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1. Leu KM, Ostruszka LJ, Shewach D, Zalupski M, Sondak V, Biermann JS, Lee JS, Couwlier C, Palazzolo K, Baker LH: Laboratory and clinical evidence of synergistic cytotoxicity of sequential treatment with gemcitabine followed by docetaxel in the treatment of sarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 May 1;22(9):1706-12
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  • PURPOSE: A recent report of the combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel described favorable results in patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • Additionally, cell-culture studies were performed to assess the effect of the sequence of drug administration on colony formation.
  • Cell culture studies using the SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line were also performed.
  • Responses occurred in uterine, extremity, and retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcomas, angiosarcomas, malignant fibrous histiocytomas, malignant peripheral-nerve sheath tumors, and Ewing's sarcoma.
  • In contrast, the administration of drugs simultaneously resulted in antagonism, and docetaxel followed by gemcitabine provided mixed results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Interactions. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15117993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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2. Dhingra S, Rodriguez ME, Shen Q, Duan X, Stanton ML, Chen L, Zhang R, Brown RE: Constitutive activation with overexpression of the mTORC2-phospholipase D1 pathway in uterine leiomyosarcoma and STUMP: morphoproteomic analysis with therapeutic implications. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Jan 28;4(2):134-46
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  • [Title] Constitutive activation with overexpression of the mTORC2-phospholipase D1 pathway in uterine leiomyosarcoma and STUMP: morphoproteomic analysis with therapeutic implications.
  • In cancer, mTOR is frequently hyperactivated and is a clinically validated target for therapy and drug development.
  • Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid (PA) have been implicated as an activator of mTOR signaling, including the direct phosphorylative activation of p70S6K atthreonine 389.
  • The results show significant activation with overexpression of phosphorylated mTORC2 complex in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) as evidenced by nuclear localization of p-mTOR (Ser 2448) in ULMS>STUMP>uterine leiomyoma and normal myometria (p<0.05) and with overexpression of PLD1(p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Phospholipase D / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21326806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; EC 3.1.4.4 / Phospholipase D; EC 3.1.4.4 / phospholipase D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3037199
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Morphoproteomics / STUMP / mTORC2 / phospholipase D1 / uterine leiomyosarcoma
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3. Anderson S, Aghajanian C: Temozolomide in uterine leiomyosarcomas. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):99-103
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  • We review the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience in women with metastatic or unresectable leiomyosarcoma treated with continuous daily dose (CDD) or bolus-dose (BD) temozolomide.
  • We include a literature review of temozolomide activity in leiomyosarcoma patients.
  • METHODS: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, we identified women with recurrent leiomyosarcoma treated with temozolomide at MSKCC from 9/2001 to 9/2004.
  • We reviewed patients' charts for age at diagnosis, stage, performance status, prior treatments, temozolomide dose and schedule, best response to treatment, and treatment delays or dose reductions due to toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Temozolomide has promising therapeutic benefit and is well tolerated in patients with metastatic unresectable leiomyosarcoma.
  • Further investigation of temozolomide in leiomyosarcoma patients is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15916799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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4. Burger AM, Mengs U, Kelter G, Schüler JB, Fiebig HH: No evidence of stimulation of human tumor cell proliferation by a standardized aqueous mistletoe extract in vitro. Anticancer Res; 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3801-6
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  • The effects of AME were compared to that of the standard cytotoxic agent adriamycin (ADR) using the well established propidium iodide and sulforhodamin B proliferation assays.
  • The AME concentrations used ranged from 0.5 pg to 5 ng (0.82 fMol-85 pM) bioactive ML/ml in melanoma (HT-144, SK-MEL-28) and leiomyosarcoma (SK-MLS-1, S-UT-1B) cell lines and from 0.1-100 ng ML/ml (1.7 pM-1.7 nM) in MCF-7 breast cancer and SW620 colon carcinoma cell lines, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Mistletoe / chemistry. Plant Preparations / pharmacology. Plant Proteins. Toxins, Biological / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Growth Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2. Stimulation, Chemical. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 14666680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2; 0 / Toxins, Biological; 0 / ribosome inactivating protein, Viscum; 059QF0KO0R / Water
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5. Withanage GS, Murata H, Koyama T, Ishiwata I: Agonistic and antagonistic effects of zearalenone, an etrogenic mycotoxin, on SKN, HHUA, and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Vet Hum Toxicol; 2001 Feb;43(1):6-10
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  • ZEA is usualy non-lethal to animals but is important to livestock producers because its hyperestrogenic effects adversely influence the reproductive performance of animals.
  • There have been suggestions of possible involvement of ZEA in the progression of breast malignancies and tumors of the female reproductive tract in humans.
  • In general, both concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol (100M and 10 nM) were toxic to SKN and HHUA cell cultures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / agonists. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Zearalenone / agonists. Zeranol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Colorimetry. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11205083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-6296
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary and human toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Hum Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / zearalenol; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 5W827M159J / Zearalenone; 76LO2L2V39 / Zeranol
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6. Yonemoto T, Tatezaki S, Ishii T, Hagiwara Y, Inoue M: Multiple primary cancers in patients with osteosarcoma: influence of anticancer drugs and genetic factors. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jun;27(3):220-4
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  • [Title] Multiple primary cancers in patients with osteosarcoma: influence of anticancer drugs and genetic factors.
  • The diagnoses of second cancer in group A consisted of two acute myelogenous leukemias, two breast carcinomas, one malignant phyllodes tumor of breast, and one ovarian carcinoma.
  • The third cancer was uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • Anticancer drugs and genetic factors are presumed to be concerned with occurrence of second cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15170137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Le Bouëdec G, Auvray H, Curé H, de Latour M, Penault-Llorca F, Dauplat J: [Uterine sarcoma in patients receiving tamoxifen therapy. Apropos of 2 cases]. Rev Med Interne; 2001 Sep;22(9):881-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Sarcome utérin survenant au cours d'une hormonothérapie par tamoxifène. A propos de deux cas.
  • EXEGESIS: We report two cases of uterine sarcoma arising in postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen, 20 mg daily during 38 and 42 months, for breast carcinoma: one leiomyosarcoma and one endometrial stromal sarcoma; both cases were asymptomatic and detected by pelvic sonography.

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  • (PMID = 11599191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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8. Skubitz KM, Pambuccian S, Manivel JC, Skubitz AP: Identification of heterogeneity among soft tissue sarcomas by gene expression profiles from different tumors. J Transl Med; 2008 May 06;6:23
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  • Morphologic features are generally good predictors of biologic behavior, however, metastatic propensity, tumor growth, and response to chemotherapy may be determined by gene expression patterns that do not correlate well with morphology.
  • In this study, gene expression in 53 samples of STS and AF [including 16 malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), 9 leiomyosarcoma, 12 liposarcoma, 4 synovial sarcoma, and 12 samples of AF] was determined at Gene Logic Inc. (Gaithersburg, MD) using Affymetrix GeneChip U_133 arrays containing approximately 40,000 genes/ESTs.
  • These results suggest that these subgroups may have biological significance, and that these gene sets may be useful for sub-classification of STS.
  • In addition, several genes that are targets of some anti-tumor drugs were found to be differentially expressed in particular subsets of STS.

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  • (PMID = 18460215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106878-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106878; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106878-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA106878
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2412854
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9. Yildirim Y, Inal MM, Sanci M, Yildirim YK, Mit T, Polat M, Tinar S: Development of uterine sarcoma after tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer: report of four cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1239-42
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  • [Title] Development of uterine sarcoma after tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer: report of four cases.
  • Tamoxifen (TAM) is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, and its paradoxical effects on female genital system are well known.
  • Four uterine sarcoma patients who had history of TAM usage for previous breast cancer are presented in this study.
  • The mean time of exposure to TAM was 6 (range 3-11) years, and the mean cumulative dose of drug was 43.82 g.
  • All patients were postmenopausal, and the mean age was 66 (range 61-73) years at the time of the diagnosis of the uterine malignancy.
  • Two (50%) patients had uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor, and two (50%) had leiomyosarcoma.
  • In consequence, early detection of TAM-related uterine sarcoma is required for orderly gynecological examination in patients having history of TAM usage for previous breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leiomyosarcoma / chemically induced. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16343223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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10. Clark-Knowles KV, Senterman MK, Collins O, Vanderhyden BC: Conditional inactivation of Brca1, p53 and Rb in mouse ovaries results in the development of leiomyosarcomas. PLoS One; 2009 Dec 31;4(12):e8534
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  • Brca1-deficient OSE cells displayed an increased sensitivity to the DNA damaging agent cisplatin, and this effect could be modulated by inactivation of p53 and/or Rb.
  • These results indicate that Brca1 deficiency can accelerate tumor development and alter the sensitivity of OSE cells to chemotherapeutic agents.


11. Botsis D, Koliopoulos C, Kondi-Pafitis A, Creatsas G: Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the uterus in a patient receiving tamoxifen therapy: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Apr;25(2):173-5
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  • [Title] Myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the uterus in a patient receiving tamoxifen therapy: a case report.
  • In this paper, we present a case of myxoid leiomyosarcoma development in a patient receiving tamoxifen for 3 years because of breast cancer.
  • The myxoid leiomyosarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of any uterine tumor with a predominantly myxomatous composition.
  • A review of the literature indicates that tamoxifen may increase not only the risk for endometrial cancer but also for uterine sarcoma, suggesting vigilance for uterine cancer in women who are being treated with this drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Leiomyosarcoma / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16633068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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12. Grande AM, Rinaldi M, Sinelli S, D'Armini AM, Viganŏ M: Heart transplantation in chemotherapeutic dilated cardiomyopathy. Transplant Proc; 2003 Jun;35(4):1516-8
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  • Nine patients (four men) experienced postchemotherapy DCM: age at time of tumour diagnosis ranged from 1-45 years (mean 13.5 +/- 19 years); interval time between tumour and HT was 3-23 years (mean 10.8 +/- 6.6) and age at HT ranged from 10-65 years (30.8 +/- 20.1).
  • Mean age at DCM diagnosis was 19.2 +/- 19.7 (range 1-50 years).
  • Tumours were Ewing sarcoma (7-year-old boy), paratesticular rabdomyosarcoma (1-year-old boy), Wilms tumor with pulmonary metastasis (3-year-old girl), bilateral breast carcinoma (45-year-old woman), uterine leiomyosarcoma (44-year-old woman), acute myelocytic leukemia (1.5-year-old boy and 17-year-old girl), and chronic myelocytic leukemia (5-year-old boy).
  • At follow-up (mean, 80.4 +/- 69.3 months) two patients died: a 32-year-old woman (acute myelocytic leukemia) 1 year after HT for sepsis and a 68-year-old woman who had breast adenocarcinoma recurrence 81 months after HT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / chemically induced. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / surgery. Heart Transplantation / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / classification. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


13. Aung L, Gorlick RG, Shi W, Thaler H, Shorter NA, Healey JH, Huvos AG, Meyers PA: Second malignant neoplasms in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience. Cancer; 2002 Oct 15;95(8):1728-34
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  • Chemotherapy was scheduled for up to 40 weeks with some variations in the actual treatment period and consisted of various combinations of the following agents: high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin, vincristine, cisplatin, and ifosfamide.
  • Only one had pulmonary metastasis at diagnosis and subsequent multiple recurrences that required thoracotomies and further modification of the chemotherapy regimen.
  • The median age at diagnosis for osteosarcoma was 16.6 years (range, 3.1-74.4 years).
  • The time interval from diagnosis of the primary osteosarcoma to the development of SMN was 1.3-13.1 years (median, 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-9.6).
  • There were two cases of acute myeloid leukemia and one case each of myelodysplastic syndrome, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, breast carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of secondary malignancies in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma was significantly higher than the expected incidence of cancer in the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Osteosarcoma / complications. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12365021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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