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1. Jain E, Srivastava A, Kumar A: Macroporous interpenetrating cryogel network of poly(acrylonitrile) and gelatin for biomedical applications. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2009 Dec;20 Suppl 1:S173-9
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  • [Title] Macroporous interpenetrating cryogel network of poly(acrylonitrile) and gelatin for biomedical applications.
  • Cryogels are supermacroporous gel network formed by cryogelation of appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors at subzero temperature.
  • One of the important aspect of cryogel is simple approach by which they can be synthesized and use of aqueous solvent for their synthesis which make them suitable for different biological applications.
  • Various modifications of the cryogels have been sought which involves coupling of various ligands to its surfaces, grafting of polymer chain to cryogel surface or interpenetrating networks of two or more polymers to form a cryogel which provides diversity of its applications.
  • In the following work we have synthesized full interpenetrating network of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-gelatin with varied gelatin concentration.
  • The PAN-gelatin cryogel interpenetrating network is macroporous in nature and has high percentage swelling equilibrium in the range of 862-1,200 with a flow rate greater than 10 ml/min, which characterizes the interconnectivity of pores and convective flow within the network.
  • PAN-gelatin interpenetrating cryogel network has good mechanical stability as determined by Young's modulus which varies from 123 kPa to 819 kPa depending upon the polymer concentration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomechanical Phenomena. Biomedical Technology / methods. CHO Cells. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Compressive Strength. Cricetinae. Cricetulus. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Cryogels. Materials Testing. Porosity. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18597161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Cryogels; 0 / Hydrogels; 25014-41-9 / polyacrylonitrile; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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2. García-Rosado E, Cano I, Martín-Antonio B, Labella A, Manchado M, Alonso MC, Castro D, Borrego JJ: Co-occurrence of viral and bacterial pathogens in disease outbreaks affecting newly cultured sparid fish. Int Microbiol; 2007 Sep;10(3):193-9
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  • This study describes the isolation and characterization of the potential causative agents, either bacteria or viruses, of these outbreaks.
  • The development of cytopathic effects (CPE) on different fish cell lines, the application of specific nested-PCR tests for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and subsequent sequence analyses were used for virus detection and identification.
  • VNNV, related to the striped jack neural necrosis virus (SJNNV) genotype, and VHSV, related to the genotype Ia, were the only viruses detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Molecular Sequence Data. Nodaviridae / classification. Nodaviridae / genetics. Nodaviridae / isolation & purification. Novirhabdovirus / classification. Novirhabdovirus / genetics. Novirhabdovirus / isolation & purification. Photobacterium / classification. Photobacterium / genetics. Photobacterium / isolation & purification. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Vibrio / classification. Vibrio / genetics. Vibrio / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18076001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1139-6709
  • [Journal-full-title] International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF522824/ EF523822/ EF523823
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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3. Changez M, Koul V, Dinda AK: Efficacy of antibiotics-loaded interpenetrating network (IPNs) hydrogel based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin for treatment of experimental osteomyelitis: in vivo study. Biomaterials; 2005 May;26(14):2095-104
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  • [Title] Efficacy of antibiotics-loaded interpenetrating network (IPNs) hydrogel based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin for treatment of experimental osteomyelitis: in vivo study.
  • The safety and efficacy of gentamycin sulphate (GS)- or vancomycin hydrochloride (VCl)-loaded polymer devices based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin crosslinked selectively using 0.3 mol % N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide and 1 wt% glutaraldehyde were evaluated by varying the drug concentration onto the devices.
  • The placebo and drug-loaded device of AxGx (acrylic acid:gelatin: 1:1 w/w) were employed for the treatment of experimental osteomyelitis in rabbit.
  • The drug concentration was measured following implantation in the adjacent tissue of femoral cavity, and serum.
  • In femoral cavity maximum drug concentration was found on the 7th day with all the four types of devices.
  • No drug was found after 21 days, at the local site with devices AxGx-1a and AxGx-1b (12+/-1 mg), whereas it was detected after 6 weeks with 16+/-1 mg device (44% w/w GS or VCl).
  • Macroscopic evaluation after treatment revealed that swelling, redness, local warmth and drainage decreased depending upon the drug loading of the implants.
  • Sequential radiographs, histology, microbiologic assay and scanning electron micrography demonstrated devices AxGx-1b and AxGx-1c (16+/-1 mg of 44% w/w drug loading) to be the most suitable device, which heals the infection after 6 weeks of treatment.
  • None of the implant showed toxic level of drug in serum at any given time.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Drug Implants / administration & dosage. Drug Implants / chemistry. Gentamicins / administration & dosage. Hydrogels / chemistry. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy. Vancomycin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Rabbits. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15576184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Gentamicins; 0 / Hydrogels; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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4. Mohan N, Nair PD: A synthetic scaffold favoring chondrogenic phenotype over a natural scaffold. Tissue Eng Part A; 2010 Feb;16(2):373-84
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  • A synthetic poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(caprolactone) semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) scaffold and gelatin-albumin, made of natural polymers, are used for the study.
  • The polymers in the semi-IPN synthetic scaffold mimic the properties of collagen and glycosaminoglycans present in native cartilage.
  • Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to chondrocytes in the presence of growth factors is also enhanced in the synthetic semi-IPN scaffold.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / pharmacology. Chondrogenesis / drug effects. Gelatin / pharmacology. Polyesters / pharmacology. Polyvinyl Alcohol / pharmacology. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aggrecans / metabolism. Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Shape / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrocytes / drug effects. Chondrocytes / metabolism. Chondrocytes / ultrastructure. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / cytology. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / drug effects. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / metabolism. Porosity / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Staining and Labeling. Sus scrofa. X-Ray Microtomography

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  • (PMID = 19566439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue engineering. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Eng Part A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aggrecans; 0 / Albumins; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / Polyesters; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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5. Collet B, Munro ES, Gahlawat S, Acosta F, Garcia J, Roemelt C, Zou J, Secombes CJ, Ellis AE: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus suppresses type I interferon signalling in rainbow trout gonad cell line but not in Atlantic salmon macrophages. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2007 Jan-Feb;22(1-2):44-56
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  • [Title] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus suppresses type I interferon signalling in rainbow trout gonad cell line but not in Atlantic salmon macrophages.
  • On exposure to interferon (IFN) or IFN inducing agents, the cells produce luciferase.
  • [MeSH-major] Fish Diseases / immunology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / immunology. Interferon Type I / metabolism. Oncorhynchus mykiss. Salmo salar
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. DNA Primers / chemistry. GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression / immunology. Gonads / cytology. Luciferases / analysis. Luciferases / metabolism. Macrophages / immunology. Macrophages / virology. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Poly I-C / immunology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Signal Transduction / immunology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16713304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-4648
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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6. Chen SC, Wu YC, Mi FL, Lin YH, Yu LC, Sung HW: A novel pH-sensitive hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and alginate cross-linked by genipin for protein drug delivery. J Control Release; 2004 Apr 28;96(2):285-300
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  • [Title] A novel pH-sensitive hydrogel composed of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and alginate cross-linked by genipin for protein drug delivery.
  • A novel pH-sensitive hydrogel system composed of a water-soluble chitosan derivative (N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan, NOCC) and alginate blended with genipin was developed for controlling protein drug delivery.
  • Genipin, a naturally occurring cross-linking agent, is significantly less cytotoxic than glutaraldehyde and may provide a less extent of cross-linking to form a semiinterpenetrating polymeric network (semi-IPN) within the developed hydrogel system.
  • The drug-loading process used in the study was simple and mild.
  • In the study, preparation of the NOCC/alginate-based hydrogels was reported.
  • Additionally, release profiles of a model protein drug (bovine serum albumin, BSA) from test hydrogels were studied in simulated gastric and intestinal media.
  • The semi-IPN formation of the genipin-cross-linked NOCC/alginate hydrogel was confirmed by means of the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and the ninhydrin assays.
  • The results clearly suggested that the genipin-cross-linked NOCC/alginate hydrogel could be a suitable polymeric carrier for site-specific protein drug delivery in the intestine.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Chitosan / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry. Proteins / administration & dosage. Pyrans / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Hydrogen Bonding. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Iridoid Glycosides. Iridoids. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Serum Albumin, Bovine / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15081219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Iridoid Glycosides; 0 / Iridoids; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Pyrans; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 107043-88-9 / O,N-carboxymethylchitosan; 6902-77-8 / genipin; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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7. Kulkarni RV, Sa B: Novel pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-alginate) for controlled release of ketoprofen: preparation and characterization. Curr Drug Deliv; 2008 Oct;5(4):256-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-alginate) for controlled release of ketoprofen: preparation and characterization.
  • Novel pH-sensitive carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel beads loaded with ketoprofen were prepared using ionotropic gelation and covalent crosslinking method.
  • The swelling of the beads and drug release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from acidic to alkaline (P<0.05).
  • Drug release followed case II transport mechanism in acidic medium whereas anomalous/non-Fickian transport mechanism was observed in alkaline medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Delayed-Action Preparations. Ketoprofen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Alginates / chemistry. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium / chemistry. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Hydrogel / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Solubility. Tensile Strength. Thermogravimetry. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 18855594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2018
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; 9004-32-4 / Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; 90Y4QC304K / Ketoprofen
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8. Swarnalatha S, Gopi R, Ganesh Kumar A, Selvi PK, Sekaran G: A novel amphiphilic nano hydrogel using ketene based polyester with polyacrylamide for controlled drug delivery system. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2008 Sep;19(9):3005-14
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  • [Title] A novel amphiphilic nano hydrogel using ketene based polyester with polyacrylamide for controlled drug delivery system.
  • A ketene based Low molecular weight polymer (LMKP) having ester functional group was prepared using glycine through surface initiated anionic polymerization.
  • The LMKP and acrylamide (AAm) were co-polymerised in methyl ethyl ketone to yield semi-IPN nanohydrogels (NHG).
  • Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as an initiator and N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent.
  • The drug delivery capacity of NHG was investigated using ciprofloxacin as a model drug.
  • The drug release kinetics of NHG suggested their anomalous (non-fickian) behaviour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biocompatible Materials. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods. Ciprofloxacin / pharmacokinetics. Drug Delivery Systems. Ions. Nanoparticles / chemistry. Photons. Polymers / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties

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  • [Cites] Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002 Jan 17;54(1):79-98 [11755707.001]
  • [Cites] Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Aug;51(8):978-83 [12913240.001]
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  • (PMID = 18389347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Ethylenes; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Ions; 0 / Ketones; 0 / Polyesters; 0 / Polymers; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; LEP3SM032A / ketene
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9. Santi N, Sandtrø A, Sindre H, Song H, Hong JR, Thu B, Wu JL, Vakharia VN, Evensen Ø: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo independent of VP5 expression. Virology; 2005 Nov 10;342(1):13-25
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  • [Title] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo independent of VP5 expression.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of a highly infectious disease in salmonid fish, encodes a small non-structural protein designated VP5.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP5 is dispensable for virulence and persistence. J. Virol.
  • The wild-type rNVI15 virus encodes a truncated 12-kDa VP5 protein, rNVI15-15K encodes a full-length 15-kDa VP5, whereas rNVI15-DeltaVP5 is deficient in VP5 expression.
  • However, substitutions of putative functionally important amino acids in the BH2 domain of VP5 of IPNV-Sp strains were identified, which might influence the anti-apoptosis effect of the protein, and partly explain the apparent absence of this specific function.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / pathology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / genetics. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / pathogenicity. Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line. Cell Membrane Permeability. Gene Expression. Genes, Viral. In Vitro Techniques. Liver / pathology. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Pancreas / pathology. Salmo salar. Salmonidae. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 16126243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Nonstructural Proteins
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10. Hwang HJ, Moon CH, Kim HG, Kim JY, Lee JM, Park JW, Chung DK: Identification and functional analysis of salmon annexin 1 induced by a virus infection in a fish cell line. J Virol; 2007 Dec;81(24):13816-24
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  • In this study, we investigated changes in protein expression of fish cells induced by infection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight proton motive force analysis and identified a novel type of salmon annexin 1 that is induced in fish cells by infection with IPNV.
  • Northern blotting showed that this annexin is overexpressed in IPNV-infected cells compared to control cells, and further analysis revealed that it has a 1,509-bp full-length cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding 339 amino acids (GenBank accession no. AY944135).
  • While small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment did not affect the levels of the viral proteins significantly until 10 h postinfection, it reduced the titer of extracellular virus to 25% of that of a scrambled siRNA-treated control.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexins. Gene Expression Regulation. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / pathogenicity. Salmon / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 17881442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY944135
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2168874
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16. Shin Y, Chang JH, Liu J, Williford R, Shin Y, Exarhos GJ: Hybrid nanogels for sustainable positive thermosensitive drug release. J Control Release; 2001 May 18;73(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Hybrid nanogels for sustainable positive thermosensitive drug release.
  • A hybrid nanogel has been developed based on interpenetrating networks of thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gels and tailored nanoporous silica.
  • A sustainable positive thermo-responsive drug release profile is obtained.
  • When the temperature rises, the polymer gel shrinks, squeezing the drug into the porous channels, and at the same time, opening the pores to the outside media.
  • The drug slowly diffuses out of the porous channels.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems. Gels
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins. Delayed-Action Preparations. Diffusion. Indomethacin / administration & dosage. Indomethacin / chemistry. Silicon Dioxide. Skin Temperature / physiology. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 11337054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Gels; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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17. Risbud MV, Bhat SV: Properties of polyvinyl pyrrolidone/beta-chitosan hydrogel membranes and their biocompatibility evaluation by haemorheological method. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2001 Jan;12(1):75-9
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  • The semi-IPN hydrogel membranes of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and beta-chitosan were synthesized by crosslinking beta-chitosan with glutaraldehyde.
  • The gel composition, amount of cross-linking agent and swelling temperature plays an important role in swelling kinetics of these semi-IPN membranes.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • (PMID = 15348380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Lee SS, Kim MH, Lee SK, Jang SJ, Song MH, Kim KP, Kim HJ, Seo DW, Song DE, Yu E, Lee SG, Min YI: Clinicopathologic review of 58 patients with biliary papillomatosis. Cancer; 2004 Feb 15;100(4):783-93
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic review of 58 patients with biliary papillomatosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary papillomatosis (BP) is a rare disease that is characterized by multiple numerous papillary adenomas in the biliary tree.
  • METHODS: Between March 1995 and January 2003, 58 patients were diagnosed with BP by cholangioscopic and histologic findings at a tertiary referral center, Asan Medical Center (University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea).
  • Papillary adenocarcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were detected in 48 patients (83%) with papillary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14770435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Skjesol A, Aamo T, Hegseth MN, Robertsen B, Jørgensen JB: The interplay between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the IFN system: IFN signaling is inhibited by IPNV infection. Virus Res; 2009 Jul;143(1):53-60
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  • [Title] The interplay between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the IFN system: IFN signaling is inhibited by IPNV infection.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a major pathogen in the aquaculture industry worldwide.
  • Indications of IPNV being able to evade or counteract innate host defense come from its lack of ability to induce strong type I interferon (IFN) responses in cell culture.
  • IPNV VP4 and VP5 inhibit IFN-induced expression from the Mx promoter, indicating that these proteins contribute to the antagonistic effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / drug therapy. Fish Diseases / virology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line. GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Host-Pathogen Interactions. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Salmon. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Viral Nonstructural Proteins / metabolism. Viral Structural Proteins / metabolism. Virulence. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19463721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-1702
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / VP2 protein, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus; 0 / VP5 protein, infectious bursal disease virus; 0 / Viral Nonstructural Proteins; 0 / Viral Structural Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / VP4 protease, birnavirus; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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20. Liu Y, Chan-Park MB: Hydrogel based on interpenetrating polymer networks of dextran and gelatin for vascular tissue engineering. Biomaterials; 2009 Jan;30(2):196-207
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  • [Title] Hydrogel based on interpenetrating polymer networks of dextran and gelatin for vascular tissue engineering.
  • Hydrogel networks are highly desirable as three-dimensional (3-D) tissue engineering scaffolds for cell encapsulation due to the high water content and ability to mimick the native extracellular matrix.
  • This study seeks to address both limitations through application of a novel cell-encapsulating hydrogel family based on the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of gelatin and dextran bifunctionalized with methacrylate (MA) and aldehyde (AD) (Dex-MA-AD).
  • Further, our IPN hydrogels have higher dynamic storage moduli (i.e. on the order of 10(4)Pa) than polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels (around 10(2)-10(3)Pa) commonly used for smooth muscle cells (SMCs) encapsulation.
  • Our dextran-based IPN hydrogels not only supported endothelial cells (ECs) adhesion and spreading on the surface, but also allowed encapsulated SMCs to proliferate and spread in the bulk interior of the hydrogel.
  • These IPN hydrogels appear promising as 3-D scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldehydes / chemistry. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Endothelial Cells / cytology. Humans. Methacrylates / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18922573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Polymers; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans
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21. Hamcerencu M, Desbrieres J, Popa M, Riess G: Stimuli-sensitive xanthan derivatives/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels: influence of cross-linking agent on interpenetrating polymer network properties. Biomacromolecules; 2009 Jul 13;10(7):1911-22
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  • [Title] Stimuli-sensitive xanthan derivatives/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels: influence of cross-linking agent on interpenetrating polymer network properties.
  • This article first describes the preparation and characterization of a novel class of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives/β-cyclodextrin acrylate/N-isopropylacrylamide stimuli-responsive hydrogels synthesized by free radical polymerization.
  • By copolymerization of these maleate polysaccharides with a known temperature sensitive precursor (N-isopropylacrylamide) water-swollen hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) were obtained.
  • By changing the feed composition ratio of precursors and cross-linking agent (β-cyclodextrin acrylate or N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, respectively) the phase transition temperature (lower critical solution temperature) could also be adjusted near the body temperature for the potential applications in biomedical and biotechnology fields.
  • The role of the cross-linking agent on these properties is more particularly discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Temperature. Transition Temperature

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  • (PMID = 19499889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; B7GFF17L9U / N-isopropylacrylamide; TTV12P4NEE / xanthan gum
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22. Kulkarni RV, Sa B: Evaluation of pH-sensitivity and drug release characteristics of (polyacrylamide-grafted-xanthan)-carboxymethyl cellulose-based pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2008 Dec;34(12):1406-14
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  • [Title] Evaluation of pH-sensitivity and drug release characteristics of (polyacrylamide-grafted-xanthan)-carboxymethyl cellulose-based pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads.
  • Novel pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of polyacrylamide-grafted-xanthan (PAAm-g-XG) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) loaded with ketoprofen were prepared and evaluated for pH sensitivity and drug release characteristics.
  • Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies were carried out to know the crystalline nature of encapsulated drug.
  • Scanning electron microscopic study revealed that the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) beads possess porous matrix structure in alkaline pH whereas nonporous matrix structure was observed in acidic pH.
  • The swelling of the beads and drug release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from acidic to alkaline.
  • The results of pulsatile swelling study indicated that the IPN beads changed their swelling behavior when pH of the external medium was altered.
  • Drug release followed case II transport mechanism in acidic medium whereas anomalous/non-Fickian transport mechanism was observed in alkaline medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems. Ketoprofen / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18785037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; 9004-32-4 / Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; 90Y4QC304K / Ketoprofen; TTV12P4NEE / xanthan gum
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23. Nygaard R, Husgard S, Sommer AI, Leong JA, Robertsen B: Induction of Mx protein by interferon and double-stranded RNA in salmonid cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2000 Jul;10(5):435-50
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  • Mx protein is one of several antiviral proteins that are induced by the type I interferons (IFN), IFNalpha and beta, in mammals.
  • In this work induction of a 76 kDa Mx protein by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or type I IFN-like activity in Atlantic salmon macrophages, Atlantic salmon fibroblast cells (AS cells) and in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214) is reported.
  • Type I IFN-like activity was produced by the stimulation of Atlantic salmon macrophages with the synthetic dsRNA polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C).
  • A correlation appeared to exist between Mx protein expression and protection against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) induced by IFN in CHSE-214 cells.
  • Several observations in the present work suggest that, as in mammals, the induction of Mx protein by dsRNA in fish cells primarily occurs via induction of type I IFN.
  • First, type I IFN-like activity but not poly I:C, induced Mx protein expression in CHSE-214 cells.
  • The present work supports the notion of using Mx protein as a molecular marker for the production of putative type I IFN in fish.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins. Interferon Type I / pharmacology. Leucine Zippers. Protein Biosynthesis. RNA, Double-Stranded / pharmacology. Salmo salar
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western / veterinary. Cell Line. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel / veterinary. Macrophages / drug effects. Macrophages / metabolism. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Poly I-C / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 10994588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-4648
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / RNA, Double-Stranded; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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24. Iglesias JG, González-Benito J, Aznar AJ, Bravo J, Baselga J: Effect of glass fiber surface treatments on mechanical strength of epoxy based composite materials. J Colloid Interface Sci; 2002 Jun 1;250(1):251-60
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  • Sizing glass fibers with silane coupling agents enhances the adhesion and the durability of the fiber/polymer matrix interface in composite materials.
  • There are several tests to determine the interfacial strength between a fiber and resin, but all of them present difficulties in interpreting the results and/or sample preparation.
  • (ii) an interpenetrating network mechanism seems to be the most important for adhesion and therefore to the interfacial strength; and (iii) the higher the degree of crosslinking in the silane coupling layer is, the higher the hydrolytic damage rate is.

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  • (PMID = 16290658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9797
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of colloid and interface science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Colloid Interface Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Moya J, Pizarro H, Jashés M, De Clercq E, Sandino AM: In vivo effect of EICAR (5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-carboxamide) on experimental infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Antiviral Res; 2000 Nov;48(2):125-30
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  • [Title] In vivo effect of EICAR (5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-carboxamide) on experimental infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
  • The in vivo antiviral effect of 5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-carboxamide (EICAR) was evaluated in coho salmon and rainbow trout fry, experimentally infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Oncorhynchus kisutch / virology. Oncorhynchus mykiss / virology. Ribonucleosides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fish Diseases / drug therapy. Fish Diseases / virology

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  • (PMID = 11114414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-3542
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ribonucleosides; 118908-07-9 / 5-ethynyl-1-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide
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26. Seppola M, Larsen AN, Steiro K, Robertsen B, Jensen I: Characterisation and expression analysis of the interleukin genes, IL-1beta, IL-8 and IL-10, in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Mol Immunol; 2008 Feb;45(4):887-97
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  • In adherent head kidney cells, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly stimulated gene expression of IL-1beta.
  • The expression of IL-1beta was not increased after treatment with a viral imitator (poly I:C), and neither IL-8 nor IL-10 responded to any of these agents in vitro.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Gene Expression Profiling. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / physiology. Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Poly I-C / pharmacology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Vibrio / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17875325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5890
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C
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27. Grady SR, Moretti M, Zoli M, Marks MJ, Zanardi A, Pucci L, Clementi F, Gotti C: Rodent habenulo-interpeduncular pathway expresses a large variety of uncommon nAChR subtypes, but only the alpha3beta4* and alpha3beta3beta4* subtypes mediate acetylcholine release. J Neurosci; 2009 Feb 18;29(7):2272-82
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  • Recent studies suggest that the neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) present in the habenulo-interpeduncular (Hb-IPn) system can modulate the reinforcing effect of addictive drugs and the anxiolytic effect of nicotine.
  • Hb and IPn neurons express mRNAs for most nAChR subunits, thus making it difficult to establish the subunit composition of functional receptors.
  • We used immunoprecipitation and immunopurification studies performed in rat and wild-type (+/+) and beta2 knock-out (-/-) mice to establish that the Hb and IPn contain significant beta2* and beta4* populations of nAChR receptors (each of which is heterogeneous).
  • The beta4* nAChR are more highly expressed in the IPn.
  • Our studies on IPn synaptosomes obtained from +/+ and alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, beta3, and beta4(-/-) mice show that only the alpha3beta4 and alpha3beta3beta4 subtypes facilitate acetylcholine (ACh) release.
  • Ligand binding, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting studies in beta3(-/-) mice showed that, in the IPn of these mice, there is a concomitant reduction of ACh release and alpha3beta4* receptors, whereas the receptor number remains the same in the Hb.
  • We suggest that, in habenular cholinergic neurons, the beta3 subunit may be important for transporting the alpha3beta4* subtype from the medial habenula to the IPn.
  • Overall, these studies highlight the presence of a wealth of uncommon nAChR subtypes in the Hb-IPn system and identify alpha3beta4 and alpha3beta3beta4, transported from the Hb and highly enriched in the IPn, as the subtypes modulating ACh release in the IPn.

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  • (PMID = 19228980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015663-04; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA003194-26; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P30 DA015663-10; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA003194; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015663; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P30 DA015663-05; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA003194; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA003194-25; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA003194-24; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P30 DA015663-05S1; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P30 DA015663; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA003194-24; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA003194-30; None / None / / R01 DA003194-25; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA003194-30; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015663-05S1; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA015663-05; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA003194-26; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / P30 DA015663-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 0 / nicotinic receptor alpha3beta4; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99751; NLM/ PMC2680386
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28. Husseini GA, Christensen DA, Rapoport NY, Pitt WG: Ultrasonic release of doxorubicin from Pluronic P105 micelles stabilized with an interpenetrating network of N,N-diethylacrylamide. J Control Release; 2002 Oct 4;83(2):303-5
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  • [Title] Ultrasonic release of doxorubicin from Pluronic P105 micelles stabilized with an interpenetrating network of N,N-diethylacrylamide.
  • Pluronic P105 micelles sequester hydrophobic drugs and release them upon insonation with low frequency ultrasound; however these micelles dissolve relatively quickly upon dilution.
  • The objective of this research was to determine whether stabilization of these micelles would compromise their ability to sequester and release drug.
  • P105 micelles were stabilized with an interpenetrating network of poly (N,N-diethylacrylamide), and ultrasonically-activated release of doxorubicin (Dox) was measured by a fluorescence technique.
  • The amount released was not significantly different from that released from P105 micelles (P=0.481), and the drug re-encapsulation upon cessation of insonation was complete.
  • This system has potential for controlled drug delivery to insonated tissues in vivo.
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 12363455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 76562
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Micelles; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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29. Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Concheiro A, Dubovik AS, Grinberg NV, Burova TV, Grinberg VY: Temperature-sensitive chitosan-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) interpenetrated networks with enhanced loading capacity and controlled release properties. J Control Release; 2005 Feb 16;102(3):629-41
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  • [Title] Temperature-sensitive chitosan-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) interpenetrated networks with enhanced loading capacity and controlled release properties.
  • Interpenetrated polymer networks (IPN) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) and chitosan (two grades) were prepared by free radical polymerisation and cross-linking of PNIPA (700 mM) with bis(acrylamide) (20 mM) in chitosan solutions (1.5 wt.
  • The amount of chitosan that remained in the IPNs, after washing, was proportional to the glutaraldehyde concentration used in the post-cross-linking step; being only 50% of the theoretical when the post-cross-linking was omitted (semi-IPN).
  • This behaviour is a consequence of the subdivision, in the IPNs, of the PNIPA network in microdomains, some regions of which (surface or outer) cannot be involved in the transitions.
  • The PNIPA/chitosan IPNs had a notably greater affinity for diclofenac than the pure PNIPA hydrogel and were able to sustain the drug release for more than 8 h in 0.9% NaCl solutions or pH 8 phosphate buffer.
  • In summary, the interpenetration of networks with complementary properties, such as those made with PNIPA and chitosan, make it possible to develop drug delivery systems with improved drug loading capacity (owing to chitosan) and sustained release behaviour (owing to PNIPA).
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 15681085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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30. Watanabe K, Karlsen M, Devold M, Isdal E, Litlabø A, Nylund A: Virus-like particles associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). Dis Aquat Organ; 2006 Jun 23;70(3):183-92
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  • It was not possible to find any parasites or bacteria that could explain HSMI, and none of the well-known viruses (infectious salmon anaemia virus, Norwegian salmonid alphavirus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Atlantic salmonid paramyxovirus) were consistently present.
  • Use of transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of epitheliocystis agent in 3 of 4 farms included in this study, and several virus-like particles.
  • Type I and Type II virus particles, previously described for salmon suffering from haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS), and erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) virus were consistently present in salmon suffering from HSMI in all 4 farms included in this study.
  • The 2 HSS viruses (Type I and Type II) were also cultured in Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK) cells from salmon suffering from HSMI.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cells, Cultured. DNA Primers / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / virology. Fisheries. Heart / virology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney / virology. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission / veterinary. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Muscle, Skeletal / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16903229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0177-5103
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of aquatic organisms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Aquat. Org.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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31. Losi P, Briganti E, Magera A, Spiller D, Ristori C, Battolla B, Balderi M, Kull S, Balbarini A, Di Stefano R, Soldani G: Tissue response to poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane-fibrin composite scaffolds for controlled delivery of pro-angiogenic growth factors. Biomaterials; 2010 Jul;31(20):5336-44
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  • For this purpose a composite scaffold made of a poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane (PEtU-PDMS) semi-interpenetrating polymeric network (semi-IPN) and fibrin loaded growth factors (GFs), such as VEGF and bFGF, was manufactured using spray, phase-inversion technique.
  • In conclusion, this study showed that the semi-IPN composite scaffold acting as a pro-angiogenic GFs delivery system has therapeutic potential for the local treatment of ischemic tissue and wound healing.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / pharmacology. Dimethylpolysiloxanes / pharmacology. Fibrin / pharmacology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Polyurethanes / pharmacology. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Delayed-Action Preparations. Disease Models, Animal. Hindlimb / blood supply. Hindlimb / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ischemia / pathology. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Polyurethanes; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / polyetherurethane; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 63148-62-9 / baysilon; 9001-31-4 / Fibrin
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32. Covernton PO, Lester RA: Prolonged stimulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat interpeduncular nucleus has differential effects on transmitter release. Int J Dev Neurosci; 2002 Jun-Aug;20(3-5):247-58
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  • In the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, bicuculline-sensitive spontaneous GABA inhibitory synaptic currents (IPSCs) could be readily resolved in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) maintained as brain slices.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Acetylcholine / secretion. Animals. Cholinergic Fibers / drug effects. Cholinergic Fibers / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. GABA Antagonists / pharmacology. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Glutamic Acid / secretion. Neural Inhibition / drug effects. Neural Inhibition / physiology. Rats. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects. Synaptic Transmission / physiology. Tetrodotoxin / pharmacology. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / secretion

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  • (PMID = 12175860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-5748
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD38985; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS31669
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / GABA Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 4368-28-9 / Tetrodotoxin; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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33. Lee J, Feldman AR, Chiu E, Chan C, Kim YN, Delmas B, Paetzel M: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of truncated and mutant forms of VP4 protease from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun; 2006 Dec 1;62(Pt 12):1235-8
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  • [Title] Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of truncated and mutant forms of VP4 protease from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
  • In viruses belonging to the Birnaviridae family, virus protein 4 (VP4) is the viral protease responsible for the proteolytic maturation of the polyprotein encoding the major capsid proteins (VP2 and VP3).
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the prototype of the aquabirnavirus genus, is the causative agent of a contagious disease in fish which has a large economic impact on aquaculture.
  • [MeSH-major] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / chemistry. Serine Endopeptidases / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17142905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-3091
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / VP4 protease, birnavirus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2225366
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34. Park YD, Tirelli N, Hubbell JA: Photopolymerized hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks. Biomaterials; 2003 Mar;24(6):893-900
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  • [Title] Photopolymerized hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks.
  • Hyaluronic acid (HA) was derivatized with methacrylic esters used for the preparation of hydrogels via photopolymerization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Division / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Elasticity. Fibroblasts / cytology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Humans. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase. Indicators and Reagents. Molecular Weight. Photochemistry. Polyethylene Glycols. Skin / cytology

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  • (PMID = 12504509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; EC 3.2.1.35 / Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
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35. Xia YQ, Guo TY, Song MD, Zhang BH, Zhang BL: Hemoglobin recognition by imprinting in semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel based on polyacrylamide and chitosan. Biomacromolecules; 2005 Sep-Oct;6(5):2601-6
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  • [Title] Hemoglobin recognition by imprinting in semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel based on polyacrylamide and chitosan.
  • Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel was prepared to recognize hemoglobin, by molecularly imprinted method, in the mild aqueous media of chitosan and acrylamide in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as the cross-linking agent.
  • The imprinted semi-IPN hydrogel has a much higher adsorption capacity for hemoglobin than the nonimprinted hydrogel with the same chemical composition and also has a higher selectivity for the imprinted molecule.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Adsorption. Animals. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Cell Proliferation. Hot Temperature. Humans. Hydrogel / chemistry. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Temperature. Thermogravimetry. Water. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 16153097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7797
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; EDK4RIE19C / N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide
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36. Yim ES, Zhao B, Myung D, Kourtis LC, Frank CW, Carter D, Smith RL, Goodman SB: Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel particles in RAW 264.7 macrophage and MG-63 osteoblast cell lines. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2009 Dec;91(3):894-902
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  • [Title] Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel particles in RAW 264.7 macrophage and MG-63 osteoblast cell lines.
  • One candidate compound, a poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PEG/PAA) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), was developed for use in corneal prostheses and was recently engineered for potential orthopedic use.
  • Particles of the PEG/PAA IPN thus seem to stimulate biological responses similar to those in other biocompatible materials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Interleukin-1beta / metabolism. Mice. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Osteoblasts / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19072924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4965
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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37. Shanmugasundaram N, Ravichandran P, Reddy PN, Ramamurty N, Pal S, Rao KP: Collagen-chitosan polymeric scaffolds for the in vitro culture of human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Biomaterials; 2001 Jul;22(14):1943-51
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  • A biodegradable polymer scaffold was developed using collagen and chitosan, in the form of interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN), for in vitro culture of human epidermoid carcinoma cells (HEp-2, Cincinnati).
  • Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linking agent for the development of scaffold.
  • The results of the above studies suggest that the scaffolds prepared from collagen and chitosan can be utilized as a substrate to culture HEp-2 cells and can also be used as an in vitro model to test anticancerous drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Chitosan. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Glutaral / pharmacology. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Materials Testing. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Thermodynamics. Tumor Cells, Cultured / cytology. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 11426872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 1398-61-4 / Chitin; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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38. Lopes CM, Felisberti MI: Mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-gelatin IPN hydrogels. Biomaterials; 2003 Mar;24(7):1279-84
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  • [Title] Mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-gelatin IPN hydrogels.
  • IPN hydrogels based on poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and gelatin were obtained by casting of aqueous solution using potassium persulphate and glutaraldehyde as respective crosslinking agents.

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  • (PMID = 12527269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polyvinyls; 0 / Pyrrolidinones; 0 / poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone); 059QF0KO0R / Water; 25249-16-5 / Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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39. Gupta KC, Ravi Kumar MN: pH dependent hydrolysis and drug release behavior of chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) polymer network microspheres. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2001 Sep;12(9):753-9
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  • [Title] pH dependent hydrolysis and drug release behavior of chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) polymer network microspheres.
  • Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microspheres of chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol) PEG were prepared for controlled release of drugs.
  • A new method for the chemical crosslinking of chitosan microspheres containing isoniazid (INH) as a model drug is proposed and evaluated.
  • The method consists of the exposure of microspheres to the vapor of crosslinking agent that act in gaseous phase under mild conditions.
  • The prepared microspheres have shown 93% drug loading capacity, which suggested that these semi-IPN microspheres are suitable for controlled release of drugs in an oral sustained delivery system.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
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40. Peng HT, Martineau L, Shek PN: Hydrogel-elastomer composite biomaterials: 1. Preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks and in vitro characterization of swelling stability and mechanical properties. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2007 Jun;18(6):975-86
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  • [Title] Hydrogel-elastomer composite biomaterials: 1. Preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks and in vitro characterization of swelling stability and mechanical properties.
  • We prepared interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) composed of a gelatin hydrogel and a HydroThane elastomer to combine the advantages of both polymers into one biomaterial.
  • Optical light microscopy confirmed hydrogel domains were interspaced into an elastomer network.
  • Hydration and stability studies in aqueous solution showed that, although the IPN biomaterials exhibited stable swelling for more than 30 days, approximately 10% and 50% loss of the hydrogel component were confirmed at room temperature and 37 degrees C, respectively, using gel permeation chromatography (GPC).
  • The preparation and characterization methods were well established and formed the basis of further developing the biomaterials.

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  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Elastomers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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41. Al-Kahtani AA, Sherigara BS: Controlled release of theophylline through semi-interpenetrating network microspheres of chitosan-(dextran-g-acrylamide). J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2009 Jul;20(7):1437-45
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  • [Title] Controlled release of theophylline through semi-interpenetrating network microspheres of chitosan-(dextran-g-acrylamide).
  • Semi-interpenetrating network microspheres of chitosan-(dextran-g-acrylamide) were prepared by emulsion-crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent.
  • Theophylline (TH), antiasthmatic drug, was successfully encapsulated into semi-INP microspheres by varying the ratio of Dx-g-AAm and amount of GA.
  • MPs were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques to confirm the graft copolymer, formation of semi-IPN structure of MPs and molecular distribution of the drug molecules in the polymer matrix.
  • The release rates were fitted to an empirical equation to estimate the diffusion exponent n, which indicated that the release from the MPs follows non-Fickian type.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylamide / chemistry. Chitosan / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Dextrans / chemistry. Theophylline / administration & dosage. Theophylline / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Compounding / methods. Emulsions / chemistry. Materials Testing. Microspheres. Porosity

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  • (PMID = 19252971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Dextrans; 0 / Emulsions; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; C137DTR5RG / Theophylline
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42. Modak B, Sandino AM, Arata L, Cárdenas-Jirón G, Torres R: Inhibitory effect of aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from Heliotropium filifolium on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication. Vet Microbiol; 2010 Feb 24;141(1-2):53-8
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  • [Title] Inhibitory effect of aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from Heliotropium filifolium on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a disease caused by a birnavirus affecting several wild and commercial aquatic organisms.
  • This infectious disease results in significant losses in the farming industry and therefore effective therapeutic agents are needed to control outbreaks caused by this pathogen.
  • Our goal was to evaluate in vitro antiviral effect of a group of natural compounds (geranyl aromatic derivatives) isolated from the resinous exudate of the plant Heliotropium filifolium (Heliotropiaceae), semi-synthetics compounds obtained from them, and the resinous exudate, on CHSE-214 cell line infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using a virus plaque inhibition assay at various concentrations.
  • These results allow propose that the ester filifolinyl senecionate is a good candidate for used as antiviral therapy for IPN virus in salmon fry.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Heliotropium / chemistry. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / physiology. Plant Exudates / pharmacology. Virus Replication / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA / metabolism. RNA / metabolism. Salmon

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19818567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2542
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Plant Exudates; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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43. Bajpai AK, Bajpai J, Shukla S: Release dynamics of tetracycline from a loaded semi-interpenetrating polymeric material of polyvinyl alcohol and poly(acrylamide-co-styrene). J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2003 Apr;14(4):347-57
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  • [Title] Release dynamics of tetracycline from a loaded semi-interpenetrating polymeric material of polyvinyl alcohol and poly(acrylamide-co-styrene).
  • A semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(acrylamide-co-styrene) (PAMS) was prepared and its potential for controlled release of tetracycline was assessed.
  • The IPN was characterized by IR spectral analysis and network parameters such as the average molecular weight between crosslinks (M(c)), crosslink density (q) and number of elastically effective chains (V(e)) were evaluated.
  • The influence of various experimental conditions such as different percent loadings, composition of the IPNs, thickness of the loaded device, pH and nature of the release medium were investigated on the release profiles of the drug.

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  • (PMID = 15348459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Murakami Y, Maeda M: DNA-responsive hydrogels that can shrink or swell. Biomacromolecules; 2005 Nov-Dec;6(6):2927-9
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  • We recently reported that hydrogels containing directly grafted single-stranded (ss) DNA or ssDNA-polyacrylamide conjugate in a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) manner that "only shrunk" by the addition of ssDNA samples.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Base Sequence. Biochemistry / methods. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. DNA Primers / chemistry. DNA, Single-Stranded / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Hydrogels / chemistry. Materials Testing. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymers / chemistry. Surface Properties. Time Factors. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16283709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7797
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Single-Stranded; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Macromolecular Substances; 0 / Polymers; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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45. Jaiswal M, Dinda AK, Gupta A, Koul V: Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery. Biomed Mater; 2010 Dec;5(6):065014
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  • [Title] Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery.
  • A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker.
  • The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).
  • Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M(t)/M(∞) ≤ 0.6).
  • The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications.
  • The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorbable Implants. Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Body Fluids / chemistry. Curcumin / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemical synthesis. Gelatin / chemistry. Polyesters / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Acrylates / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Diffusion. Materials Testing. Porosity

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  • (PMID = 21079283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-605X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical materials (Bristol, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Mater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Polyesters; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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46. Bergh O, Nilsen F, Samuelsen OB: Diseases, prophylaxis and treatment of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: a review. Dis Aquat Organ; 2001 Dec 20;48(1):57-74
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  • As with other domesticated species, disease problems have been experienced.
  • The most important infections are caused by nodaviruses, causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER), which are the major reason why Norway's production of halibut fry has been level since 1995.
  • An aquatic birnavirus, Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus, is also an important agent of mortality.
  • Experimental vaccines have been tested against V anguillarum and atypical A. salmonicida, with good results.
  • A recombinant vaccine against nodaviruses is under development.
  • A number of efficacy and pharmacokinetic trials with various antibacterial agents have also been published.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aquaculture. Bacterial Infections / diagnosis. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Bacterial Infections / prevention & control. Bacterial Infections / veterinary. Parasitic Diseases, Animal / diagnosis. Parasitic Diseases, Animal / drug therapy. Parasitic Diseases, Animal / prevention & control. Treatment Outcome. Vaccination / veterinary. Virus Diseases / diagnosis. Virus Diseases / drug therapy. Virus Diseases / prevention & control. Virus Diseases / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 11843141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0177-5103
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of aquatic organisms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Aquat. Org.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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47. Risbud MV, Hardikar AA, Bhat SV, Bhonde RR: pH-sensitive freeze-dried chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydrogels as controlled release system for antibiotic delivery. J Control Release; 2000 Jul 31;68(1):23-30
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  • The aim of this study was to develop a pH-sensitive chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) based controlled drug release system for antibiotic delivery.
  • The hydrogels were synthesised by crosslinking chitosan and PVP blend with glutaraldehyde to form a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN).
  • The semi-IPN formation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis.
  • Freeze-dried membranes released around 73% of the amoxicillin (33% by air-dried) in 3 h at pH 1.0 and, thus, had superior drug-release properties to air-dried hydrogels.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Chitin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Hydrogels / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chitosan. Freeze Drying / methods. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Pharmaceutic Aids / administration & dosage. Povidone / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10884576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Pharmaceutic Aids; 1398-61-4 / Chitin; 9003-39-8 / Povidone; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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48. Wang SC, Chen BH, Wang LF, Chen JS: Characterization of chondroitin sulfate and its interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels for sustained-drug release. Int J Pharm; 2007 Feb 1;329(1-2):103-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of chondroitin sulfate and its interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels for sustained-drug release.
  • The goal of this work was to utilize the chondroitin sulfate (CS) based hydrogels for a drug delivery matrix.
  • CS is a good structure/disease-modifying anti-osteroarthritis drug (S/DMOAD).
  • However, the readily water-soluble nature limits its application as a solid-state drug-delivery vehicle.
  • In this study, two methods were used to prepare CS hydrogels: directly crosslinking CS with poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (EX-810) abbreviated as CS-EX or forming an interpenetrating polymer network named CS-EX-IPN.
  • The CS-EX-IPN hydrogel was carried out by sequentially crosslinking reaction between CS and EX-810 in one phase and acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (DEGDA) as a counter phase.
  • The values of compression modulus and effective crosslinking density of CS-EX-IPN were approximately 3.6-fold higher than CS-EX.
  • We also characterized the release of a model drug, diclofenac sodium (DS) and a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from CS-EX and CS-EX-IPN.
  • The similar release profiles of DS were observed in the both hydrogels but slower release rate of BSA occurred in CS-EX-IPN.
  • The release profiles of the two model drugs fit in a diffusion-controlled mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroitin Sulfates. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Hydrogels
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Cattle. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Epoxy Resins / chemistry. Serum Albumin, Bovine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16996709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Epoxy Resins; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 29317-04-2 / Quetol 651; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates
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49. Park Y, Liang J, Yang Z, Yang VC: Controlled release of clot-dissolving tissue-type plasminogen activator from a poly(L-glutamic acid) semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel. J Control Release; 2001 Jul 10;75(1-2):37-44
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  • [Title] Controlled release of clot-dissolving tissue-type plasminogen activator from a poly(L-glutamic acid) semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel.
  • With the aim of developing an effective therapeutic modality for treatment of thrombosis, a tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)-loaded porous poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel was developed as a possible local drug delivery system.
  • This semi-IPN hydrogel was prepared using the method of free-radical polymerization and crosslinking of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-methacrylate through the PLGA network.
  • Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) was added to function as a foaming agent under acidic conditions, rendering the semi-IPN hydrogel to be porous.
  • Results showed that the above hydrogel preparation process did not significantly alter the specific activity of the entrapped t-PA with regard to plasminogen activation and fibrin clot lysis ability.
  • The t-PA release from this semi-IPN hydrogel was examined by measuring the plasmin activity using the chromogenic substrate S-2251.
  • These results suggest that a porous PLGA semi-IPN hydrogel could potentially be a useful local delivery system to release active t-PA primarily at the site of a thrombus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Coagulation / drug effects. Cross-Linking Reagents. Delayed-Action Preparations. Fibrin. Hydrogels. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Polyglutamic Acid. Polymers. Porosity

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  • (PMID = 11451495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 25513-46-6 / Polyglutamic Acid; 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; EC 3.4.21.- / Plasminogen Activators; EC 3.4.21.68 / Tissue Plasminogen Activator
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50. Shivappa RB, McAllister PE, Edwards GH, Santi N, Evensen O, Vakharia VN: Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system. Dev Biol (Basel); 2005;121:165-74
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  • [Title] Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system.
  • Various attempts to develop a vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) have not yielded consistent results.
  • Thus, at present, no commercial vaccine is available that can be used with confidence to immunize fry of salmon and trout.
  • High yields of IPNV proteins were obtained and the structural proteins self assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs).
  • We tested the immunogenicity of the putative VLP antigen in immersion vaccine experiments (two concentrations) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, and by intraperitoneal immunisation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts using an oil adjuvant formulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / prevention & control. Gene Expression. Genes, Viral / genetics. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / genetics. Salmonidae. Vaccination / veterinary. Viral Structural Proteins / genetics. Viral Vaccines / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Viral / immunology. Antigens, Viral / immunology. Baculoviridae. Cells, Cultured. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Genetic Vectors / immunology. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Spodoptera. Transfection. Vaccines, Subunit / genetics. Virion / immunology. Virion / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15962479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-6074
  • [Journal-full-title] Developments in biologicals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev Biol (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Vaccines, Subunit; 0 / Viral Structural Proteins; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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51. Overstreet RM, Jovonovich J, Ma H: Parasitic crustaceans as vectors of viruses, with an emphasis on three penaeid viruses. Integr Comp Biol; 2009 Aug;49(2):127-41
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  • Parasitic crustaceans serve as both hosts and vectors of viruses as well as of parasites and other microbial pathogenic agents.
  • Because the agents can be observed readily with a microscope, these are better recognized than are the smaller viral, bacterial, and fungal agents.
  • Some agents are harmful to the host of the crustacean parasite and others are not.
  • Similarly, argulid branchiurans seem to transmit the viral agent of spring viremia of carp as well as carp pox, and copepods have been implicated in transmitting infectious hematopoietic necrosis, infectious salmon anemia, and infectious pancreatic necrosis to salmon.
  • The vector relationships indicate an additional potential means of transmitting and disseminating the disease-causing agents to the highly susceptible and economically valuable penaeid shrimp hosts.

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  • (PMID = 21669853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7023
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative and comparative biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr. Comp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Ciani E, Severi S, Bartesaghi R, Contestabile A: Neurochemical correlates of nicotine neurotoxicity on rat habenulo-interpeduncular cholinergic neurons. Neurotoxicology; 2005 Jun;26(3):467-74
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  • Chronic administration of high doses of nicotine results in axonal degeneration in the central core of the fasciculus retroflexus, a fiber tract connecting the habenulae (Hb) to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN).
  • We have undertaken the present investigation in order to ascertain whether the cholinergic Hb-IPN neurons are the actual target of nicotine toxicity and to begin studying molecular correlates of this action.
  • In the present report, we demonstrate that 7-day-long continuous administration of nicotine through osmotic minipumps, results in a significant (-13%) decrease in the volume of the medial Hb, where cholinergic neurons projecting to the IPN are located, and in a drop of a specific marker for cholinergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), in Hb (-36%) and IPN (-28%).
  • The present observations demonstrate that the cholinergic Hb-IPN neurons are a target for nicotine neurotoxicity and confirm the usefulness of the experimental model used here not only to study the consequences of chronic stimulant abuse, but also to study the neurochemistry of the affected neural systems and the role of signaling factors in neurodegenerative and repair mechanisms.
  • Medical relevance of the data on unique vulnerability of the Hb-IPN connection to nicotine in relation to heavy smoking habits, is briefly discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Choline O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 15935216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-813X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurotoxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurotoxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; EC 2.3.1.6 / Choline O-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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53. Pescosolido L, Miatto S, Di Meo C, Cencetti C, Coviello T, Alhaique F, Matricardi P: Injectable and in situ gelling hydrogels for modified protein release. Eur Biophys J; 2010 May;39(6):903-9
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  • The resulting Interpenetrating Polymer Network showed a synergistic mechanical behavior that can be exploited to target the hydrogel properties towards specific biomedical needs.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis. Methacrylates / chemistry. Proteins / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Dental Materials. Dextrans / chemical synthesis. Dextrans / chemistry. Drug Carriers. Drug Delivery Systems. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Injections. Materials Testing. Rheology

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  • [Cites] Int J Biol Macromol. 2000 Mar 16;27(1):41-7 [10704985.001]
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  • (PMID = 19326113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1017
  • [Journal-full-title] European biophysics journal : EBJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Biophys. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Dental Materials; 0 / Dextrans; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Proteins; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid
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54. Hou ZQ, Zhang ZX, Xu ZH, Zhang H, Tong ZF, Leng YS: The stability of insulin-loaded polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles in an oily medium and the hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats. Yao Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Jan;40(1):57-64
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  • AIM: To study the stability of insulin-loaded polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (IPN) in an oily medium (soybean oil containing 0.5% (v/v) Tween-20 and 5% (v/v) Vitamin E) along with the hypoglycemic effect following their oral administration to streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
  • METHODS: The stability of IPN in the process was appraised by measurement of the amount of undegraded insulin associated to nanoparticles, the average size and the span of IPN, as well as the release of insulin from IPN.
  • IPN in an aqueous medium (containing 0.5% (v/v) Tween-20) at pH 2.0 was also investigated as control.
  • RESULTS: The study showed that IPN in the oily medium was more stable than that in the aqueous medium over one year of storage in the dark at (25 +/- 2) degrees C and the in vitro stability of IPN in the oily medium against degradation by proteolytic enzymes was much better than that in the aqueous medium.
  • The apparent bioavailability of an oral administration of IPN (50 u x kg(-1)) in the oily medium versus an (sc) injection of insulin (2 u x kg(-1)) was 22.4%, much higher than that of IPN in the aqueous medium (15.5%), based on decreased areas above curve (AAC) determination for the blood glucose depression from time zero to 144 h of a single oral administration of IPN to STZ-diabetic rats.
  • CONCLUSION: IPN in soybean oil containing Tween-20 (0.5% v/v) and Vitamin E (5% v/v) could be considered as an effective and stable delivery system for oral insulin.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism. Drug Delivery Systems. Enbucrilate. Insulin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Biological Availability. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Drug Carriers. Drug Stability. Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Male. Nanostructures. Particle Size. Polymers. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Soybean Oil

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  • (PMID = 15881329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-4870
  • [Journal-full-title] Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yao Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Polymers; 8001-22-7 / Soybean Oil; F8CEP82QNP / Enbucrilate
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55. Kurkuri MD, Aminabhavi TM: Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid) sequential interpenetrating network pH-sensitive microspheres for the delivery of diclofenac sodium to the intestine. J Control Release; 2004 Apr 16;96(1):9-20
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  • [Title] Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid) sequential interpenetrating network pH-sensitive microspheres for the delivery of diclofenac sodium to the intestine.
  • Sequential interpenetrating network (IPN) of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to form pH-sensitive microspheres by the water-in-oil (w/o) emulsification method.
  • Microspheres were used to deliver a model anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DS), to the intestine.
  • The formed IPN was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were done on the drug-loaded microspheres to confirm the polymorphism of DS.
  • Results indicated a molecular level dispersion of DS in the IPN.
  • The results indicated a dependence on the pH of the release media, extent of crosslinking and the amount of drug loading.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / administration & dosage. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Intestines / drug effects. Polyvinyl Alcohol / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15063025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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56. Gils PS, Ray D, Sahoo PK: Designing of silver nanoparticles in gum arabic based semi-IPN hydrogel. Int J Biol Macromol; 2010 Mar 1;46(2):237-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Designing of silver nanoparticles in gum arabic based semi-IPN hydrogel.
  • Semi-interpenetrating network (SISH-GA) composed of gum arabic and crosslinked copolymer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) was synthesized in the presence of initiator ammonium persulfate (APS), crosslinker N,N'-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA), catalyzed by [CuSO4/glycine] chelate complex and finally loaded nanoparticle inside the networks via in situ reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7) as reducing agent.
  • Characterization of the product was performed along with its degradability in Escherichia coli medium.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20060413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biological macromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 9000-01-5 / Gum Arabic
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57. Allnutt FC, Bowers RM, Rowe CG, Vakharia VN, LaPatra SE, Dhar AK: Antigenicity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP2 subviral particles expressed in yeast. Vaccine; 2007 Jun 21;25(26):4880-8
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  • [Title] Antigenicity of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP2 subviral particles expressed in yeast.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus, the etiologic agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish, causes significant losses to the aquaculture industry.
  • [MeSH-major] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / genetics. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / immunology. Oncorhynchus mykiss / immunology. Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism. Viral Vaccines / biosynthesis. Viral Vaccines / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Birnaviridae Infections / immunology. Birnaviridae Infections / prevention & control. Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Complementary / biosynthesis. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fish Diseases / immunology. Fish Diseases / prevention & control. Genes, Viral. Genetic Vectors. Immunization. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. RNA / biosynthesis. RNA / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Vaccination. Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage. Vaccines, Synthetic / biosynthesis. Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17524532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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58. Santi N, Song H, Vakharia VN, Evensen Ø: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP5 is dispensable for virulence and persistence. J Virol; 2005 Jul;79(14):9206-16
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  • [Title] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP5 is dispensable for virulence and persistence.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) disease in salmonid fish.
  • The "wild-type" recombinant NVI15 (rNVI15) virus is virulent, having a premature stop codon at nucleotide position 427, putatively encoding a truncated 12-kDa VP5 protein, whereas rNVI15-15K virus encodes a 15-kDa protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / pathogenicity. Salmon / virology. Viral Nonstructural Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA, Complementary / analysis. Genome, Viral. Transfection. Virulence

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  • (PMID = 15994815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Viral Nonstructural Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1168776
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59. Bajpai AK, Bhanu S: In vitro release dynamics of insulin from a loaded hydrophilic polymeric network. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2004 Jan;15(1):43-54
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  • [Title] In vitro release dynamics of insulin from a loaded hydrophilic polymeric network.
  • A hydrophilic semi-interpenetrating polymer network of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAM) chains has been synthesized and its potential for controlled release of macromolecular drugs has been assessed by taking insulin as a representative drug.
  • The semi-IPN was characterized by IR studies and network parameters such as the average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc), crosslink density (q), and number of elastically effective chains (Ve) were evaluated.
  • The effect of chemical architecture of the IPN was investigated on the percent loading of insulin and its subsequent release from the loaded device.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents. Delayed-Action Preparations. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. In Vitro Techniques. Kinetics. Materials Testing. Molecular Weight. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Spectrophotometry, Infrared. Surface Properties. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 15338590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Insulin; 0 / polyacrylamide gels; 0 / polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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60. Rodriguez-Tenreiro C, Diez-Bueno L, Concheiro A, Torres-Labandeira JJ, Alvarez-Lorenzo C: Cyclodextrin/carbopol micro-scale interpenetrating networks (ms-IPNs) for drug delivery. J Control Release; 2007 Oct 18;123(1):56-66
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  • [Title] Cyclodextrin/carbopol micro-scale interpenetrating networks (ms-IPNs) for drug delivery.
  • Cross-linking of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP beta CD) with ethyleneglycol diglycidylether (EGDE) in carbopol dispersions enabled the synthesis of cyclodextrin hydrogels with domains of interpenetrating acrylic microgels (micro-scale-IPNs) in a single step under mild conditions.
  • Control HP beta CD hydrogel and ms-IPNs were loaded with estradiol and ketoconazole by immersion in drug suspensions, some of which were autoclaved to enhance (up to a 50%) drug/cyclodextrin affinity. ms-IPNs prepared with 0.8% or 1.0% carbopol showed the highest loading due to their greater swelling degree and, consequently, mesh size.
  • The total loading of the ms-IPNs greatly exceeded (up to 200-fold) the amount dissolved in their aqueous phase, which highlights the main role of drug complexation with the cross-linked cyclodextrins.
  • The affinity of the drug for HP beta CD sustained the release for several days; the rate being also dependent on carbopol content and on pH of the medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclodextrins / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Microspheres. Polyvinyls / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins. Cross-Linking Reagents / administration & dosage. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17761336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Cyclodextrins; 0 / Polyvinyls; 9007-20-9 / carboxypolymethylene
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61. Martin-Armas M, Sommer AI, Smedsrød B: Studies on uptake and intracellular processing of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by Atlantic cod scavenger endothelial cells. J Fish Dis; 2007 Nov;30(11):701-10
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  • [Title] Studies on uptake and intracellular processing of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by Atlantic cod scavenger endothelial cells.
  • We focused on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as it is a well-known virus with a broad host range, and causes significant economic losses in the salmon industry.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Endothelial Cells / virology. Fish Diseases / virology. Gadus morhua / virology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiprotozoal Agents / pharmacology. Chloroquine / pharmacology. Endocytosis / drug effects. Endocytosis / physiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / analysis. Ligands. Monensin / pharmacology. Receptors, Virus / metabolism. Time Factors. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 17958614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-7775
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fish diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Fish Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Virus; 886U3H6UFF / Chloroquine; 906O0YJ6ZP / Monensin
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62. Stevens KR, Einerson NJ, Burmania JA, Kao WJ: In vivo biocompatibility of gelatin-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2002;13(12):1353-66
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  • [Title] In vivo biocompatibility of gelatin-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks.
  • The in vivo host response to two gelatin-based hydrogel systems of varying crosslinking modalities and loaded with the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone sodium phosphate was investigated.
  • Either gelatin was chemically crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, or polyethyleneglycol diacrylate was photopolymerized around gelatin to form interpenetrating networks.
  • The subcutaneous cage implant system was utilized to determine differential leukocyte concentrations in the inflammatory exudate surrounding the materials as indices for biocompatibility and drug efficacy in vivo.
  • Most of the crosslinked gelatin-based materials, either via glutaraldehyde fixation or interpenetrating network formation, elicited stronger inflammatory responses than either of the starting materials, gelatin and polyethyleneglycol diacrylate.
  • In general, dexamethasone delayed and intensified the inflammatory response.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / analogs & derivatives. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / pharmacology. Gelatin / chemistry. Gelatin / pharmacology. Hydrogels / chemistry. Hydrogels / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacokinetics. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Exudates and Transudates / immunology. Exudates and Transudates / metabolism. Female. Glutaral / chemistry. Glutaral / pharmacokinetics. Neutrophils / drug effects. Neutrophils / immunology. Neutrophils / metabolism. Photochemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacokinetics. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 12555901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB-00290; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-63686
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 312-93-6 / dexamethasone 21-phosphate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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63. Changez M, Burugapalli K, Koul V, Choudhary V: The effect of composition of poly(acrylic acid)-gelatin hydrogel on gentamicin sulphate release: in vitro. Biomaterials; 2003 Feb;24(4):527-36
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  • Hydrogels based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin crosslinked with N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (0.5mol%) and glutaraldehyde (4%), respectively, forming an interpenetrating network were employed as matrices, for studying the loading and release of gentamicin sulphate.
  • The drug release in phosphate buffer was faster as compared to water or citrate buffer.
  • Fitting the data of release studies in Peppas model indicated that the release of drug from full IPNs in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), water (pH approximately 5.8) and citrate buffer (pH 4) were diffusion controlled.
  • With increasing gelatin percentage in the polymer, rate of drug release was faster and almost 85% of the loaded drug was released within 7 days in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4).
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry. Gelatin / chemistry. Gentamicins / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biocompatible Materials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12437947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Gentamicins; 0 / Hydrogels; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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64. Carnahan MA, Middleton C, Kim J, Kim T, Grinstaff MW: Hybrid dendritic-linear polyester-ethers for in situ photopolymerization. J Am Chem Soc; 2002 May 15;124(19):5291-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The mechanism of tissue repair is likely one of physical entrapment where an interpenetrating network (IPN) is formed between the cross-linked copolymer and the tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Eye Injuries / drug therapy. Humans. Photochemistry

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  • (PMID = 11996569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-7863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R0I-EY 13881
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers; 0 / Succinates; 25618-55-7 / polyglycerol; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol
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65. Brigham MD, Bick A, Lo E, Bendali A, Burdick JA, Khademhosseini A: Mechanically robust and bioadhesive collagen and photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating networks. Tissue Eng Part A; 2009 Jul;15(7):1645-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanically robust and bioadhesive collagen and photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating networks.
  • In this work, we present a class of hydrogels that leverage the favorable properties of the photo-cross-linkable hyaluronic acid (HA) and semi-interpenetrating collagen components.
  • The mechanical properties of the semi-interpenetrating-network (semi-IPN) hydrogels far surpass those achievable with collagen gels or collagen gel-based semi-IPNs.
  • Furthermore, the inclusion of the semi-interpenetrating collagen chains provides a synergistic mechanical improvement over unmodified HA hydrogels.

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  • (PMID = 19105604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue engineering. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Eng Part A
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019024-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB007249-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB007249-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / RL1 DE019024-03; None / None / / RL1 DE019024-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB007249; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL092836; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / RL1 DE019024-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / RL1 DE019024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Methacrylates; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS106198; NLM/ PMC2709163
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66. Kim JH, Kim SC: Effect of synthesis temperature of PEO-grafted PU/PS IPNs on surface morphology and in vitro blood compatibility. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2003;14(6):601-14
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  • In this study, poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted hydrophilic polyurethane (PU)/hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were synthesized by varying the synthesis temperature to control the phase separation and the microdomain surface structure, and the effect of the degree of phase separation on the in vitro blood compatibility.
  • The size of the dispersed PS-rich domains in the PU-rich matrix decreased, and the hydrophilicity also decreased as the synthesis temperature of the PS network during the IPN synthesis was decreased, as the phase separation was suppressed during the synthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology. Blood / drug effects. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polystyrenes / chemistry. Polyurethanes / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Platelets / drug effects. Blood Platelets / metabolism. Cattle. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Fibrinogen / pharmacokinetics. Hot Temperature. Membrane Microdomains / chemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Platelet Activation. Surface Properties / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12901441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / Polyurethanes; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen
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67. Kumar P, Singh I: Formulation and characterization of tramadol-loaded IPN microgels of alginate and gelatin: Optimization using response surface methodology. Acta Pharm; 2010 Sep;60(3):295-310
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  • [Title] Formulation and characterization of tramadol-loaded IPN microgels of alginate and gelatin: Optimization using response surface methodology.
  • Tramadol-loaded interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) alginate-gelatin (AG) microgels (MG) were prepared by the chemical cross-linking technique with glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent and were optimized using response surfaces.
  • A central composite design for 2 factors, at 3 levels each, was employed to evaluate the effect of critical formulation variables, namely the amount of gelatin (X1) and glutaraldehyde (X2), on geometric mean diameter, encapsulation efficiency, diffusion coefficient (D), amount of mucin adsorbed per unit mass (Qe) and 50 % drug release time (t50).
  • Drug encapsulation up to 86.5 % was achieved.
  • MGs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy to assess formation of the IPN structure and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to understand the nature of drug dispersion after encapsulation into IPN microgels.
  • In vitro release studies indicated the dependence of drug release on the extent of cross-linking and the amount of gelatin used in preparing IPNs.
  • The release rates were fitted to a power law equation and Higuchi's model to compute the various drug transport parameters, n value ranged from 0.4055 to 0.5754, suggesting that release may vary from Fickian to quasi-Fickian depending upon variation in the formulation composition.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adhesiveness. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Gels. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Glutaral / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Microspheres. Models, Theoretical. Particle Size. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Glutaraldehyde .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALGIN .
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  • (PMID = 21134864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1846-9558
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta pharmaceutica (Zagreb, Croatia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Gels; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 39J1LGJ30J / Tramadol; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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68. Alne H, Thomassen MS, Takle H, Terjesen BF, Grammes F, Oehme M, Refstie S, Sigholt T, Berge RK, Rørvik KA: Increased survival by feeding tetradecylthioacetic acid during a natural outbreak of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in S0 Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J Fish Dis; 2009 Nov;32(11):953-61
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  • We have previously documented increased survival by feeding tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) during a natural outbreak of infectious pancreatic necrosis in post-smolt S1 Atlantic salmon.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Acids / therapeutic use. Fish Diseases / drug therapy. Myocarditis / veterinary. Myositis / veterinary. Salmo salar / physiology. Sulfides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Heart / drug effects. Lipid Metabolism / drug effects. Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Myocardium / pathology. Random Allocation. Survival Analysis. Urea / blood

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  • (PMID = 19602091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2761
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fish diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Fish Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Sulfides; 2921-20-2 / 1-(carboxymethylthio)tetradecane; 8W8T17847W / Urea
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69. Zhang JT, Bhat R, Jandt KD: Temperature-sensitive PVA/PNIPAAm semi-IPN hydrogels with enhanced responsive properties. Acta Biomater; 2009 Jan;5(1):488-97
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  • [Title] Temperature-sensitive PVA/PNIPAAm semi-IPN hydrogels with enhanced responsive properties.
  • A series of temperature-sensitive hydrogels of semi-interpenetrating polymeric networks (semi-IPN) composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by radical polymerization.
  • The PNIPAAm networks were cross-linked by N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of linear PVA.
  • The prepared semi-IPN hydrogels were characterized for their morphologies and thermal behaviors by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively.
  • The interior network structures of the semi-IPN matrix became more porous with increasing PVA.
  • In comparison to the conventional PNIPAAm gel, the newly reported semi-IPN hydrogels exhibited the same lower critical solution temperature.
  • Experimental data indicated that the shrinking and reswelling rates of the semi-IPN hydrogels were much faster than those of the conventional PNIPAAm hydrogels.
  • These fast responsive hydrogels exhibited improved temperature sensitivity and swelling properties compared to the conventional PNIPAAm hydrogel, which would be critical and desirable for a gel to find potential applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery systems and sensors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins. Animals. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning / methods. Cell Survival. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Kinetics. Mice. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / methods. Oscillometry. Rheology / methods. Temperature. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18656431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7568
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biomaterialia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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70. Liu YY, Shao YH, Lü J: Preparation, properties and controlled release behaviors of pH-induced thermosensitive amphiphilic gels. Biomaterials; 2006 Jul;27(21):4016-24
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  • [Title] Preparation, properties and controlled release behaviors of pH-induced thermosensitive amphiphilic gels.
  • Two pH-induced thermosensitive amphiphilic gels for controlled drug release were constructed with thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and hydrophobic poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) by interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) technology.
  • It is found that the IPN hydrogels show pH-induced thermosensitivity at physiological temperature.
  • When the amphiphilic gels with IPN structure were immersed in water, the hydrophobic moieties formed by PEA have the potential to act as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, from which drug may be released slowly.
  • Using drug daidzein (DAI) as a model molecule, controlled release behaviors of the IPNs were investigated.
  • It is found that the presence of permanently hydrophobic PEA network can indeed slow the release rate of DAI and to some extent overcome disadvantageous burst effect of PNIPAm-based networks in hydration state.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Isoflavones / administration & dosage. Isoflavones / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16563494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / poly(ethylacrylate); 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; 6287WC5J2L / daidzein
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71. Zhao S, Cao M, Li H, Li L, Xu W: Synthesis and characterization of thermo-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) macromer, N-isopropylacrylamide, and sodium alginate. Carbohydr Res; 2010 Feb 11;345(3):425-31
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  • [Title] Synthesis and characterization of thermo-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) macromer, N-isopropylacrylamide, and sodium alginate.
  • Thermo-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels were prepared via in situ copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) with poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEG-co-PCL) macromer in the presence of sodium alginate by UV irradiation technology.
  • The salt sensitivity of the semi-IPN hydrogels was dependent on the content of sodium alginate introduced in the hydrogels.
  • It was found that the introduction of sodium alginate with semi-IPN structure improved mechanical strength of the hydrogels and the cumulative release percentage of BSA from the hydrogels.
  • Such double-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogel materials could be exploited as potential candidates for drug delivery carriers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemical synthesis. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Alginates / chemistry. Ethylene Oxide / chemistry. Ethylene Oxide / radiation effects. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Kinetics. Lactones / chemistry. Lactones / radiation effects. Physicochemical Processes. Rheology. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Temperature. Ultraviolet Rays

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. N-ISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETHYLENE OXIDE .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM ALGINATE .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALGIN .
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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20031120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-426X
  • [Journal-full-title] Carbohydrate research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carbohydr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Lactones; 0 / PLC(20)-b-PEO(44); 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; B7GFF17L9U / N-isopropylacrylamide; JJH7GNN18P / Ethylene Oxide
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72. Vishal Gupta N, Shivakumar HG: Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate. Daru; 2010;18(3):200-10
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  • [Title] Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate.
  • BACKGROUND AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system.
  • In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system.
  • METHODS: Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network type superporous hydrogels were prepared using a gas foaming method employing glyoxal as the crosslinking agent for Rosiglitazone maleate.
  • Sodium bicarbonate was applied as a foaming agent to introduce the porous structure.
  • The optimum preparation condition of superporous hydrogels was obtained from the gelation kinetics.
  • In vitro drug release studies were also carried out.
  • The prepared superporous hydrogels were highly sensitive to pH of swelling media, and showed reversible swelling and de-swelling behaviors maintaining their mechanical stability.
  • The drug release from superporous hydrogels was sustained for 6 hrs.
  • MAJOR CONCLUSION: The studies showed that chitosan-based superporous hydrogels could be used as a gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate in view of their swelling and prolonged drug release characteristics in acidic pH.

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  • (PMID = 22615618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Daru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Daru
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3304361
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chitosan / Gastric retention / Swelling
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73. Wang B, Liu M, Chen Z, Liang R, Ding S, Chen S, Jin S: Preparation, characterization and controlled release investigation of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(acrylic acid)/triazole modified poly(vinyl alcohol). Int J Pharm; 2007 Feb 22;331(1):19-26
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  • [Title] Preparation, characterization and controlled release investigation of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(acrylic acid)/triazole modified poly(vinyl alcohol).
  • A series of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/triazole modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (TMIPNs) were synthesized by radical polymerization in methanol at room temperature with l-ascorbic acid (Vc) and peroxide hydrogen (H2O2) as initiators and trihydroxymethyl propane glycidol ether (6360) as a crosslinker.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Hydrogels / chemistry. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Triazoles / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Compounding. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Transition Temperature. Water / chemistry

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SODIUM CHLORIDE .
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  • (PMID = 17107765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Triazoles; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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74. Burns JC, Kushner HI, Bastian JF, Shike H, Shimizu C, Matsubara T, Turner CL: Kawasaki disease: A brief history. Pediatrics; 2000 Aug;106(2):E27
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  • Although an infectious agent is suspected, the cause remains unknown.
  • The similarity between KD and infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN) was apparent to these pathologists, as it had been to Tanaka earlier.
  • Alternatively, KD and IPN may be part of the spectrum of the same disease and clinically mild KD masqueraded as other diseases, such as scarlet fever in the preantibiotic era.
  • Case reports of IPN from Western Europe extend back to at least the 19th century, but, thus far, cases of IPN have not been discovered in Japan before World War II.

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  • (PMID = 10920183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Kawasaki T
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75. Reddy TT, Kano A, Maruyama A, Hadano M, Takahara A: Thermosensitive transparent semi-interpenetrating polymer networks for wound dressing and cell adhesion control. Biomacromolecules; 2008 Apr;9(4):1313-21
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  • [Title] Thermosensitive transparent semi-interpenetrating polymer networks for wound dressing and cell adhesion control.
  • Thermosensitive, transparent, and flexible semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) composed of segmented polyurethane urea/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (SPUU/ PNiPAAm) were new class of materials, which holds promise for its potential use as wound dressings.
  • The resulting semi-IPNs were also investigated for their dynamic water contact angles, thermodynamic interaction parameters, in vitro drug release, and cell adhesion and detachment.
  • In addition, NIH3T3 fibroblasts can attach to and detach from these semi-IPN films with varying temperature.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Drug Delivery Systems. Light. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Polyurethanes / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Sulfamethoxazole / pharmacokinetics. Sulfamethoxazole / pharmacology. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 18355026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyurethanes; 97343-15-2 / polyetherurethane urea; JE42381TNV / Sulfamethoxazole
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76. Liu YY, Fan XD, Wei BR, Si QF, Chen WX, Sun L: pH-responsive amphiphilic hydrogel networks with IPN structure: a strategy for controlled drug release. Int J Pharm; 2006 Feb 3;308(1-2):205-9
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  • [Title] pH-responsive amphiphilic hydrogel networks with IPN structure: a strategy for controlled drug release.
  • A pH-responsive amphiphilic hydrogel with interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) structure for controlled drug release was proposed.
  • The IPN was constructed with hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and hydrophobic poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA).
  • Using drug N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin, MEL) as a model molecule, the controlled drug release behaviors of the IPN were investigated.
  • It is found that not only the release of MEL from the IPN can respond to change in pH, but also the presence of hydrophobic network can overcome disadvantageous burst effect of hydrophilic network.
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Melatonin / chemistry. Molecular Conformation. Solubility. Surface Properties. Time Factors. Transition Temperature. Ultraviolet Rays. Water / chemistry

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Water .
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  • (PMID = 16321489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 0 / poly(n-butyl acrylate); 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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77. Ding F, Hsu SH, Wu DH, Chiang WY: Drug release from interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and gelatin. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2009;20(5-6):605-18
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  • [Title] Drug release from interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and gelatin.
  • In order to develop new materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and gelatin were synthesized.
  • Sequential IPNs were prepared by polymerizing and cross-linking PEGMEA in the presence of gelatin using redox initiators (e.g., ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TEMED)), as well as NMBA as the cross-linking agent.
  • The swelling kinetics, mechanical properties and drug-release behavior of these IPNs were analyzed.
  • The drug loading was very high due to the full-IPN structure.
  • The drug-release velocity was mainly affected by the content of PEGMEA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Gelatin / chemistry. Methacrylates / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomechanical Phenomena. Caffeine / administration & dosage. Cross-Linking Reagents. Delayed-Action Preparations. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis. Hydrogels / chemistry. Kinetics. Materials Testing. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 19323879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / polyethylene glycol methacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 3G6A5W338E / Caffeine; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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78. Tiğli RS, Gümüşderelioğlu M: Evaluation of alginate-chitosan semi IPNs as cartilage scaffolds. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2009 Mar;20(3):699-709
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  • In this study, alginate and alginate:chitosan semi interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying process.
  • This is why, alginate:chitosan semi IPN scaffolds were prepared at the crosslinking condition mentioned above in 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50% (v/v) alginate:chitosan ratios.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrogenesis. Cross-Linking Reagents. Freeze Drying. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Materials Testing. Mice. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Tissue Engineering

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  • (PMID = 18987950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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79. Chaves-Pozo E, Zou J, Secombes CJ, Cuesta A, Tafalla C: The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interferon response in the ovary. Mol Immunol; 2010 May;47(9):1757-64
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  • Taking into account that in teleost fish, the innate immune system is considered crucial to the outcome of viral infections and the interferon (IFN) system is considered as the first line of defence against viruses, we have studied the IFN response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovary using two viruses with different replicative capacity in this organ, namely viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
  • Finally, to better understand the role that the production of type I IFN plays in the ovary, we have studied the effects of two type I recombinant rainbow trout IFNs (rtIFN1 and rtIFN2) to modulate both the expression of immune genes and to establish an antiviral state in the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Fish Proteins / immunology. Interferons / immunology. Oncorhynchus mykiss / immunology. Ovary / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Female. Fish Diseases / genetics. Fish Diseases / immunology. Fish Diseases / virology. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression / drug effects. Host-Pathogen Interactions. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / physiology. Interferon Type I / genetics. Interferon Type I / immunology. Interferon Type I / pharmacology. Interferon-gamma / genetics. Interferon-gamma / immunology. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Novirhabdovirus / drug effects. Novirhabdovirus / physiology. Poly I-C / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20356627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9142
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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80. Chen Y, Ding D, Mao Z, He Y, Hu Y, Wu W, Jiang X: Synthesis of hydroxypropylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) particles with semi-interpenetrating polymer network structure. Biomacromolecules; 2008 Oct;9(10):2609-14
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  • [Title] Synthesis of hydroxypropylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) particles with semi-interpenetrating polymer network structure.
  • To develop a novel type of semi-IPN particles using biocompatible materials, hydroxypropylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) (HPC-PAA) particles with semi-interpenetrating polymer network structure and a porosity-structural surface were prepared by direct polymerization of acrylic acid monomer in the reaction system comprised of HPC and AA monomer and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAAm).
  • Successful loading of the gel particles with oxaliplatin, a hydrophilic antitumor drug, was achieved by take advantage of the complex interaction between the platinum atom of oxaliplatin and the carboxylic group of PAA in the gel particles.
  • Considering the good biosafety, simple and mild preparation strategy and tunable size as well as the stimuli-responsive properties, the HPC-PAA gel particles should be a promising candidate for the drug delivery system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Cell Line, Tumor. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 18759474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Polymers; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; EDK4RIE19C / N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide; RFW2ET671P / hydroxypropylcellulose
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81. Toth C, Brown MS, Furtado S, Suchowersky O, Zochodne D: Neuropathy as a potential complication of levodopa use in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord; 2008 Oct 15;23(13):1850-9
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  • This PD patient population with idiopathic PN (PD-IPN) was compared to a group of PD patients without PN (PD-only), and a large group of patients without PD with idiopathic PN (IPN) for abnormalities in Cbl, fasting homocysteine (Hcy), and fasting methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels.
  • PD-IPN and IPN patients identified with abnormalities in Cbl, Hcy, or MMA levels were treated with intramuscular Cbl for 1 to 2 years.
  • Of 49 PD patients with symptomatic PN, 34 patients (69%) had PD-IPN, and 32/34 (94%) had abnormal Hcy or MMA levels as compared to 26/258 (10%) of IPN patients.
  • Cbl therapy led to improvements in Hcy and MMA levels in all groups, and PN in PD-IPN patients stabilized during therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiparkinson Agents / adverse effects. Levodopa / adverse effects. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Female. Homocysteine / blood. Humans. Male. Methylmalonic Acid / blood. Parkinson Disease / complications. Parkinson Disease / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Vitamin B 12 / blood

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Movement Disorder Society.
  • [CommentIn] Mov Disord. 2010 Apr 15;25(5):660-1 [20213824.001]
  • (PMID = 18785232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-8257
  • [Journal-full-title] Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mov. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 0LVT1QZ0BA / Homocysteine; 46627O600J / Levodopa; 8LL8S712J7 / Methylmalonic Acid; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
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82. Ray S, Banerjee S, Maiti S, Laha B, Barik S, Sa B, Bhattacharyya UK: Novel interpenetrating network microspheres of xanthan gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) for the delivery of diclofenac sodium to the intestine--in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Drug Deliv; 2010 Sep-Oct;17(7):508-19
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  • [Title] Novel interpenetrating network microspheres of xanthan gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) for the delivery of diclofenac sodium to the intestine--in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
  • Xanthan gum (XG), a trisaccharide branched polymer and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), was used to develop pH-sensitive interpenetrating network (IPN) microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method in the presence of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker to deliver model anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DS) to the intestine.
  • Various formulations were prepared by changing the ratio of XG:PVA, extent of cross-linking in order to optimize the formulation variables on drug encapsulation efficiency, and release rate.
  • Formation of interpenetrating network and the chemical stability of DS after penetration of microspheres was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were done on the drug loaded microspheres which confirmed molecular dispersion of DS in the IPN.
  • Drug encapsulation of up to 82.94% was achieved as measured by UV method.
  • Release data indicated a Fickian trend of drug release which depends on the extent of cross-linking and the ratio of XG:PVA present in the microsphere.
  • When subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in rabbits, microparticles show slow and prolonged drug release when compared with DS solution.
  • Based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies it was concluded that these IPN microspheres provided oral controlled release of water-soluble DS.
  • [MeSH-major] Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Intestines / drug effects. Polysaccharides, Bacterial. Polyvinyl Alcohol
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Microspheres. Rabbits. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 20482471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0464
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; TTV12P4NEE / xanthan gum
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83. Abraham GA, de Queiroz AA, Román JS: Hydrophilic hybrid IPNs of segmented polyurethanes and copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone for applications in medicine. Biomaterials; 2001 Jul;22(14):1971-85
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  • [Title] Hydrophilic hybrid IPNs of segmented polyurethanes and copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone for applications in medicine.
  • The preparation and biocompatibility properties of thermoplastic apparent interpenetrating polymer networks (T-IPNs) of a segmented polyurethaneurea, Biospan (BS), and vinylpyrrolidone-dimethylacrylamide (VP-DMAm) copolymers, are described.
  • The biological interaction between the obtained materials and blood was studied by in vitro methods.
  • Investigation of the proteins adsorption, platelet adhesion, thrombus formation and factor XII activation is presented.
  • Investigations of the proteins adsorption of the BS/VP-DMAm T-IPNs surfaces show that the segmented polyurethane (BS) containing VP-DMAm copolymers with higher VP content adsorb more albumin than fibrinogen and gamma-globulin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Albumins / chemistry. Blood Coagulation / drug effects. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Diffusion. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Factor XII / metabolism. Fibrinogen / chemistry. Humans. Materials Testing. Platelet Adhesiveness / drug effects. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties. Water. gamma-Globulins / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 11426875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Polyurethanes; 0 / Polyvinyls; 0 / Pyrrolidinones; 0 / gamma-Globulins; 0 / poly(vinylpyrrolidinone-co-dimethyacrylamide); 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9001-30-3 / Factor XII; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; 97343-15-2 / polyetherurethane urea
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84. Qiu Y, Park K: Superporous IPN hydrogels having enhanced mechanical properties. AAPS PharmSciTech; 2003 Oct 13;4(4):E51
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  • [Title] Superporous IPN hydrogels having enhanced mechanical properties.
  • The objective of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of superporous hydrogels (SPHs), which were used to develop gastric retention devices for long-term oral drug delivery.
  • The main approach used in this study was to form an interpenetrating polymer network by incorporating a second polymer network inside an SPH structure.
  • Polyacrylonitrile was used as the second network inside an SPH.
  • The enhanced mechanical properties were a result of the scaffold-like fiber network structures formed inside the cell walls of SPHs.
  • The fast swelling property of SPHs was not affected by the incorporation of the second polymer network because the interconnected pore structures were maintained.
  • Gastric retention devices based on superporous IPN hydrogels (SPIHs) with the improved mechanical properties are expected to withstand compression pressure and mechanical frictions in the stomach better than the control SPHs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Elasticity. Mechanics

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  • [Cites] J Control Release. 2000 Feb 14;64(1-3):39-51 [10640644.001]
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  • (PMID = 15198546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9932
  • [Journal-full-title] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 25014-41-9 / polyacrylonitrile
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2750644
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85. Yin L, Zhao X, Cui L, Ding J, He M, Tang C, Yin C: Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer networks. Food Chem Toxicol; 2009 Jun;47(6):1139-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer networks.
  • The superporous hydrogel containing poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) interpenetrating polymer networks (SPH-IPN) that had been developed as an oral delivery vehicle for protein drugs was subject to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing, thus evaluating its biological safety in use.
  • In a battery of cytotoxicity assays on RBL-2H3 and Caco-2 cells, the SPH-IPN caused minimal damage towards cell viability, lysosomal activity, and metabolic activity following both direct and indirect treatment.
  • The SPH-IPN did not induce cell apoptosis or DNA breakage in the above cell lines; it did not increase micronucleus (MN) incidence in mouse bone marrow, either.
  • Therefore, the SPH-IPN was preliminarily considered to be biocompatible and might be a safe carrier for protein drugs.
  • In addition, using the HPLC method, residual acrylic acid, acrylamide, and glutaraldehyde in the SPH-IPN were quantified to be 1.4, 2.0, and below 0.2 ppm, respectively.
  • Lack of these low molecular monomers and crosslinker that were mainly responsible for the toxicity provided evidence for the good biocompatibility of the SPH-IPN.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / toxicity. Chitosan / analogs & derivatives. Hydrogels / toxicity. Mutagens. Pharmaceutical Vehicles / toxicity. Polymers / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamide / toxicity. Acrylates / toxicity. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Comet Assay. DNA Fragmentation. Glutaral / toxicity. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Materials Testing. Micronucleus Tests. Neutral Red

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  • (PMID = 19425232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Polymers; 0 / poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)-O-carboxymethyl chitosan; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; 261QK3SSBH / Neutral Red; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; J94PBK7X8S / acrylic acid; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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86. Xu LQ, Yao F, Fu GD, Kang ET: Interpenetrating network hydrogels via simultaneous "click chemistry" and atom transfer radical polymerization. Biomacromolecules; 2010 Jul 12;11(7):1810-7
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  • [Title] Interpenetrating network hydrogels via simultaneous "click chemistry" and atom transfer radical polymerization.
  • Simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks (sIPNs) from concurrent copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition "click chemistry" and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are described.
  • These sIPNs could find applications as biomaterials for contact lenses, biomedical materials, artificial organs, and drug delivery systems.

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  • (PMID = 20518556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkynes; 0 / Azides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 789U1901C5 / Copper
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87. Chen PC, Wu JL, Her GM, Hong JR: Aquatic birnavirus induces necrotic cell death via the mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2010 Feb;28(2):344-53
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  • Presently, we demonstrate that infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) induces post-apoptotic necrotic cell death through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by caspase-3 activation in CHSE-214 cells.
  • Taken together, our results suggest that IPNV induces apoptotic cell death via loss of MMP, thereby triggering secondary necrosis and caspases-3 activation.
  • Furthermore, this death-signaling pathway is disrupted by bongkrekic acid in fish cells, indicating that this drug may serve to modulate IPNV-induced pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Bongkrekic Acid / pharmacology. Cell Line. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Phosphatidylserines / pharmacology. Salmon

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19944168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Phosphatidylserines; 11076-19-0 / Bongkrekic Acid; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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88. Matricardi P, Onorati I, Coviello T, Alhaique F: Drug delivery matrices based on scleroglucan/alginate/borax gels. Int J Pharm; 2006 Jun 19;316(1-2):21-8
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  • [Title] Drug delivery matrices based on scleroglucan/alginate/borax gels.
  • The aim of this work is to obtain a new drug delivery matrix, especially designed for protein delivery, based on biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, and to describe its main physico-chemical properties.
  • A polysaccharide based semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) was built up, composed by sodium alginate chains interspersed into a scleroglucan/borax hydrogel network.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Borates / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Design. Glucans / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Freeze Drying. Gels. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Myoglobin / chemistry. Solubility. Surface Properties. Tablets, Enteric-Coated

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  • (PMID = 16554128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Borates; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Gels; 0 / Glucans; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Myoglobin; 0 / Tablets, Enteric-Coated; 1303-96-4 / borax; 39464-87-4 / scleroglucan; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid
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89. Liu Z, Luo Y, Zhang K: P(AAm-co-MAA) semi-IPN hybrid hydrogels in the presence of PANI and MWNTs-COOH: improved swelling behavior and mechanical properties. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2008;19(11):1503-20
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  • [Title] P(AAm-co-MAA) semi-IPN hybrid hydrogels in the presence of PANI and MWNTs-COOH: improved swelling behavior and mechanical properties.
  • A highly pH-sensitive hybrid hydrogel with semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPN)composed of co-polymer networks of acrylamide-methacrylic acid (P(AAm-co-MAA)) and polyaniline (PANI)/carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-COOH) was designed and synthesized by a cross-linking co-polymerization route in the presence of N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (BIS) and ammonium persulfate (APS).
  • P(AAm-co-MAA) co-polymer hydrogels were discussed as a control sample at the same time.
  • The experimental results indicated that the prepared P(AAm-co-MAA) co-polymer hydrogels showed a high equilibrium swelling ratio in distilled water, pH-responsive characteristics and excellent strain recoverability.
  • After having incorporated the polyelectrolyte PANI and MWNTs-COOH into the above-mentioned network, the P(AAm-co-MAA)/PANI/MWNTs-COOH semi-IPN hybrid hydrogels obtained possessed an even higher sensitivity to pH environments, good swelling reversibility, higher ultimate compressive strength and good strain recoverable ability.
  • Swelling experimentations in buffer solutions of different pH revealed that the semi-IPN hybrid hydrogels possessed higher tensile strengths at a lower pH than at a higher pH value.
  • [MeSH-major] Aniline Compounds / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry. Mechanical Processes. Nanotubes, Carbon / chemistry. Polymethacrylic Acids / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomedical and Dental Materials / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 18973726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Biomedical and Dental Materials; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Nanotubes, Carbon; 0 / Polymethacrylic Acids; 0 / poly(methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid); 0 / polyaniline
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90. Agnihotri SA, Aminabhavi TM: Novel interpenetrating network chitosan-poly(ethylene oxide-g-acrylamide) hydrogel microspheres for the controlled release of capecitabine. Int J Pharm; 2006 Nov 6;324(2):103-15
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  • [Title] Novel interpenetrating network chitosan-poly(ethylene oxide-g-acrylamide) hydrogel microspheres for the controlled release of capecitabine.
  • This paper describes the synthesis of capecitabine-loaded semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel microspheres of chitosan-poly(ethylene oxide-g-acrylamide) by emulsion crosslinking using glutaraldehyde.
  • Capecitabine, an anticancer drug, was successfully loaded into microspheres by changing experimental variables such as grafting ratio of the graft copolymer, ratio of the graft copolymer to chitosan, amount of crosslinking agent and percentage of drug loading in order to optimize process variables on drug encapsulation efficiency, release rates, size and morphology of the microspheres.
  • A 2(4) full factorial design was employed to evaluate the combined effect of selected independent variables on percentage of drug release at 5h (response).
  • Grafting, interpenetrating network formation and chemical stability of the capecitabine after encapsulation into microspheres was confirmed by Fourier infrared spectra (FTIR).
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) studies were made on drug-loaded microspheres to investigate the crystalline nature of drug after encapsulation.
  • Results indicated amorphous dispersion of capecitabine in the polymer matrix.
  • Capecitabine was successfully encapsulated into semi-IPN microspheres and percentage of encapsulation efficiency varied from 79 to 87.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Capecitabine. Delayed-Action Preparations. Diffusion. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Hydrogel. Polyethylene Glycols. Solubility. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 16824710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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91. Witte RP, Kao WJ: Keratinocyte-fibroblast paracrine interaction: the effects of substrate and culture condition. Biomaterials; 2005 Jun;26(17):3673-82
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  • In this study, a previously developed polyethyleneglycol-based interpenetrating network (IPN) system was utilized as a platform for the delivery of keratinocyte-active factors.
  • Adherent keratinocyte density on TCPS and glutaraldehyde-fixed gelatin hydrogels but not on IPN was significantly increased with culture time in the presence of growth supplements independent of the released KGF from the gelatin hydrogel and IPN.
  • This phenomenon was not observed on IPN and polycarbonate membrane.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblast Growth Factors / administration & dosage. Fibroblasts / cytology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Keratinocytes / cytology. Keratinocytes / drug effects. Paracrine Communication / physiology. Tissue Engineering / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Coated Materials, Biocompatible / administration & dosage. Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry. Coculture Techniques / methods. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Fibroblast Growth Factor 7. Humans. Materials Testing. Skin, Artificial

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  • (PMID = 15621258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB-00290; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-77825
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible; 0 / FGF7 protein, human; 126469-10-1 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 7; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
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92. Hu CB, Gwon A, Lowery M, Makker H, Gruber L: Preparation and evaluation of a lubricious treated cartridge used for implantation of intraocular lenses. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2007;18(2):179-91
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  • [Title] Preparation and evaluation of a lubricious treated cartridge used for implantation of intraocular lenses.
  • These value-added processes included treatment to affect lubricity, hemocompatibility and drug delivery.
  • A unique hydrophilic, lubricious coating was developed to treat hydrophobic polymer surfaces.
  • The molecular film is then further cross-linked with di-functional aldehyde molecules to form an interpenetrating network (IPN).
  • The IPN entraps lubricant molecules in the matrix and provides for prolonged stability of the lubricity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biocompatible Materials. Coated Materials, Biocompatible. Humans. Materials Testing. Polymers. Polypropylenes. Rabbits. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 17323852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polypropylenes
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93. Jensen V, Robertsen B: Cloning of an Mx cDNA from Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and characterization of Mx mRNA expression in response to double-stranded RNA or infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J Interferon Cytokine Res; 2000 Aug;20(8):701-10
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  • [Title] Cloning of an Mx cDNA from Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and characterization of Mx mRNA expression in response to double-stranded RNA or infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
  • Mx proteins are GTPases that are specifically induced by type I interferons (IFN) in vertebrates.
  • Some mammalian Mx proteins have antiviral activity against certain RNA viruses.
  • The open reading frame (ORF) predicts a 622 amino acid protein of 71.2 kDa possessing a tripartite GTP binding motif, a dynamin signature, and a leucine zipper motif, which are conserved in all known Mx proteins.
  • The deduced halibut Mx protein showed approximately 76% sequence identity with the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout Mx proteins, 55% identity with the human MxA, and 48% identity with the chicken Mx protein.
  • Two halibut Mx transcripts (2.2 kb and 2.6 kb) were strongly induced in vivo by the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) poly I:C or infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in all organs studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Flatfishes / genetics. GTP-Binding Proteins. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Birnaviridae Infections / genetics. Birnaviridae Infections / immunology. Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Cloning, Molecular. DNA Primers / genetics. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Fish Diseases / genetics. Fish Diseases / immunology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / pathogenicity. Interferon Type I / biosynthesis. Molecular Sequence Data. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Poly I-C / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 10954913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / MX1 protein, human; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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94. Saint-Jean SR, Pérez-Prieto SI: Interferon mediated antiviral activity against salmonid fish viruses in BF-2 and other cell lines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2006 Mar 15;110(1-2):1-10
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  • Double-stranded RNA and type I interferon-like activity induce an antiviral state in vertebrate cells and in several fish cell lines by increasing the expression of proteins that inhibit virus replication.
  • We compared the protection induced by the polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or poly I:C plus transfection agents against the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in BF-2 cells, with that induced in RTG-2, CHSE-214, or SAF cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / immunology. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus / immunology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / immunology. Interferon Type I / immunology. Poly I-C / administration & dosage. Rhabdoviridae Infections / veterinary. Salmonidae
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral / immunology. GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. GTP-Binding Proteins / immunology. Lipids / administration & dosage. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Transfection. Virus Replication / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16169598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-2427
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FuGene; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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95. Kulkarni AR, Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Rudzinski WE: In-vitro release kinetics of cefadroxil-loaded sodium alginate interpenetrating network beads. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2001 Mar;51(2):127-33
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  • [Title] In-vitro release kinetics of cefadroxil-loaded sodium alginate interpenetrating network beads.
  • This paper reports the development of new interpenetrating polymeric networks of sodium alginate with gelatin or egg albumin cross-linked with a common cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde, for the in-vitro release of cefadroxil.
  • The experimental and derived quantities have been used to study their dependencies on the nature of the polymeric beads, transport mechanism, encapsulation efficiency and drug diffusion, as well as the cross-linking abilities of the polymers.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Cefadroxil / pharmacokinetics. Cephalosporins / pharmacokinetics. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry. Polymers / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Albumins / chemistry. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Diffusion. Fixatives / chemistry. Gelatin / chemistry. Glucuronic Acid. Glutaral / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Microspheres. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 11226819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-6411
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cephalosporins; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 280111G160 / Cefadroxil; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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96. Girod R, Role LW: Long-lasting enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission by acetylcholine contrasts with response adaptation after exposure to low-level nicotine. J Neurosci; 2001 Jul 15;21(14):5182-90
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  • Attempts to mimic synaptic delivery of acetylcholine (ACh) with brief, repetitive pulses of high concentration ACh at synapses of medial habenula (MHN) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) neurons in vitro elicited temporally distinct facilitation and inhibition of glutamate secretion via nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptor-mediated pathways, respectively.
  • The net effect of ACh in modulating glutamatergic transmission at MHN-IPN synapses may be determined by pre-exposure to nicotine, because the drug appears to switch the balance between the facilitatory and inhibitory actions of ACh.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptation, Physiological / drug effects. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Chick Embryo. Coculture Techniques. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Habenula / physiology. Mesencephalon / physiology. Neural Inhibition / drug effects. Neural Pathways / drug effects. Neural Pathways / physiology. Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacology. Nicotinic Antagonists / pharmacology. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Receptors, Muscarinic / metabolism. Receptors, Nicotinic / metabolism. Synapses / drug effects. Synapses / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11438593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA05840; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA09366
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 0 / Nicotinic Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Muscarinic; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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97. Qi B, Yu A, Zhu S, Chen B, Li Y: The preparation and cytocompatibility of injectable thermosensitive chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Feb;30(1):89-93
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  • [Title] The preparation and cytocompatibility of injectable thermosensitive chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel.
  • It was concluded that thermosensitive CS/PVA composite hydrogel not only has interpenetrating network structure and better mechanical strength, but also has good cytocompatibility, and may be used as an injectable scaffold for tissue engineering.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Injections. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / cytology. Rabbits. Temperature. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20155462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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98. Yin L, Fei L, Cui F, Tang C, Yin C: Superporous hydrogels containing poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan interpenetrating polymer networks. Biomaterials; 2007 Feb;28(6):1258-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Superporous hydrogels containing poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan interpenetrating polymer networks.
  • Superporous hydrogels containing poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan interpenetrating polymer networks (SPH-IPNs) were prepared by cross-linking O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) with glutaraldehyde (GA) after superporous hydrogel (SPH) was synthesized.
  • SEM, CLSM and light images revealed that the SPH-IPNs possessed both the IPN network and large numbers of pores and the cross-linked O-CMC molecules were located on the peripheries of these pores.
  • Due to the cross-linked O-CMC network, in vitro muco-adhesive force and mechanical properties, including compression and tensile modulus, of the SPH-IPN were greatly improved when compared with the CSPH.
  • With the improved mechanical properties, in vitro muco-adhesive force and loading capacities, the SPH-IPN may be used as a potential muco-adhesive system for peroral delivery of peptide and protein drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylamides / chemistry. Chitosan / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry. Jejunum / physiology. Mucous Membrane / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adhesiveness. Animals. Cell Adhesion. Compressive Strength. Hardness. Male. Materials Testing. Porosity. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 17118443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid); 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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99. Ooi EL, Verjan N, Hirono I, Nochi T, Kondo H, Aoki T, Kiyono H, Yuki Y: Biological characterisation of a recombinant Atlantic salmon type I interferon synthesized in Escherichia coli. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2008 May;24(5):506-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biological characterisation of a recombinant Atlantic salmon type I interferon synthesized in Escherichia coli.
  • Type I (alpha/beta) interferons (IFNs) are a family of cytokines that stimulate the expression of numerous proteins that mediate an antiviral state in uninfected cells.
  • In the homologous Chinook salmon embryonic (CHSE-214) cell line, the rSasaIFN-alpha2 incited early expression of the IFN-induced Mx protein and exhibited high antiviral activity of about 2.8 x 10(6) U mg(-1) against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
  • [MeSH-major] Escherichia coli / genetics. Fish Proteins / metabolism. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Interferon Type I / genetics. Interferon Type I / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Salmo salar / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line. Gene Expression Regulation. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Interferon-alpha / genetics. Interferon-alpha / immunology. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins

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  • (PMID = 18329900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-4648
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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100. Reddy TT, Kano A, Maruyama A, Hadano M, Takahara A: Synthesis and characterization of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and N-isopropylacrylamide for wound dressing. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater; 2009 Jan;88(1):32-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synthesis and characterization of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and N-isopropylacrylamide for wound dressing.
  • Thermosensitive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) composed of crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) and linear segmented polyurethane urea (SPUU) were synthesized via thermal initiated free radical polymerization.
  • Synthesized semi-IPNs of various compositions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water equilibrium swelling at different temperatures, drug lading, drug release, cell adhesion, and detachment.
  • The semi-IPN films of all the compositions were transparent in dry state and negative thermosensitivity in their swelling ratio, that is, lower swelling levels with increasing temperature.
  • The drug release study revealed that the rate of drug release is fast in case of pure SPUU compared to PNiPAAm and semi-IPN film.
  • Drug release depended mainly on solubility of the drugs and physical networks between SPUU and PNiPAAm.
  • Finally NIH3T3 cells were seeded on the semi-IPN films and found that cells were securely attached and proliferated to confluence.
  • Upon cooling, cells were detached from the semi-IPN films.
  • Therefore, the semi-IPN films may be good candidate materials for wound dressing applications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Drug Carriers. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Design. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties. Temperature

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18780359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4981
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyurethanes; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide
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