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1. Xu HX: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications. World J Radiol; 2009 Dec 31;1(1):37-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications.
  • Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging investigation for biliary diseases.
  • However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases.
  • In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in the biliary system are summarized.
  • CEUS may be indicated in the biliary system under the following circumstances:.
  • (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma;.
  • (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer;.
  • (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube.

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  • (PMID = 21160719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1949-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999303
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bile duct / Cholangiocarcinoma / Contrast-enhanced ultrasound / Gallbladder / Polypoid lesion / Ultrasound contrast agent
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2. Biecker E, Fischer HP, Strunk H, Sauerbruch T: Benign hepatic tumours. Z Gastroenterol; 2003 Feb;41(2):191-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most important in clinical practice is the differential diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma because of the risk of rupture and bleeding in the latter.
  • The main problem in angiomyolipoma is to distinguish it from malignant processes which do require treatment.
  • Therapeutic options are drug therapy or surgical resection.
  • Bile duct adenoma is an incidental finding that is not known to cause any symptoms whereas biliary cystadenoma is often symptomatic and may progress to cystadenocarcinoma and therefore needs resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnostic Imaging. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Humans. Infant. Liver / pathology. Liver Regeneration / physiology. Middle Aged

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Diseases.
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  • (PMID = 12650132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 138
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3. Uchida K, Joseph JM, Gapany C, Chardot C: Modified digestive reconstruction with midgut transposition after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head tumor in childhood. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Oct;43(10):1932-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Separate biliary and pancreatic conduits prevented both activation of pancreatic enzymes at the pancreatic duct anastomosis and reflux of pancreatic juice in the bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Papillary / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y. Enzymes / therapeutic use. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency / drug therapy. Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency / etiology. Female. Humans. Jejunum / surgery. Pylorus. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18926236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzymes
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4. Nagano K, Fukuda Y, Nakano I, Katano Y, Toyoda H, Ebata M, Morita K, Yokozaki S, Takeuchi M, Hayashi K, Hayakawa T: An autopsy case of multilocular cystic hepatocellular carcinoma without liver cirrhosis. Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 Sep-Oct;47(35):1419-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although simple cysts, cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma of the liver have been well documented as hepatic cystic diseases, cystic hepatocellular carcinoma is a curious entity.
  • After giving informed consent, the patient was treated with several systemic chemotherapy using doxorubicin, fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and oral anticancer agent UFT, a combination of uracil and tegafur, for almost 2 years.
  • During this time, the tumors enlarged gradually, and also underwent cyst formation, the patients then died of biliary sepsis.

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  • (PMID = 11100365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; 1-UFT protocol
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5. Xu HX, Xie XY, Lu MD, Liu GJ, Xu ZF, Liang JY, Chen LD: Unusual benign focal liver lesions: findings on real-time contrast-enhanced sonography. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Feb;27(2):243-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: This presentation aims to provide an overview of the manifestations of some unusual benign focal liver lesions (FLLs) on low-acoustic power contrast-enhanced sonography (CES) with a sulfur hexafluoride contrast agent.
  • The pathologic examinations proved that they were intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma (n = 1), angiomyolipoma (AML; n = 4), lipoma (n = 1), biliary epithelial dysplasia (n = 1), a fungal inflammatory mass (n = 1), tuberculoma (n = 2), an inflammatory pseudotumor (n = 7), sarcoidosis (n = 1), solitary necrotic nodules (n = 2), peliosis hepatis (n = 2), and focal fibrosis after surgery (n = 4).
  • On the other hand, for those lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, or hypoenhancement during the arterial phase and hypoenhancement during the late phase, including intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma, biliary epithelial dysplasia, infected liver diseases, the inflammatory pseudotumor, sarcoidosis, and peliosis hepatis, the differential diagnosis between benignity and malignancy was difficult, and pathologic tests were mandatory.

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  • (PMID = 18204015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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