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1. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Rivera-Márquez H, Cerecedo-Díaz F, Hernández-Contreras I, Ramón-García G, Diegopérez-Ramírez J, Santacruz-Castillo E: Preirradiation ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme: a phase II study. Arch Med Res; 2000 Mar-Apr;31(2):186-90
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  • [Title] Preirradiation ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme: a phase II study.
  • Traditional treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GM) consisting of surgery-radiotherapy-chemotherapy with nitrosoureas has resulted in a survival rate of 26% at 1 year.
  • Chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) permits synergism among the different drugs and sensitizes the tumor to radiotherapy.
  • A magnetic resonance image (MRI) study of the tumor was made after surgery to evaluate residual tumor and routine laboratory analysis.
  • Brainstem tumors had an initial response after two courses and then increased in size.
  • AA was the tumor with the greatest reduction of residual tumor after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative chemotherapy with ICE reduces the tumor size and increases the survival rate of pediatric patients with malignant astrocytomas with minimal toxicity.
  • Brainstem responded poorly to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Premedication. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 10880725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0188-4409
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] MEXICO
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; NR7O1405Q9 / Mesna; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; ICE protocol 5
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2. Siu IM, Tyler BM, Chen JX, Eberhart CG, Thomale UW, Olivi A, Jallo GI, Riggins GJ, Gallia GL: Establishment of a human glioblastoma stemlike brainstem rodent tumor model. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jul;6(1):92-7
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  • [Title] Establishment of a human glioblastoma stemlike brainstem rodent tumor model.
  • OBJECT: Diffuse brainstem tumors are the most difficult type of pediatric CNS malignancy to treat.
  • It is therefore essential to develop a reliable animal model to screen new therapeutic agents for the treatment of this type of tumor.
  • METHODS: A multipotent human glioblastoma stemlike neurosphere line, 060919, was established from a surgically resected glioblastoma specimen; when cells were implanted intracranially into athymic nude mice, they formed invasive, vascular tumors that exhibited the features of glioblastoma.
  • Ten female Fischer 344 rats received an injection of 75,000 F98 rat glioma cells and 10 female athymic nude rats received an injection of 75,000 060919 human glioblastoma stemlike cells in the pontine tegmentum of the brainstem.
  • A control group of 5 female Fischer rats received an injection of saline in the same location as the animals in the tumor groups.
  • RESULTS: Both F98 cells and 060919 cells grew in 100% of the animals injected.
  • Median survival of animals injected with F98 was 15 days, consistent with the authors' previous reports on the establishment of the brainstem tumor model using the F98 rat glioma line.
  • Median survival of animals injected with 060919 was 31 days.
  • Histopathological analysis of the tumors confirmed the presence of brainstem lesions in animals that received brainstem injections of F98 and in animals that received brainstem injections of 060919.
  • The 060919 brainstem tumors histologically resembled glioblastoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor take and median survival were consistent for animals injected in the brainstem with either the established F98 rat glioma cell line or the 060919 human glioblastoma stemlike neurosphere line.
  • Histopathological features of the 060919 brainstem tumors resembled glioblastoma.
  • Establishment of this human glioblastoma stemlike brainstem animal model will improve the evaluation and identification of more efficacious agents for the treatment of high-grade brainstem tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Glioblastoma / pathology. Multipotent Stem Cells / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Stem / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Female. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Rats, Nude. Spheroids, Cellular / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20593994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Hashizume R, Ozawa T, Dinca EB, Banerjee A, Prados MD, James CD, Gupta N: A human brainstem glioma xenograft model enabled for bioluminescence imaging. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jan;96(2):151-9
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  • [Title] A human brainstem glioma xenograft model enabled for bioluminescence imaging.
  • Despite the use of radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis for children with diffuse brainstem gliomas is extremely poor.
  • There is a need for relevant brainstem tumor models that can be used to test new therapeutic agents and delivery systems in pre-clinical studies.
  • We report the development of a brainstem-tumor model in rats and the application of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for monitoring tumor growth and response to therapy as part of this model.
  • Luciferase-modified human glioblastoma cells from five different tumor cell sources (either cell lines or serially-passaged xenografts) were implanted into the pontine tegmentum of athymic rats using an implantable guide-screw system.
  • Tumor growth was monitored by BLI and tumor volume was calculated by three-dimensional measurements from serial histopathologic sections.
  • To evaluate if this model would allow detection of therapeutic response, rats bearing brainstem U-87 MG or GS2 glioblastoma xenografts were treated with the DNA methylating agent temozolomide (TMZ).
  • For each of the tumor cell sources tested, BLI monitoring revealed progressive tumor growth in all animals, and symptoms caused by tumor burden were evident 26-29 days after implantation of U-87 MG, U-251 MG, GBM6, and GBM14 cells, and 37-47 days after implantation of GS2 cells.
  • Histopathologic analysis revealed tumor growth within the pons in all rats and BLI correlated quantitatively with tumor volume.
  • Variable infiltration was evident among the different tumors, with GS2 tumor cells exhibiting the greatest degree of infiltration.
  • TMZ treatment groups were included for experiments involving U-87 MG and GS2 cells, and in each case TMZ delayed tumor growth, as indicated by BLI monitoring, and significantly extended survival of animal subjects.
  • Our results demonstrate the development of a brainstem tumor model in athymic rats, in which tumor growth and response to therapy can be accurately monitored by BLI.
  • This model is well suited for pre-clinical testing of therapeutics that are being considered for treatment of patients with brainstem tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Luciferases. Luminescent Agents
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling / methods. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Transplantation / methods. Rats. Rats, Nude. Time Factors. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays / methods

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  • (PMID = 19585223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS055061; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107268
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Luminescent Agents; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2808534
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4. Suzuki Y, Tanaka K, Negishi D, Shimizu M, Yoshida Y, Hashimoto T, Yamazaki H: Pharmacokinetic investigation of increased efficacy against malignant gliomas of carboplatin combined with hyperbaric oxygenation. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 May;49(5):193-7; discussion 197
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  • The efficacy of intravenous administration of 400 mg carboplatin/m(2) body surface area over 60 minutes combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy (0.2 MPa for 60 min) was investigated in 6 Japanese patients (aged 36-67 years) with malignant or brainstem gliomas.
  • Brain tumor response was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging as a function of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve, or mean residence time (MRT) for carboplatin.
  • These results suggest that HBO therapy prolongs the biological residence time of carboplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / therapy. Hyperbaric Oxygenation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19465788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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5. Schuller E, Seidl R, Wandl C, Dieckmann K, Slavc I: Prolonged second response to cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide in a child with a recurrent brainstem glioblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jun;18(4):253-8
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  • [Title] Prolonged second response to cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide in a child with a recurrent brainstem glioblastoma.
  • The prognosis for patients with malignant brainstem tumors is poor.
  • The authors report on a 6-year-old girl with a biopsy proven pontine glioblastoma, who, after initial chemo-radiotherapy and tumor progression, experienced a prolonged second response to a salvage therapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide.
  • The patient recovered from her life-threatening condition with almost complete resolution of all neurologic deficits paralleled by a dramatic shrinkage of the tumor documented by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Glioblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11400649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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6. Wasita B, Kamitani H, Kinoshita Y, Mamun MH, Watanabe T: A rat glioblastoma model with diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis induced by intracarotid injection of C6 glioma cells. Neurol Res; 2009 Jun;31(5):453-62
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  • [Title] A rat glioblastoma model with diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis induced by intracarotid injection of C6 glioma cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: A reproducible brain tumor model using experimental animals is required to study biological behavior and develop more potent antineoplastic drugs and effective therapeutic modalities.
  • Ki-67 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) immunohistochemistry staining were used to study the biological behavior of the developed tumor.
  • The glioma mass distributed throughout the ventricles, the leptomeningeal regions in the brain and the brainstem, with typical pathological features of glioblastoma.
  • This model probably can be used for pre-clinical testing in the progression of glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cachexia / physiopathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Immunohistochemistry. Intracranial Pressure. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19309540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Mmp2 protein, rat; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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7. Terasaki M, Bouffet E, Katsuki H, Fukushima S, Shigemori M: Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the response and toxicity of patients with recurrent or treatment-induced brain tumors to TMZ and oral VP-16.
  • METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant CNS tumors, including treatment-induced PNET (in 1 patient), brainstem glioma (in 3 patients; 1 with treatment-induced, 2 with recurrence), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (in 3 patients), and recurrent glioblastoma (in 4 patients) were evaluated in a pilot study of TMZ and oral VP-16 chemotherapy.
  • Five (45%) of 11 patients showed a PR to treatment.
  • The histologic subtype of the tumor, its location, and its maximum response to chemotherapy did not have an impact on the duration of disease control.
  • CONCLUSION: This limited pilot study confirms the innocuousness and the activity of the combination of TMZ and oral VP-16 in recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18054615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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8. Das SB, Sharma RK: Potential role of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase in human brain tumor (review). Oncol Rep; 2005 Oct;14(4):1059-63
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  • [Title] Potential role of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase in human brain tumor (review).
  • However, much remains to be known about the enzyme in human brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM).
  • PDE1 has not been investigated in GBM relative to normal brain and remains an important area of investigation.
  • In the normal brain, PDE1 is localized in all four principal parts of the brain: cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum.
  • Specifically, PDE1 is concentrated in anatomically distinct regions of the brain including the striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subiculum, Purkinjie cells, the external layer of the developing cerebellum and the cerebral cortex.
  • However, the discovery of an inhibitor in the tumor tissue is interesting and definitely warrants further investigation, particularly, in relation to its possible interaction with PDE1.
  • [MeSH-major] 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16142372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.17 / 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 1
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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9. Hargrave D: Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;23(4):351-63
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  • [Title] Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy.
  • Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates.
  • However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact on drug development towards targeted therapies.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents.
  • The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma.
  • It is likely that high grade gliomas in children and adults share common aberrant molecular pathways but the frequency and mechanisms involved probably will exhibit key differences and on-going comprehensive molecular analyses of paediatric high grade glioma are essential to determine which targets are important in children.
  • Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome-Wide Association Study. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Prognosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics


10. Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B: Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther; 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem glioma carries the worst prognosis of all malignancies of the brain.
  • Most patients with brainstem glioma fail standard radiation therapy and chemotherapy and do not survive longer than 2 years.
  • Treatment is even more challenging when an inoperable tumor is of high-grade pathology (HBSG).
  • RESULTS: The overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 39% and 22%, respectively, and maximum survival was more than 17 years for a patient with anaplastic astrocytoma and more than 5 years for a patient with glioblastoma.
  • Antineoplastons were tolerated very well with 1 case of grade 4 toxicity (reversible anemia).
  • CONCLUSION: Antineoplastons contributed to more than a 5-year survival in recurrent diffuse intrinsic glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas of the brainstem in a small group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzeneacetamides / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glutamine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phenylacetates / administration & dosage. Piperidones / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16484713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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11. Burzynski SR, Lewy RI, Weaver R, Janicki T, Jurida G, Khan M, Larisma CB, Paszkowiak J, Szymkowski B: Long-term survival and complete response of a patient with recurrent diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioblastoma multiforme. Integr Cancer Ther; 2004 Sep;3(3):257-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival and complete response of a patient with recurrent diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Recurrent diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioblastoma multiforme carries an extremely poor prognosis and a median survival of less than 7 months.
  • In this article, the authors report good results in a 40-year-old man diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme who received antineoplastons.
  • The patient's brain tumor was diagnosed in May 1999, and he subsequently underwent subtotal tumor resection and standard radiation therapy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans documented his tumor recurrence.
  • Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans revealed decrease and eventually disappearance of the tumor.
  • More than 4 years later, off antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1, the patient is tumor free, able to carry on normal activities, and works full-time, and his Karnofsky Performance Status increased from 50 to 100.
  • Extensive phase II trials with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in patients with glioblastoma multiforme are nearing completion.
  • These trials may provide more data regarding the efficacy of antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme in untreated patients compared to the results in those patients with tumor recurrence after radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzeneacetamides / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glutamine / analogs & derivatives. Glutamine / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phenylacetates / therapeutic use. Piperidones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Combinations. Health Status. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15312271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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12. Dreyer ZE, Kadota RP, Stewart CF, Friedman HS, Mahoney DH, Kun LE, McCluggage CW, Burger PC, Kepner J, Heideman RL, Pediatric Oncology Group: Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237. Neuro Oncol; 2003 Oct;5(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237.
  • In previous reports, the alcohol metabolite of IDA, 4-demethoxydaunorubicinol (idarubicinol, or IDOL), had cytotoxic activity and the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
  • For this reason, the Pediatric Oncology Group conducted a Phase 2 trial of IDA for children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors.
  • Patients were stratified by tumor types into 6 categories: stratum 1, low-grade astrocytoma; stratum 2, malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma); stratum 3, medulloblastoma; stratum 4, brainstem glioma; stratum 5, ependymoma; and stratum 6, miscellaneous malignant tumors not included in the previous diagnoses.
  • The systemic clearance data for IDA and IDOL were nearly identical to those published on patients with leukemia, and the plasma elimination of the IDOL metabolite was substantially longer than that of the parent drug IDA.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Idarubicin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 14565163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920677
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13. Blaney S, Berg SL, Pratt C, Weitman S, Sullivan J, Luchtman-Jones L, Bernstein M: A phase I study of irinotecan in pediatric patients: a pediatric oncology group study. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Jan;7(1):32-7
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  • Stable disease (4-20 cycles) was observed in seven patients with a variety of malignancies including neuroblastoma, pineoblastoma, glioblastoma, brainstem glioma, osteosarcoma, hepatoblastoma, and a central nervous system rhabdoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hematologic Tests. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Toxicity Tests. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11205914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1RR00188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA57745
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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14. Tsutsumi S, Yasumoto Y, Ito M: Pathological laughter caused by frontal glioblastoma: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2008 Jul;48(7):307-10
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  • [Title] Pathological laughter caused by frontal glioblastoma: case report.
  • She had no history of traumatic brain injury, or neurological or psychiatric disease, and showed no signs of drug or alcohol abuse.
  • Cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a 2.5 x 2.5 x 3 cm ring-enhanced mass in the subcortical area of the right frontal lobe associated with extensive perifocal brain edema.
  • The hypothalamus, thalamus, internal capsule, brainstem, and cerebellum were unaffected.
  • Functional MR imaging showed the tumor located mainly in the prefrontal area with the posterior limit involving the premotor cortex.
  • She underwent total tumor resection.
  • The histological diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Invasive tumor in the frontal lobe involving the prefrontal cortex and subcortical structure may cause pathological laughter, and can be cured by surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Frontal Lobe. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Laughter / physiology. Prefrontal Cortex

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  • (PMID = 18654050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Marcus KJ, Dutton SC, Barnes P, Coleman CN, Pomeroy SL, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Kieran M, Tarbell NJ: A phase I trial of etanidazole and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with diffuse brainstem glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1182-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I trial of etanidazole and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with diffuse brainstem glioma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the toxicity and maximum tolerated dose of etanidazole administered concurrently with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HRT) for children with brainstem glioma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighteen patients with brainstem glioma were treated with etanidazole and HRT on a dose escalation protocol (Phase I trial) between 1990 and 1996.
  • Patients (median age: 8.5 years; 11 males, 7 females) received HRT to the tumor volume plus a 2-cm margin with parallel-opposed 6-15-MV photons.
  • Two patients were treated at this level, and both patients experienced Grade 3 toxicity in the form of a diffuse cutaneous rash.
  • There were 23 cases of Grade 1 toxicity (10 vomiting, 5 peripheral neuropathy, 2 rash, 2 constipation, 1 weight loss, 3 others), 11 cases of Grade 2 toxicity (4 vomiting, 2 skin erythema, 2 constipation, 1 arthralgia, 1 urinary retention, 1 hematologic), and 4 Grade 3 toxicities (2 rash, 1 vomiting, 1 skin desquamation).
  • Grade 2 or 3 peripheral neuropathy was not seen at any dose level.
  • CONCLUSION: The MTD of etanidazole in children receiving HRT for brainstem glioma is 42 g/m(2), with cutaneous rash as the dose-limiting toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Dose Fractionation. Etanidazole / therapeutic use. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, High-Energy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12654425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 30DKA3Q1HL / Etanidazole
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