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1. Dhar A, Srivastava A: Role of centchroman in regression of mastalgia and fibroadenoma. World J Surg; 2007 Jun;31(6):1178-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Benign breast disease patients up to 35 years of age attending our surgery outpatient department from August 2003 to September 2004 and fulfilling the inclusion criterion were included in this study.
  • Results were recorded as per clinical examination, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and ultrasonography for breast lump size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Centchroman is a safe nonsteroidal drug for the treatment of mastalgia and fibroadenoma.
  • It has shown good results in mastalgia and is a safe drug as compared to the drugs of choice used at present (danazole and bromocriptine).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Centchroman / therapeutic use. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Fibroadenoma / drug therapy. Pain / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17431715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 31477-60-8 / Centchroman
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2. Vuolo M, Suhrland MJ, Madan R, Oktay MH: Discrepant cytologic and radiographic findings in adjacent galactocele and fibroadenoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):211-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic evaluation of a breast mass during pregnancy and lactation often presents a challenge.
  • We report a case of a longstanding benign breast mass that was negative on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) but sonographically appeared suspicious for carcinoma.
  • CASE: A 41-year-old patient presented with a long-standing benign breast nodule that increased in size postpartum and became painful.
  • The inflammation resolved, but the original mass persisted.
  • FNA of the mass yielded thick, whitish material that on microscopic examination showed clusters of ductal cells with striking reactive, reparative and lactation changes admixed with amorphous material and crystals.
  • CONCLUSION: We suspect that in lactating patients preexisting breast masses may interfere with the milk flow, thus rendering the breast tissue around the mass prone to galactocele formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Cyst / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Feeding. Female. Humans. Lactation Disorders / etiology. Mastitis / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19365978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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3. Muneer A, Laghari ZH, Shaikh AR, Laghari QA: Gynaecomastia: management in a developing country. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2009 Jul-Sep;21(3):7-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Gynaecomastia is a benign enlargement of male breast.
  • It is common in the general population, resulting from various pathophysiological mechanisms.
  • Other causes were liver cirrhosis in 4 cases, testicular tumour in two, thyrotoxicosis in one and drug induced (use of cimetidine and Kushta) in two.
  • Carcinoma of the breast was diagnosed in one patient.
  • Most of the patients had bilateral, non tender lump in the breast.

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  • (PMID = 20929002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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4. Habib S, Maseeh-uz-Zaman, Hameed A, Niaz K, Hashmi H, Kamal S: Diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m-MIBI for breast carcinoma in correlation with mammography and sonography. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2009 Oct;19(10):622-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m-MIBI for breast carcinoma in correlation with mammography and sonography.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography (SMM) in differentiating malignant breast cancer from benign breast mass and in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison with mammography and ultrasonography.
  • PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: At the Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (KIRAN), Karachi, from December 2006 to May 2007.
  • METHODOLOGY: A total of 28 patients (both with breast lumps or/and axillary masses) included were in the study.
  • RESULTS: There were 22 patients presenting with breast lesions (20 palpable, 2 non-palpable) and 6 patients with axillary lump.
  • Scintimammography accurately predicted malignant lesions in the breast (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity.
  • A combination of scintimammography with any other imaging modality provides better results than a single test to detect breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: SMM has good diagnostic accuracy in the detection of breast cancer as well as in axillary metastasis in association with mammography and ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Mammography. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • [CommentIn] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010 Apr;20(4):289; author reply 289-90 [20392413.001]
  • (PMID = 19811712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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5. Berghammer P, Obwegeser R, Sinzinger H: Nuclear medicine and breast cancer: a review of current strategies and novel therapies. Breast; 2001 Jun;10(3):184-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nuclear medicine and breast cancer: a review of current strategies and novel therapies.
  • While breast cancer is still increasing in frequency, new diagnostic procedures are now available to challenge existing procedures and to make diagnosis of breast cancer more accurate and reliable.
  • Mammography remains the standard investigation to reveal disease in an asymptomatic population: it can also be used to diagnose breast cancer in symptomatic patients (e.g. those with palpable breast lumps) and for guiding fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • Because the majority of breast lumps are benign, the challenge is to distinguish benign from malignant lesions without the use of invasive methods and this has attracted nuclear medicine physicians and medical oncologists to investigate the role of scintigraphic procedures to identify which patients require FNA.
  • This review attempts to shed light on the various scintigraphic methods available which are of potential practical use in the assessment of malignant breast disease as well as looking at the possible role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of advanced disease.

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  • (PMID = 14965584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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6. Lewis CG, Wells MK, Jennings WC: Mycobacterium fortuitum breast infection following nipple-piercing, mimicking carcinoma. Breast J; 2004 Jul-Aug;10(4):363-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mycobacterium fortuitum breast infection following nipple-piercing, mimicking carcinoma.
  • We reviewed a rare breast infection occurring 4 months after nipple piercing.
  • Antibiotic therapy was initiated intravenously using two drugs and oral therapy was continued for 6 months.
  • A contralateral mycobacterial lesion emerged and was excised along with a residual fibrotic nodule at the original biopsy site.
  • When adequate sampling of a complex and suspicious breast mass is benign and initial bacterial cultures are sterile, mycobacterial infection should be considered, particularly when there is a history of previous nipple piercing procedures.

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  • (PMID = 15239798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Kumar S, Rai R, Das V, Kumar S, Dwivedi V, Agrawal GG: Visual analogue scale for assessing breast nodularity in non-discrete lumpy breasts: the Lucknow-Cardiff breast nodularity scale. Breast; 2010 Jun;19(3):238-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Visual analogue scale for assessing breast nodularity in non-discrete lumpy breasts: the Lucknow-Cardiff breast nodularity scale.
  • BACKGROUND: Objective measurement of benign non-discrete lumpy breasts is not performed routinely that would lead to disease measurement, inter-physician communication, therapeutic response assessment and a normative function of reducing unnecessary biopsies.
  • METHODS: Two blinded experienced clinicians graded breast nodularity on a pre-determined five point analogue scale (grades 0-4) to determine its inter-observer reliability after its face validity that excluded inflammatory, nipple, areola and discrete lump problems.
  • RESULTS: 784 Women (hospital 384; community 400) aged between 20 and 70 years (mean 31.9) underwent physical breast examination by 2 experienced clinicians.
  • This tool should be useful for clinical drug trials in benign breast disorders and for wide routine clinical recording of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Pain Measurement. Severity of Illness Index

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20223665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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8. Malik IA, Gopalan S: Use of CAM results in delay in seeking medical advice for breast cancer. Eur J Epidemiol; 2003;18(8):817-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of CAM results in delay in seeking medical advice for breast cancer.
  • This study was undertaken to obtain information about initial perceptions of patients presenting with breast lump, subsequent efforts to seek medical advice, frequency and reasons for delay in seeking medical advice and its possible impact on clinicopathological characteristics.
  • We prospectively gathered data from 138 recently diagnosed (< or = 3 months) breast cancer patients who had initially presented with a breast lump and were referred to the medical oncology service for further treatment.
  • Delay in seeking medical advice was defined as time period of > or = 1 month between initial perception of lump and first physician visit.
  • Most (85%) patients discovered the lump accidentally.
  • In other cases, lump was discovered by the family physician or by the patient as part of regular self-examination.
  • Etiologic perceptions included malignancy (17%), benign growth (26%), milk clot (19%), trauma (23%) and infection (10%).
  • Common reasons were; antecedent use of complimentary/alternative therapies (34%), lack of significance attached to the lump (23%), fear of surgery (22%), conflicting personal commitments (7%), fear of cancer (5%), and others (8%).
  • Common methods used were homeopathy (70%), spiritual therapy (15%) and Ayurvedic medicine (13%).
  • Patients who delayed seeking medical advice more often had positive axillary nodes and stage III/IV disease.
  • Breast cancer patients in Pakistan frequently (53%) delay seeking medical advice.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / psychology. Complementary Therapies / utilization. Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology






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