mediated through the ER.
  • The association between growth inhibition and BAC clone RP11-112E16 or CPR3/DNJ3 mRNA expression was supported by high expression of both gene products in brain tissue.
  • Further investigations are ongoing to clarify the biological function of these two gene products.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogens / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Oncogenes / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins. Heat-Shock Proteins / drug effects. Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tamoxifen / pharmacology. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11500233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNAJA2 protein, human; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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70. Yagil-Kelmer E, Essman SC, Cohn LA: What is your diagnosis? Interstitial disease with alveolar infiltration. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Jun 15;226(12):1983-4
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  • [Title] What is your diagnosis? Interstitial disease with alveolar infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / veterinary. Cat Diseases / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / drug therapy. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / pathology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / radiography. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / veterinary. Radiography, Thoracic / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15989178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Honey D, Caylor C, Luthi R, Kerrigan S: Comparative alcohol concentrations in blood and vitreous fluid with illustrative case studies. J Anal Toxicol; 2005 Jul-Aug;29(5):365-9
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  • The Toxicology Bureau of the New Mexico Department of Health performs drug and alcohol testing on approximately 2800 medical examiner cases each year across the entire state.
  • The vitreous alcohol concentration (VAC) exceeded the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in 209 cases (71%).
  • In casework where the VAC > BAC, linear regression analysis indicated an R2 value of 0.958 (n = 209) and a VAC approximately 16% higher than the BAC.
  • The VAC/BAC ratio was more variable at lower BACs (< 0.1 g/100 mL).
  • Although VAC/BAC ratios were more consistent at concentrations of 0.1 g/100 mL and above, the overall ratio ranged from 1.01 to 2.20.
  • Of the 81 cases where BAC > VAC, a total of 24 cases indicated no vitreous alcohol.
  • Unlike the VAC/BAC data set which consisted of 97% femoral blood, the source of blood in the BAC > VAC data set was slightly more variable.
  • Of the 81 cases where BAC > VAC the blood source consisted of femoral (n = 68), heart (n = 8), pleural cavity (n = 2), carotid (n = 1), jugular (n = 1), and chest blood (n = 1).

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  • (PMID = 16105262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-4760
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of analytical toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Anal Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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72. Kemmling AK, Rubio MC, Balerio GN: Baclofen prevents morphine withdrawal irrespective of seasonal variation. Behav Pharmacol; 2002 Feb;13(1):87-92
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  • In previous studies we have demonstrated a possible interaction between the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and opioid systems involved in the antinociceptive effect of the GABAB agonist, baclofen (BAC).
  • In addition, we have demonstrated that BAC was able to prevent the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome in female, as well as male mice.
  • In the present study, we analysed the effects of BAC on naloxone (NAL)-precipitated withdrawal, during two different seasons.
  • On the tenth day the dependent animals were divided into two groups: one received NAL (6mg/kg, i.p.
  • ) 60 min after the last dose of MOR, to develop the NAL-precipitated withdrawal; the other group received BAC (2mg/kg, i.p.) followed by NAL (6mg/kg, i.p.
  • Although there were seasonal variations in the MOR withdrawal syndrome, we found that BAC prevents MOR withdrawal irrespective of seasonal variation.
  • [MeSH-major] Baclofen / pharmacology. Morphine / adverse effects. Seasons. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arousal / drug effects. Female. Male. Mice. Motor Activity / drug effects. Naloxone / pharmacology. Narcotic Antagonists / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 11990723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-8810
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioural pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Narcotic Antagonists; 36B82AMQ7N / Naloxone; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; H789N3FKE8 / Baclofen
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73. Martin G, Andriamanalijaona R, Mathy-Hartert M, Henrotin Y, Pujol JP: Comparative effects of IL-1beta and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on catabolic and anabolic gene expression in juvenile bovine chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage; 2005 Oct;13(10):915-24
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  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) to those of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) on gene expression in juvenile bovine articular chondrocytes (BAC).
  • The study analyses the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors, and the mRNA steady-state levels of the type II collagen, aggrecan core protein matrix, metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -3), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) genes.
  • METHODS: Confluent BAC cultures were treated for 3 and 24h with IL-1beta and/or different concentrations of H(2)O(2) (Protocol 1).
  • Both H(2)O(2) and IL-1beta down-regulated type II collagen and aggrecan expression and increased that of MMP-1 and -3.

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  • (PMID = 15950497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1063-4584
  • [Journal-full-title] Osteoarthritis and cartilage
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Osteoarthr. Cartil.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aggrecans; 0 / Collagen Type II; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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74. Davies AM, Lara PN Jr, Mack PC, Gandara DR: Incorporating bortezomib into the treatment of lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 1;13(15 Pt 2):s4647-51
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  • [Title] Incorporating bortezomib into the treatment of lung cancer.
  • Bortezomib, a small-molecule proteasome inhibitor, has activity in lung cancer both as a single agent and in combination with agents commonly used in lung cancer.
  • The ability of bortezomib to favorably modulate the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, along with its moderate toxicity as a single agent, provides the basis for its combination with cytotoxic agents in the treatment of lung cancer.
  • In non-small cell lung cancer, bortezomib as a single agent has limited activity but in combination with chemotherapy has shown encouraging activity without significantly adding to toxicity.
  • Bortezomib as a single agent has shown minimal activity in small cell lung cancer.
  • Although the role of bortezomib in lung cancer is uncertain, it is likely to have its greatest clinical benefit when given in combination with other therapeutics.
  • Ongoing studies are focused on optimizing the scheduling of bortezomib with chemotherapy, investigating its combination with targeted agents and radiation, and examining its efficacy in a specific subgroup, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrazines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17671158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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75. Razvodovsky YE: Alcohol and suicide in Belarus. Psychiatr Danub; 2009 Sep;21(3):290-6
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  • RESULTS: According to Bureau of Forensic Medicine autopsy reports the suicide rate increased by 41.2%, and fatal alcohol poisoning rate increased 2.1 times in Belarus.
  • Alcohol-related suicides were more affected by the restriction of alcohol availability during the anti-alcohol campaign: between 1984 and 1986 the number of BAC-positive suicide cases drop by 54.2%, while number of BAC-negative suicides decreased by 7.1%.
  • The results of time-series analysis indicated a statistically significant relationship between fatal alcohol poisoning rate and total suicides number, as well as number of BAC-positive suicides.

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  • (PMID = 19794344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatria Danubina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatr Danub
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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76. Guenoun JM, Baudouin C, Rat P, Pauly A, Warnet JM, Brignole-Baudouin F: In vitro study of inflammatory potential and toxicity profile of latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost in conjunctiva-derived epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2005 Jul;46(7):2444-50
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  • The impact on cellular viability and apoptosis in the same cell line was evaluated, to address the possible proinflammatory and/or toxic origin of the most frequent clinical impairments induced by prostanoids (i.e., conjunctival hyperemia).
  • METHODS: Conjunctiva-derived cells were treated in vitro with the commercial solutions of latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost, prostaglandin (PG)F2alpha, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC).
  • Expressions of three inflammation- and immune-related markers, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 and HLA DR, were evaluated with flow cytometry after 24 to 72 hours of contact at low, subtoxic concentrations.
  • RESULTS: TNFalpha induced or stimulated expression of the three inflammatory markers, whereas the PGF2alpha, latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost solutions did not induce an increase in these markers and even produced a marked reduction of ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 expression in those solutions most concentrated in BAC, thus suggesting a toxic phenomenon in cellular membranes induced by the preservative rather than the medication itself.
  • Cytotoxic assays confirmed this hypothesis and showed significant toxicity with prostaglandin analogues after prolonged contact, proportional to the concentration of BAC in the solution and similar to that of the corresponding concentration of BAC alone, bimatoprost having both the least concentration of BAC and the least cytotoxic in these experimental conditions.
  • In fact, their toxicity was mild and seemed to be primarily related to the concentration of BAC, their common preservative, which may be the major factor responsible for long-term ocular surface reactions in patients receiving topical prostaglandins, but most likely is not a factor in early and transient conjunctival hyperemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Cloprostenol / analogs & derivatives. Cloprostenol / toxicity. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Lipids / toxicity. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Amides. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Antihypertensive Agents / toxicity. Apoptosis. Benzalkonium Compounds / toxicity. Bimatoprost. Cell Survival. Cells, Cultured. Flow Cytometry. HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / toxicity. Travoprost. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 15980234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1; 4208238832 / Cloprostenol; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost; QXS94885MZ / Bimatoprost; WJ68R08KX9 / Travoprost
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77. Arnitz R, Ott HW, Gstöttner M, Nagl M, Scholtz AW, Neher A: A novel N-chlorotaurine-corticosteroid combination as a preservative-free local disinfectant: influence on the ciliary beat frequency in vitro. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Mar;126(3):291-4
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  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) and a corticosteroid seems to be a very promising substance for the local therapy of ENT infections.
  • As it can be used without any preservatives, the effect on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) is much less than that of products containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC).
  • Treatment with BAC lowered the CBF depending on the concentration to 96.61% of its original value with 0.04 mg/ml, to 91.90% with 0.1 mg/ml, to 63.46% with 0.2 mg/ml and to 0% with 0.5 mg/ml.
  • [MeSH-major] Androstadienes / pharmacology. Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology. Mucociliary Clearance / drug effects. Nasal Mucosa / cytology. Taurine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Cilia / drug effects. Disinfectants. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. Fluticasone. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16618657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Drug Combinations; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; 51036-13-6 / N-chlorotaurine; CUT2W21N7U / Fluticasone
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78. Grotenhermen F, Leson G, Berghaus G, Drummer OH, Krüger HP, Longo M, Moskowitz H, Perrine B, Ramaekers JG, Smiley A, Tunbridge R: Developing limits for driving under cannabis. Addiction; 2007 Dec;102(12):1910-7
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  • METHODS: An international working group of experts on issues related to drug use and traffic safety evaluated evidence from experimental and epidemiological research and discussed potential approaches to developing per se limits for cannabis.
  • A comparison of meta-analyses of experimental studies on the impairment of driving-relevant skills by alcohol or cannabis suggests that a THC concentration in the serum of 7-10 ng/ml is correlated with an impairment comparable to that caused by a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.05%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis offers an empirical basis for a per se limit for THC that allows identification of drivers impaired by cannabis.
  • [MeSH-major] Accidents, Traffic / prevention & control. Automobile Driving / legislation & jurisprudence. Cannabis / adverse effects. Marijuana Abuse. Substance Abuse Detection / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Monitoring. Humans. Psychomotor Disorders. Risk Factors. Risk-Taking


79. Ronen A, Chassidim HS, Gershon P, Parmet Y, Rabinovich A, Bar-Hamburger R, Cassuto Y, Shinar D: The effect of alcohol, THC and their combination on perceived effects, willingness to drive and performance of driving and non-driving tasks. Accid Anal Prev; 2010 Nov;42(6):1855-65
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  • BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is one of the main causes of car accidents.
  • Alcohol and marijuana are the most popular drugs among recreational users.
  • Many classify these drugs as "Light" drugs and therefore allow themselves to drive after consuming them.
  • 1) to investigate the effect of alcohol (BAC=0.05%), THC (13 mg) and their combination on driving and non-driving tasks.
  • 2) to investigate the extent to which people are willing to drive based on their subjective sensations and their perceived effects of the drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Accidents, Traffic / prevention & control. Accidents, Traffic / psychology. Alcoholic Intoxication / psychology. Attitude. Automobile Driving / psychology. Dronabinol / adverse effects. Marijuana Smoking / adverse effects. Marijuana Smoking / psychology. Psychomotor Performance / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arousal / drug effects. Attention / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Ethanol / blood. Female. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Humans. Male. Pain Measurement. Problem Solving / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20728636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-2057
  • [Journal-full-title] Accident; analysis and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Accid Anal Prev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 7J8897W37S / Dronabinol
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80. Ferk F, Misík M, Hoelzl C, Uhl M, Fuerhacker M, Grillitsch B, Parzefall W, Nersesyan A, Micieta K, Grummt T, Ehrlich V, Knasmüller S: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), two common quaternary ammonium compounds, cause genotoxic effects in mammalian and plant cells at environmentally relevant concentrations. Mutagenesis; 2007 Nov;22(6):363-70
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  • [Title] Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), two common quaternary ammonium compounds, cause genotoxic effects in mammalian and plant cells at environmentally relevant concentrations.
  • In the present study, we tested two important representatives, namely, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB) in four genotoxicity tests, namely, in the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102, in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay with primary rat hepatocytes and in micronucleus (MN) assays with peripheral human lymphocytes and with root tip cells of Vicia faba.
  • In the bacterial experiments, consistently negative results were obtained in the dose range between 0.001 and 110 microg per plate in the presence and absence of metabolic activation while significant induction of DNA migration was detected in the liver cells.
  • With BAC, a moderate but significant effect was found with an exposure concentration of 1.0 mg/l while DDAB caused damage at lower doses (0.3 mg/l).
  • The MN assays with blood cells were carried out under identical conditions to the SCGE experiments and a significant increase was seen at the highest dose levels (BAC: 1.0 and 3.0 mg/l; DDAB: 1 mg/l).
  • Both compounds also caused significant induction of MN as well as inhibition of cell division in plant cells, the lowest effective levels were 1.0 and 10 mg/l for DDAB and BAC, respectively.
  • Furthermore, the direct contact of humans to QAC-containing detergents and pharmaceuticals that contain substantially higher concentrations than those which were required to cause effects in eukaryotic cells in the present study should be studied further in regard to potential DNA-damaging effects in man.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents, Local / toxicity. Benzalkonium Compounds / toxicity. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / toxicity. Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects. Vicia faba / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Male. Micronucleus Tests. Mutagenicity Tests. Rats. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17656635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0267-8357
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutagenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutagenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 251IW5I21C / dimethyldioctadecylammonium
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81. Ko JC, Hong JH, Wang LH, Cheng CM, Ciou SC, Lin ST, Jheng MY, Lin YW: Role of repair protein Rad51 in regulating the response to gefitinib in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Nov;7(11):3632-41
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  • [Title] Role of repair protein Rad51 in regulating the response to gefitinib in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
  • Gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can block growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation.
  • High-level Rad51 expression has been reported in chemoresistant or radioresistant carcinomas.
  • In this study, we examined the role of Rad51 in regulating the response to gefitinib among different human lung cancer cell lines.
  • The H520 line (human squamous cell carcinoma) was less sensitive to gefitinib compared with the H1650 (human adenocarcinoma) or A549 (human bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) lines.
  • In contrast, transfection with constitutively active MKK1 vector could restore both Rad51 protein levels and cell survival inhibited by gefitinib.
  • Rad51 protein can protect lung cancer cells from cytotoxic effects induced by gefitinib.
  • Suppression of Rad51 may be a novel lung cancer therapeutic modality to overcome drug resistance to gefitinib.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Rad51 Recombinase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Transfection


82. Bergmann M, Barnes PJ, Newton R: Molecular regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human lung epithelial cells by interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, and IL-13 involves both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol; 2000 May;22(5):582-9
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  • [Title] Molecular regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human lung epithelial cells by interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, and IL-13 involves both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.
  • Interleukin (IL)-1beta stimulates the release of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from lung epithelial cells.
  • To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying GM-CSF regulation, we studied GM-CSF production, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels, and GM-CSF promoter activity in A549 human alveolar carcinoma cells stimulated with IL-1beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Interleukins / pharmacology. Lung / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cycloheximide / pharmacology. Dactinomycin / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Interleukin-1 / pharmacology. Interleukin-13 / pharmacology. Interleukin-4 / pharmacology. Jurkat Cells. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology. Time Factors. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 10783130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-1549
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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83. Hargreaves GA, Monds L, Gunasekaran N, Dawson B, McGregor IS: Intermittent access to beer promotes binge-like drinking in adolescent but not adult Wistar rats. Alcohol; 2009 Jun;43(4):305-14
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  • Experiment 1 tracked ad libitum beer and water consumption in group-housed rats from postnatal day (PND) 28-96.
  • In Experiment 3, adolescent (PND 30-37) and adult (PND 58-65) rats were given 20-min access to beer and their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were assessed.
  • Adolescent groups consumed more alcohol than adults and showed higher BACS that were typical of human "binge" drinking (>80 mg/dL).
  • Despite this, the correlation between BAC and beer intake was similar in both age groups.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Choice Behavior / drug effects. Choice Behavior / physiology. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19375883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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84. Nagata M: Inflammatory cells and oxygen radicals. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy; 2005 Aug;4(4):503-4
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  • In case of allergic inflammation, for example, the lung cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following antigen challenge generates superoxide anion at nanomolar concentrations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eosinophils / metabolism. Humans. Hypersensitivity / metabolism. Hypersensitivity / pathology. Neutrophils / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16101529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-010X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets. Inflammation and allergy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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85. Pavlic M, Libiseller K, Grubwieser P, Ulmer H, Sauper T, Rabl W: Another 'soberade' on the market: does Outox keep its promise? Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2007;119(3-4):104-11
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  • OBJECTIVE: Several products are being widely promoted for reduction of the concentration of alcohol in the human body.
  • One of these preparations, the fructose soft drink Outox, claims to noticeably increase the alcohol elimination rate (beta 60).
  • Periodical measurements of blood (BAC), breath (BrAC) and urine alcohol concentration (UAC) were performed.
  • The overall mean BAC difference was 0.077 g/l (BAC 0.748 g/l without vs 0.671 g/l with Outox), equivalent to 10.3%.
  • However, BAC and BrAC differences are rather a consequence of slower gastric absorption of alcohol, because Outox does not increase the alcohol elimination rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate / drug effects. Placebo Effect. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17347859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alcohol Deterrents; 30237-26-4 / Fructose; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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86. Yanochko GM, Khoh-Reiter S, Evans MG, Jessen BA: Comparison of preservative-induced toxicity on monolayer and stratified Chang conjunctival cells. Toxicol In Vitro; 2010 Jun;24(4):1324-31
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  • Preservatives are used in ocular medications to prevent microbial contamination.
  • The use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), the most widely used preservative in ocular medications, has been scrutinized with a number of studies indicating its toxicity to monolayer cultures of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of BAC and other preservatives and common components of ocular formulations on monolayer and stratified air-lifted cultures of Chang conjunctival cells.
  • Unlike monolayer cultures in which ocular medications containing BAC caused near complete loss of cell viability, stratified, air-lifted cultures were not affected by the presence of BAC in ocular medications with up to 30-min exposures.
  • These results demonstrate that stratification significantly affects cell viability of Chang conjunctival cells in response to preservatives and additives of ophthalmic preparations.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzalkonium Compounds / toxicity. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chlorhexidine / analogs & derivatives. Chlorhexidine / toxicity. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Edetic Acid / toxicity. Ophthalmic Solutions. Sorbic Acid / toxicity. Thimerosal / toxicity. Toxicity Tests

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20144907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3177
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol In Vitro
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 2225PI3MOV / Thimerosal; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid; MOR84MUD8E / chlorhexidine gluconate; R4KO0DY52L / Chlorhexidine; X045WJ989B / Sorbic Acid
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87. Nemtsov AV: Estimates of total alcohol consumption in Russia, 1980-1994. Drug Alcohol Depend; 2000 Feb 1;58(1-2):133-42
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  • Using blood alcohol coefficients (BAC), the regression coefficients are estimated using the ratio of BAC-positive and BAC-negative accidental and violent deaths in 1983-1986 in connection with the Moscow anti-alcohol campaign; the coefficients are then used to estimate consumption as a total sum of legal sales of alcoholic beverages and illegal spirits made from sugar.
  • Data were obtained of violent BAC-positive and BAC-negative deaths in 17-25 oblasts of Russia in 1981-1994.

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  • (PMID = 10669064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug and alcohol dependence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Alcohol Depend
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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88. Nemunaitis J, Sterman D, Jablons D, Smith JW 2nd, Fox B, Maples P, Hamilton S, Borellini F, Lin A, Morali S, Hege K: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene-modified autologous tumor vaccines in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2004 Feb 18;96(4):326-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene-modified autologous tumor vaccines in non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of vaccination with autologous tumor cells genetically modified with an adenoviral vector (Ad-GM) to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), we conducted a phase I/II multicenter trial in patients with early and advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Vaccines were generated from autologous tumor harvests.
  • Intradermal injections were given every 2 weeks for a total of three to six vaccinations.
  • Tumors were harvested from 83 patients, 20 with early-stage NSCLC and 63 with advanced- stage NSCLC; vaccines were successfully manufactured for 67 patients, and 43 patients were vaccinated.
  • Three of 33 advanced-stage patients, two with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, had durable complete tumor responses (lasting 6, 18, and >or=22 months).
  • Longer survival was observed in patients receiving vaccines secreting GM-CSF at more than 40 ng/24 h per 10(6) cells (median survival = 17 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6 to 23 months) than in patients receiving vaccines secreting less GM-CSF (median survival = 7 months, 95% CI = 4 to 10 months) (P =.028), suggesting a vaccine dose-related survival advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Cancer Vaccines / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autoantigens / administration & dosage. Autoantigens / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Apr 7;96(7):558-9 [15069124.001]
  • (PMID = 14970281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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89. Meyer RJ: Comment on call for worldwide withdrawal of BAC from nebulizer solutions. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 2001 Sep;108(3):469-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comment on call for worldwide withdrawal of BAC from nebulizer solutions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Agonists / administration & dosage. Benzalkonium Compounds / adverse effects. Nebulizers and Vaporizers. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Albuterol / administration & dosage. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration / legislation & jurisprudence

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  • [CommentOn] J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Feb;107(2):222-3 [11174185.001]
  • (PMID = 11544474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6749
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Agonists; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; QF8SVZ843E / Albuterol
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90. Younis HS, Shawer M, Palacio K, Gukasyan HJ, Stevens GJ, Evering W: An assessment of the ocular safety of inactive excipients following sub-tenon injection in rabbits. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2008 Apr;24(2):206-16
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  • METHODS: Rabbits were anesthetized and eyes received an ST injection of the following test excipients: carboxy methylcellulose (CMC; low [90 kDa], mid [250 kDa], and high [700 kDa] molecular weight [MW], 0.25%-1.0% w/v), polysorbate 80 (0.02 and 0.2% w/v), polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG; 0.2 and 1.0% w/v), poloxamer 188 (0.01 and 0.25% w/v), poloxamer 182 (2% w/v), benzyl alcohol (BA; 4% w/v), benzalkonium chloride (BAC; 0.02%, 0.04%, and 0.05% w/v), and methylcellulose (MC; 0.25% w/v).
  • After a 1-week observation period for clinical signs of ocular tolerability, the animals were euthanized and eyes were collected for histologic examination.
  • RESULTS: The ocular tolerability of the tested excipients were ranked as follows from the innocuous to most deleterious: saline approximately PEG (1% w/v) approximately polysorbate 80 (0.2% w/v) > CMC (0.25% w/v, 90 kDa) > MC (0.25% w/v) approximately poloxomer 188 (0.25% w/v) approximately sodium citrate (pH 9) BAC (0.05% w/v) > CMC (0.5% w/v, 700 kDa) > poloxomer 182 (2% w/v) > BA (4% w/v).
  • Microscopic findings included histiocytic infiltration (BAC, BA, CMC, MC, and poloxamer 188), heterophilic inflammation (BA, CMC, and poloxamer 182), and edema (BAC, BA, CMC, and poloxamer 182) in episcleral tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This research has evaluated the safety profile of inactive excipients that may be used to formulate new chemical entities for the treatment of ocular disease following a ST injection.
  • [MeSH-major] Excipients / toxicity. Eye / drug effects. Pharmaceutical Preparations / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Injections. Irritants / toxicity. Rabbits. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 18345993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excipients; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations
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91. Kasper K, Kremling C, Geerling G: [Toxicity of a new moistening agent and preservative in vitro]. Ophthalmologe; 2008 Jun;105(6):557-62
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  • [Title] [Toxicity of a new moistening agent and preservative in vitro].
  • PURPOSE: The use of preservatives such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC) usually increases the toxicity of pharmaceutical tear substitutes.
  • We therefore examined the effect of preserved (cetrimide 0.01%) and unpreserved HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) and HP-guar in dose and time-response experiments in a human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cell culture model.
  • The ATP content was quantified by means of a luminescence-based ATP assay, intracellular esterase activity by double fluorescent viability staining (calcein AM/ethidium homodimer D-1) and cell migration by a colony dispersion assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cetrimonium Compounds / toxicity. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Contact Lens Solutions / toxicity. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelium, Corneal / drug effects. Methylcellulose / analogs & derivatives. Ophthalmic Solutions / toxicity. Polymers / toxicity. Polysaccharides / toxicity. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Esterases / metabolism. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hypromellose Derivatives. In Vitro Techniques. Osmolar Concentration

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  • (PMID = 18214492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cetrimonium Compounds; 0 / Contact Lens Solutions; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 0 / hydroxypropyl guar; 3NXW29V3WO / Hypromellose Derivatives; 75345-27-6 / polyquaternium 1; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 9004-67-5 / Methylcellulose; EC 3.1.- / Esterases; Z7FF1XKL7A / cetrimonium
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92. Bond J, Ye Y, Cherpitel CJ, Room R, Rehm J, Borges G, Cremonte M, Gmel G, Hao W, Sovinova H, Stockwell T: The relationship between self-reported drinking and BAC level in emergency room injury cases: is it a straight line? Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2010 Jun;34(6):1118-25
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  • [Title] The relationship between self-reported drinking and BAC level in emergency room injury cases: is it a straight line?
  • BACKGROUND: While the validity of self-reported consumption based on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) has been found to be high in emergency room (ER) samples, little research exists on the estimated number of drinks consumed given a BAC level.
  • Such data would be useful in establishing a dose-response relationship between drinking and risk (e.g., of injury) in those studies for which the number of drinks consumed is not available but BAC is.
  • METHODS: Several methods were used to estimate the number of drinks consumed in the 6 hours prior to injury based on BAC obtained at the time of ER admission of n = 1,953 patients who self-reported any drinking 6 hours prior to their injury and who arrived to the ER within 6 hours of the event, from the merged Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and the World Health Organization Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injury across 16 countries.
  • RESULTS: The relationship between self-reported consumption and averaged BAC within each consumption level appeared to be fairly linear up to about 7 drinks and a BAC of approximately 100 mg/dl.
  • Above about 7 reported drinks, BAC appeared to have no relationship with drinking, possibly representing longer consumption periods than only the 6 hours before injury for those reporting higher quantities consumed.
  • Both the volume estimate from the bivariate BAC to self-report relationship as well as from a Widmark calculation using BAC and time from last drink to arrival to the ER indicated a somewhat weak relationship to actual number of self-reported drinks.

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  • (PMID = 20374201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0277
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA013750; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA013750-04A2; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R56 AA013750; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA013750-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS178598; NLM/ PMC2900453
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93. Liu Z, Guo H, Wu Y, Yu H, Yang H, Li J: Local nasal immunotherapy: efficacy of Dermatophagoides farinae-chitosan vaccine in murine asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol; 2009;150(3):221-8
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  • [Title] Local nasal immunotherapy: efficacy of Dermatophagoides farinae-chitosan vaccine in murine asthma.
  • METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with Der f extract absorbed to alum, followed by intranasal treatment with PBS, CS, Der f or Der f-CS nano-vaccine for 6 weeks.
  • The mice were subsequently challenged intranasally with Der f extract for 1 week, and we analyzed their clinical symptoms, antibody expression levels, cytokine levels, T cell proliferation and regulatory T cell numbers.
  • RESULTS: Mice treated with intranasal Der f-CS nano-vaccine prior to challenge displayed an alleviated spectrum of symptoms including airway hyper-reactivity, lung inflammation and mucus production and had fewer eosinophilic cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).
  • We also observed that IL-4 was reduced and IFN-gamma and IL-10 were increased among splenocytes and in BALF, which inhibits Der f-specific T-cell proliferation in splenocytes and increases regulatory T cells in the spleen.
  • However, the mice challenged without intranasal Der f or Der f-CS vaccine treatment developed allergic asthma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate that intranasal administration of Der f-CS nano-vaccine plays roles in immunologic protection in murine allergic asthma by inducing regulatory T cells and Th1-type reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Dermatophagoides / immunology. Asthma / prevention & control. Chitosan / immunology. Dermatophagoides farinae / immunology. Desensitization, Immunologic. Vaccines
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intranasal. Animals. Biocompatible Materials. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Nanospheres

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19494519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] International archives of allergy and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Dermatophagoides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Vaccines; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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94. Lee H, Roh S, Kim DJ: Alcohol-induced blackout. Int J Environ Res Public Health; 2009 11;6(11):2783-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context.
  • A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amnesia / chemically induced. Cognition Disorders / chemically induced. Humans. Lung Diseases / chemically induced. Memory Disorders / chemically induced. Republic of Korea / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Syncope / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20049223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-4601
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of environmental research and public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Environ Res Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 48
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2800062
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alcohol (major topic) / blackout (major topic) / memory (major topic)
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95. Li Y, Kang M, Su S, Ding J, Cui Z, Zhu H: [Evaluation the immuno-protective effect of an infectious clone of meq- deleted Marek's disease virus]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao; 2010 Jul;50(7):942-8
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  • [Title] [Evaluation the immuno-protective effect of an infectious clone of meq- deleted Marek's disease virus].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immuno-protective effect of GX0101 deltameq-BAC containing an infectious meq-null Marek's disease virus genome.
  • On day 1 of age, chickens immunized with 101 microg of GX0101A deltameq-BAC suspended in PBS, challenge infection with 500PFU very virulent rMD5 was performed at day 5 and 12 post-immunization separately.
  • RESULTS: The protective index of the two vaccines used was 87 and 33 for CVI988/Rispens and GX0101 deltameq-BAC, respectively, after challenged with the very virulent virus rMd5 at day 5 post-immunization.
  • When challenged with rMd5 at day 12 post-immunization, the protection index of GX0101 deltameq-BAC increased to 53%.
  • CONCLUSION: Except that GX0101 deltameq-BAC can confer protection against very virulent Marek's disease virus, a delay in the development of Marek's disease could be observed in some chickens vaccinated with GX0101 deltameq-BAC.
  • On the other hand, compared with CVI988/Rispens, the reconstruction of GX0101 deltameq-BAC in the body is a prerequisite for access to protection.
  • Therefore, there is a blank period after immunization, which provides a chance for infection with the wild Marek's disease virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 2, Gallid / immunology. Marek Disease / immunology. Marek Disease / prevention & control. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / immunology. Sequence Deletion
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chickens. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage. Viral Vaccines / immunology. Virulence

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  • (PMID = 20815243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6209
  • [Journal-full-title] Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eco-Q protein, Gallid herpesvirus 2; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Viral Vaccines
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96. Isaacson MK, Compton T: Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B is required for virus entry and cell-to-cell spread but not for virion attachment, assembly, or egress. J Virol; 2009 Apr;83(8):3891-903
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  • [Title] Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B is required for virus entry and cell-to-cell spread but not for virion attachment, assembly, or egress.
  • To define the function(s) of gB in HCMV infection, the BAC system was used to generate a recombinant virus in which the UL55 gene was replaced with galK (pAD/CreDeltaUL55).
  • We generated fibroblasts expressing HCMV gB that complement pAD/CreDeltaUL55 and produce infectious virions lacking the UL55 gene but containing wild-type gB on the virion surface (DeltaUL55-gB HCMV).
  • All stages of gene expression were detected, and significant amounts of DNase-resistant viral DNA genomes, representing whole intact virions, were released into the infected cell supernatant.
  • Gradient purification of these virions revealed they lacked gB but contained other viral structural proteins.
  • The gB-null virions were able to attach to the cell surface similarly to wild-type gB-containing virions but were defective in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread.
  • Glycoprotein B-null virions do, however, contain infectious DNA, as IE gene expression can be detected in fibroblasts following treatment of attached gB-null virions with a membrane fusion agent, polyethylene glycol.
  • Taken together, our results indicate that gB is required for virus entry and cell-to-cell spread of the virus.

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  • (PMID = 19193805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI034998; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01-AI034998
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 0 / glycoprotein B, Simplexvirus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2663263
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97. Kish PE, Tsume Y, Kijek P, Lanigan TM, Hilfinger JM, Roessler BJ: Bile acid-oligopeptide conjugates interact with DNA and facilitate transfection. Mol Pharm; 2007 Jan-Feb;4(1):95-103
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  • Bile acids conjugated to oligoarginine-containing peptides (BACs) form complexes with DNA based on the electrostatic interactions between negatively charged phosphate groups of the nucleic acid and the positively charged side chain guanidinium groups of the oligoarginine in the BACs.
  • Charge neutralization of both components and subsequent increases of the net positive charge of the complex combined with the water-soluble lipophilic nature of the bile acid results in changes in the physicochemistry and biological properties of the complexes.
  • We have examined the relationship of a series of 13 BACs on their interaction with circular plasmid DNA (pDNA).
  • The formation of soluble, low-density and insoluble, high-density complexes was analyzed using several methods.
  • The formation of high-density complexes was dependent on the DNA concentration, and was enhanced by increasing the BAC to pDNA charge ratio.
  • Several of the BAC:pDNA complexes demonstrated exclusion of the DNA-intercalator Hoechst 33258 from pDNA, and were also protected from DNase activity.
  • Several BAC conjugates interacted with pDNA to form nanometer-sized particles suitable for cell transfection in vitro.
  • Five of the 13 BACs were transfection competent as single agents, and 11 of the 13 BACs showed enhancement of transfection in combination with DOPE containing liposomes or silica nanoparticles.

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