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1. Stevens KR, Einerson NJ, Burmania JA, Kao WJ: In vivo biocompatibility of gelatin-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2002;13(12):1353-66
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  • [Title] In vivo biocompatibility of gelatin-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks.
  • The in vivo host response to two gelatin-based hydrogel systems of varying crosslinking modalities and loaded with the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone sodium phosphate was investigated.
  • Either gelatin was chemically crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, or polyethyleneglycol diacrylate was photopolymerized around gelatin to form interpenetrating networks.
  • The subcutaneous cage implant system was utilized to determine differential leukocyte concentrations in the inflammatory exudate surrounding the materials as indices for biocompatibility and drug efficacy in vivo.
  • Most of the crosslinked gelatin-based materials, either via glutaraldehyde fixation or interpenetrating network formation, elicited stronger inflammatory responses than either of the starting materials, gelatin and polyethyleneglycol diacrylate.
  • In general, dexamethasone delayed and intensified the inflammatory response.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / analogs & derivatives. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / pharmacology. Gelatin / chemistry. Gelatin / pharmacology. Hydrogels / chemistry. Hydrogels / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacokinetics. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Exudates and Transudates / immunology. Exudates and Transudates / metabolism. Female. Glutaral / chemistry. Glutaral / pharmacokinetics. Neutrophils / drug effects. Neutrophils / immunology. Neutrophils / metabolism. Photochemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacokinetics. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 12555901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB-00290; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-63686
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 312-93-6 / dexamethasone 21-phosphate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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2. Jaiswal M, Dinda AK, Gupta A, Koul V: Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery. Biomed Mater; 2010 Dec;5(6):065014
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  • [Title] Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery.
  • A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker.
  • The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).
  • Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M(t)/M(∞) ≤ 0.6).
  • The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications.
  • The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorbable Implants. Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Body Fluids / chemistry. Curcumin / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemical synthesis. Gelatin / chemistry. Polyesters / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Acrylates / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Diffusion. Materials Testing. Porosity

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  • (PMID = 21079283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-605X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical materials (Bristol, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Mater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Polyesters; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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3. Kulkarni RV, Sa B: Novel pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-alginate) for controlled release of ketoprofen: preparation and characterization. Curr Drug Deliv; 2008 Oct;5(4):256-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-alginate) for controlled release of ketoprofen: preparation and characterization.
  • Novel pH-sensitive carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel beads loaded with ketoprofen were prepared using ionotropic gelation and covalent crosslinking method.
  • The swelling of the beads and drug release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from acidic to alkaline (P<0.05).
  • Drug release followed case II transport mechanism in acidic medium whereas anomalous/non-Fickian transport mechanism was observed in alkaline medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Delayed-Action Preparations. Ketoprofen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Alginates / chemistry. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium / chemistry. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Hydrogel / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Solubility. Tensile Strength. Thermogravimetry. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 18855594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2018
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide; 9004-32-4 / Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; 90Y4QC304K / Ketoprofen
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4. Ekici S, Saraydin D: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of IPN hydrogels for antibiotic release. Drug Deliv; 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):381-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of IPN hydrogels for antibiotic release.
  • We prepared new ternary interpenetrating polymeric networks (IPN) systems containing chitosan, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) and poly(acrylamide) polymers.
  • Glutaraldehyde were used in different concentration to control the network porous of IPNs.
  • The release of the entrapped bioactive species from IPNs depends on the degree of crosslinking of the polymer and pH of the medium at body temperature.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemical synthesis. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis. Polymers / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods. Povidone / chemical synthesis. Povidone / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 15736833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-7544
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 9003-39-8 / Povidone
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5. Gloria A, Causa F, De Santis R, Netti PA, Ambrosio L: Dynamic-mechanical properties of a novel composite intervertebral disc prosthesis. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2007 Nov;18(11):2159-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Over the past years, a tremendous effort has been made to develop an intervertebral disc (IVD) prosthesis with suitable biological, mechanical and transport properties.
  • The aim of the present work was to develop a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PHEMA/PMMA) (80/20 w/w) semi-interpenetrating polymer network (s-IPN) composite hydrogel reinforced with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres, and to investigate the static and dynamic mechanical properties.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomimetics. Compressive Strength. Materials Testing. Mechanics. Models, Biological. Polymethyl Methacrylate / chemistry. Prosthesis Design. Weight-Bearing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17619987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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6. Mannocci F, Machmouridou E, Watson TF, Sauro S, Sherriff M, Pilecki P, Pitt-Ford TR: Microtensile bond strength of resin-post interfaces created with interpenetrating polymer network posts or cross-linked posts. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2008 Nov;13(11):E745-52
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  • [Title] Microtensile bond strength of resin-post interfaces created with interpenetrating polymer network posts or cross-linked posts.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile strength of composite bonded to interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) or cross-linked glass fibre posts and to observe the failure modes by using light and scanning electron microscopy.
  • METHODS: Twenty posts containing IPN resin matrix and 20 posts containing cross-linked epoxy polymer matrix were used for testing.
  • One half of the posts from each type was treated with Stick Resin, the other half was treated with OptiBond.
  • The distribution of failure modes as a function of post type/bonding agent was evaluated using the chi(2) test.
  • RESULTS: The mean tensile strength values were lower for the groups bonded with OptiBond and higher for the groups bonded with Stick Resin (p = 0.017), the type of post used had no statistical significance (p = 0.263).
  • All the IPN posts showed cohesive failure within the post The cross-linked posts demonstrated a higher number of adhesive failures and lower number of cohesive failures within the post (chi(2) = 0.0001).
  • Post fracture was the failure mode of IPN posts, debonding of the composite core was the failure mode of most of cross-linked posts.

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  • (PMID = 18978719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dental Materials; 0 / Optibond; 0 / Resin Cements; 0 / Resins, Synthetic; 0 / Root Canal Filling Materials
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7. Chen PC, Wu JL, Her GM, Hong JR: Aquatic birnavirus induces necrotic cell death via the mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2010 Feb;28(2):344-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Presently, we demonstrate that infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) induces post-apoptotic necrotic cell death through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by caspase-3 activation in CHSE-214 cells.
  • Taken together, our results suggest that IPNV induces apoptotic cell death via loss of MMP, thereby triggering secondary necrosis and caspases-3 activation.
  • Furthermore, this death-signaling pathway is disrupted by bongkrekic acid in fish cells, indicating that this drug may serve to modulate IPNV-induced pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Bongkrekic Acid / pharmacology. Cell Line. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Phosphatidylserines / pharmacology. Salmon

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19944168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Phosphatidylserines; 11076-19-0 / Bongkrekic Acid; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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8. Lee SS, Kim MH, Lee SK, Jang SJ, Song MH, Kim KP, Kim HJ, Seo DW, Song DE, Yu E, Lee SG, Min YI: Clinicopathologic review of 58 patients with biliary papillomatosis. Cancer; 2004 Feb 15;100(4):783-93
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic review of 58 patients with biliary papillomatosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary papillomatosis (BP) is a rare disease that is characterized by multiple numerous papillary adenomas in the biliary tree.
  • METHODS: Between March 1995 and January 2003, 58 patients were diagnosed with BP by cholangioscopic and histologic findings at a tertiary referral center, Asan Medical Center (University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea).
  • Papillary adenocarcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were detected in 48 patients (83%) with papillary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14770435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Mueller S, Gothe R, Siems WD, Vietinghoff G, Paegelow I, Reissmann S: Potentiation of bradykinin actions by analogues of the bradykinin potentiating nonapeptide BPP9alpha. Peptides; 2005 Jul;26(7):1235-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our results indicate a stimulation of inositol phosphates (IPn) formation independently from the B2 receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Bradykinin / pharmacology. Muscle Contraction / drug effects. Teprotide / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. COS Cells. Calcium / metabolism. Cercopithecus aethiops. Drug Synergism. Guinea Pigs. Humans. Inositol Phosphates / biosynthesis. Molecular Sequence Data. Muscle, Smooth / drug effects. Peptides / chemical synthesis. Peptides / chemistry. Peptides / pharmacology. Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / drug effects. Phosphoprotein Phosphatases / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Bradykinin B2 / agonists. Receptor, Bradykinin B2 / genetics. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15949642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Inositol Phosphates; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptor, Bradykinin B2; C3E5QBF1R6 / Teprotide; EC 3.1.3.16 / Phosphoprotein Phosphatases; EC 3.4.15.1 / Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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10. Zilinski JL, Kao WJ: Tissue adhesiveness and host response of in situ photopolymerizable interpenetrating networks containing methylprednisolone acetate. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2004 Feb 1;68(2):392-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tissue adhesiveness and host response of in situ photopolymerizable interpenetrating networks containing methylprednisolone acetate.
  • Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of varying formulations were investigated as candidates for an in situ photopolymerizable drug delivery matrix containing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and gelatin.
  • The anti-inflammatory agent methylprednisolone acetate was loaded into the IPN.
  • Bond strength between the IPN and tissue (i.e., muscle, dermis, skin) was determined by a modified American Society for Testing and Materials peel test at constant peel rate.
  • The subcutaneous cage implant system was utilized to assess material host response and drug efficacy in vivo.
  • IPN formulations elicited a more intense acute inflammatory response than the empty cage controls.
  • In conclusion, a methodology was developed to quantify the tissue adhesiveness of an in situ photopolymerized IPN matrix containing anti-inflammatory agents.
  • The efficacy of drug-loaded IPN in affecting the host inflammatory response was demonstrated in vivo.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 392-400, 2004
  • (PMID = 14704982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB-00290
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Interleukin-1; 43502P7F0P / methylprednisolone acetate; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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11. Hwang HJ, Moon CH, Kim HG, Kim JY, Lee JM, Park JW, Chung DK: Identification and functional analysis of salmon annexin 1 induced by a virus infection in a fish cell line. J Virol; 2007 Dec;81(24):13816-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, we investigated changes in protein expression of fish cells induced by infection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight proton motive force analysis and identified a novel type of salmon annexin 1 that is induced in fish cells by infection with IPNV.
  • Northern blotting showed that this annexin is overexpressed in IPNV-infected cells compared to control cells, and further analysis revealed that it has a 1,509-bp full-length cDNA sequence with an open reading frame encoding 339 amino acids (GenBank accession no. AY944135).
  • While small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment did not affect the levels of the viral proteins significantly until 10 h postinfection, it reduced the titer of extracellular virus to 25% of that of a scrambled siRNA-treated control.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexins. Gene Expression Regulation. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / pathogenicity. Salmon / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 17881442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY944135
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2168874
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12. Qiu Y, Park K: Superporous IPN hydrogels having enhanced mechanical properties. AAPS PharmSciTech; 2003 Oct 13;4(4):E51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Superporous IPN hydrogels having enhanced mechanical properties.
  • The objective of this study was to improve the mechanical properties of superporous hydrogels (SPHs), which were used to develop gastric retention devices for long-term oral drug delivery.
  • The main approach used in this study was to form an interpenetrating polymer network by incorporating a second polymer network inside an SPH structure.
  • Polyacrylonitrile was used as the second network inside an SPH.
  • The enhanced mechanical properties were a result of the scaffold-like fiber network structures formed inside the cell walls of SPHs.
  • The fast swelling property of SPHs was not affected by the incorporation of the second polymer network because the interconnected pore structures were maintained.
  • Gastric retention devices based on superporous IPN hydrogels (SPIHs) with the improved mechanical properties are expected to withstand compression pressure and mechanical frictions in the stomach better than the control SPHs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Elasticity. Mechanics

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  • (PMID = 15198546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9932
  • [Journal-full-title] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 25014-41-9 / polyacrylonitrile
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2750644
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13. Burugapalli K, Koul V, Dinda AK: Effect of composition of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin on tissue response: a quantitative in vivo study. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2004 Feb 1;68(2):210-8
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  • [Title] Effect of composition of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin on tissue response: a quantitative in vivo study.
  • In the present study, full and semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) based on polyacrylic acid (AAc) and gelatin (Ge) crosslinked with 0.5 mol % N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (BAm) and 4% glutaraldehyde (GA), respectively, were evaluated for tissue response in rats.
  • Gentamicin sulfate (GS)-loaded IPN samples were also studied to evaluate the possible therapeutic use of these polymers.
  • The majority of the polymers showed integration with extracellular matrix and growth of capillaries in and around the polymer.
  • GS loading showed no additional local or systemic reaction suggesting the potential usefulness of the hydrogels as carrier for drugs such as GS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics. Gentamicins / pharmacokinetics. Granulocytes / metabolism. Inflammation / metabolism. Macrophages / metabolism. Prostheses and Implants. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 68A: 210-218, 2004
  • (PMID = 14704962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Gentamicins; 0 / Hydrogels; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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14. Chowdhury MA, Hill DJ, Whittaker AK, Braden M, Patel MP: NMR imaging of the diffusion of water at 310 K into semi-IPNs of PEM and poly(HEMA-co-THFMA) with and without chlorhexidine diacetate. Biomacromolecules; 2004 Jul-Aug;5(4):1405-11
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  • A second stage sorption process was identified in the later stage of water sorption by the PEM/PTHFMA semi-IPN and for the systems containing a P(HEMA-co-THFMA) component with a mole fraction HEMA of 0.6 or less.
  • The presence of the drug chlorhexidine in the polymer matrixes at a concentration of 5.625 wt % was found not to modify the properties significantly, but the diffusion coefficients for the water sorption were systematically smaller when the drug was present.

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  • (PMID = 15244458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7797
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Methylmethacrylates; 0 / poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate); 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9003-42-3 / poly(ethylmethacrylate); R4KO0DY52L / Chlorhexidine
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15. Xu LQ, Yao F, Fu GD, Kang ET: Interpenetrating network hydrogels via simultaneous "click chemistry" and atom transfer radical polymerization. Biomacromolecules; 2010 Jul 12;11(7):1810-7
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  • [Title] Interpenetrating network hydrogels via simultaneous "click chemistry" and atom transfer radical polymerization.
  • Simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks (sIPNs) from concurrent copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition "click chemistry" and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are described.
  • These sIPNs could find applications as biomaterials for contact lenses, biomedical materials, artificial organs, and drug delivery systems.

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  • (PMID = 20518556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkynes; 0 / Azides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 789U1901C5 / Copper
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16. Yin L, Ding J, Fei L, He M, Cui F, Tang C, Yin C: Beneficial properties for insulin absorption using superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer network as oral delivery vehicles. Int J Pharm; 2008 Feb 28;350(1-2):220-9
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  • [Title] Beneficial properties for insulin absorption using superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer network as oral delivery vehicles.
  • In this investigation, superporous hydrogels containing poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) full-interpenetrating polymer networks (SPH-IPNs) were evaluated for their potentials in effective insulin absorption via the oral route.
  • After drug loading and release, the circular dichroism (CD) spectra revealed that conformation of insulin had no significant alteration and bioactivity of insulin was well preserved according to hypoglycaemic effect in mice.
  • Through their abilities to bind Ca(2+) and to entrap the enzymes, SPH-IPNs could partly inactivate trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin, and SPH-IPN with higher O-CMC/monomer ratio appeared more potent.
  • Transport of insulin across rat intestine and colon ex vivo was enhanced around two- to three-fold after application of the SPH-IPN.
  • Insulin-loaded SPH-IPN showed significant hypoglycaemic effects following oral administration to healthy rats, achieving a 4.1% pharmacological availability compared to subcutaneous insulin injection.
  • These pronounced properties demonstrated that the SPH-IPN would be a promising peroral carrier for insulin and other peptide drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Calcium / chemistry. Chymotrypsin / antagonists & inhibitors. Copper / chemistry. Drug Stability. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Intestinal Absorption. Male. Osmolar Concentration. Pharmaceutical Vehicles. Porosity. Protein Conformation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Solubility. Trypsin Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17976932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / O-carboxymethylchitosan; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Trypsin Inhibitors; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; EC 3.4.21.- / alpha-chymotrypsin; EC 3.4.21.1 / Chymotrypsin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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17. Husseini GA, Christensen DA, Rapoport NY, Pitt WG: Ultrasonic release of doxorubicin from Pluronic P105 micelles stabilized with an interpenetrating network of N,N-diethylacrylamide. J Control Release; 2002 Oct 4;83(2):303-5
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  • [Title] Ultrasonic release of doxorubicin from Pluronic P105 micelles stabilized with an interpenetrating network of N,N-diethylacrylamide.
  • Pluronic P105 micelles sequester hydrophobic drugs and release them upon insonation with low frequency ultrasound; however these micelles dissolve relatively quickly upon dilution.
  • The objective of this research was to determine whether stabilization of these micelles would compromise their ability to sequester and release drug.
  • P105 micelles were stabilized with an interpenetrating network of poly (N,N-diethylacrylamide), and ultrasonically-activated release of doxorubicin (Dox) was measured by a fluorescence technique.
  • The amount released was not significantly different from that released from P105 micelles (P=0.481), and the drug re-encapsulation upon cessation of insonation was complete.
  • This system has potential for controlled drug delivery to insonated tissues in vivo.
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 12363455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 76562
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Micelles; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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18. Saint-Jean SR, Pérez-Prieto SI: Interferon mediated antiviral activity against salmonid fish viruses in BF-2 and other cell lines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2006 Mar 15;110(1-2):1-10
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  • Double-stranded RNA and type I interferon-like activity induce an antiviral state in vertebrate cells and in several fish cell lines by increasing the expression of proteins that inhibit virus replication.
  • We compared the protection induced by the polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or poly I:C plus transfection agents against the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in BF-2 cells, with that induced in RTG-2, CHSE-214, or SAF cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / immunology. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus / immunology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / immunology. Interferon Type I / immunology. Poly I-C / administration & dosage. Rhabdoviridae Infections / veterinary. Salmonidae
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral / immunology. GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. GTP-Binding Proteins / immunology. Lipids / administration & dosage. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Transfection. Virus Replication / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16169598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-2427
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FuGene; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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19. Lee JK, Kwak KK, Park JK, Yoon WJ, Lee SH, Ryu JK, Kim YT, Yoon YB: The efficacy of nonsurgical treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. Pancreas; 2007 May;34(4):399-404
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  • [Title] The efficacy of nonsurgical treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of nonsurgical treatment for patients with infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN).
  • METHODS: Among 224 patients with acute pancreatitis from 2000 to 2004, there were 31 patients diagnosed as having IPN complication.
  • The diagnostic criteria for IPN were either a positive culture or free gas in the pancreas of patients with acute pancreatic necrosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intensive nonsurgical treatment is very effective and safe and should be considered as an initial treatment modality for patients with IPN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acinetobacter / isolation & purification. Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Enterococcus / isolation & purification. Escherichia coli / isolation & purification. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pseudomonas / isolation & purification. Recurrence. Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia / isolation & purification. Streptococcus / isolation & purification. Therapeutic Irrigation / methods. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17446837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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20. Suri S, Schmidt CE: Photopatterned collagen-hyaluronic acid interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels. Acta Biomater; 2009 Sep;5(7):2385-97
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  • [Title] Photopatterned collagen-hyaluronic acid interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels.
  • The current report describes the synthesis of a novel photocrosslinkable interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) of collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) with precisely controlled structural and biomechanical properties.
  • Both collagen and HA are present in crosslinked form in IPNs, and the two networks are entangled with each other.
  • IPNs were also compared with semi-IPNs (SIPN), in which only collagen was in network form and HA chains were entangled in the collagen network without being photocrosslinked.
  • Because of the presence of the HA crosslinked network, the storage modulus of IPNs was almost two orders of magnitude higher than SIPNs.
  • The degradation of the collagen-HA IPNs was slower than the SIPNs because of the presence of the crosslinked HA network.
  • With the ability to fine-tune the scaffold properties by performing structural modifications and to create patterned scaffolds, these hydrogels can be employed as potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications.

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  • (PMID = 19446050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7568
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biomaterialia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Epoxy Compounds; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Polymers; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; R8WN29J8VF / glycidyl methacrylate
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21. Guo BL, Gao QY: Preparation and properties of a pH/temperature-responsive carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)semi-IPN hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs. Carbohydr Res; 2007 Nov 26;342(16):2416-22
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  • [Title] Preparation and properties of a pH/temperature-responsive carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)semi-IPN hydrogel for oral delivery of drugs.
  • Thermo- and pH-responsive semi-IPN polyampholyte hydrogels were prepared by using carboxymethylchitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) as the crosslinking agent.
  • It was found that the semi-IPN hydrogels demonstrated the pH- and temperature-responsive nature of the materials, and it also showed good reversibility.
  • These results show that semi-IPN hydrogel seems to be of great promise in pH-temperature oral drug delivery systems.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins. Administration, Oral. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Coenzyme A / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 17669378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Carbohydrate research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carbohydr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 0 / carboxymethyl-chitosan; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; SAA04E81UX / Coenzyme A
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22. Jashés M, Mlynarz G, De Clercq E, Sandino AM: Inhibitory effects of EICAR on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication. Antiviral Res; 2000 Jan;45(1):9-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inhibitory effects of EICAR on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication.
  • Recently, the antiviral 5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (EICAR) was shown to inhibit the replication of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
  • Our findings suggest that the antiviral action of EICAR is mediated by a reduction of the intracellular guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) pool level, as has been observed with ribavirin and EICAR in other biological systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Birnaviridae Infections / virology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Ribonucleosides / pharmacology. Virus Replication / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Guanosine / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Viral / biosynthesis. Salmon / embryology. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects. Viral Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10774586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-3542
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Ribonucleosides; 0 / Viral Proteins; 118908-07-9 / 5-ethynyl-1-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide; 12133JR80S / Guanosine
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23. Vishal Gupta N, Shivakumar HG: Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate. Daru; 2010;18(3):200-10
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  • [Title] Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate.
  • BACKGROUND AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system.
  • In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system.
  • METHODS: Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network type superporous hydrogels were prepared using a gas foaming method employing glyoxal as the crosslinking agent for Rosiglitazone maleate.
  • Sodium bicarbonate was applied as a foaming agent to introduce the porous structure.
  • The optimum preparation condition of superporous hydrogels was obtained from the gelation kinetics.
  • In vitro drug release studies were also carried out.
  • The prepared superporous hydrogels were highly sensitive to pH of swelling media, and showed reversible swelling and de-swelling behaviors maintaining their mechanical stability.
  • The drug release from superporous hydrogels was sustained for 6 hrs.
  • MAJOR CONCLUSION: The studies showed that chitosan-based superporous hydrogels could be used as a gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate in view of their swelling and prolonged drug release characteristics in acidic pH.

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  • (PMID = 22615618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Daru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Daru
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3304361
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chitosan / Gastric retention / Swelling
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24. Keskin DS, Wise DL, Hasirci V: Pain control via opioid analgesic-local anesthetic loaded IPNs. Curr Drug Deliv; 2004 Jan;1(1):57-64
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  • Relief of chronic pain is an important clinical problem requiring special care and approaches.
  • An interpenetrating network (IPN) drug release system was prepared by using a biocompatible, biodegradable copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and another biocompatible but synthetic, nondegradable polymer, poly (2- hydroxyethyl methacrylate), (PHEMA).
  • In situ release kinetics of the IPN system was first order for BP but could not be fitted to any known equation for the other drugs.
  • Complete release from the IPNs occurred within a considerably short time (24 h for 80 % of the drugs) most probably due to the significant hydrophilicity of PHEMA.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage. Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use. Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bupivacaine / administration & dosage. Bupivacaine / therapeutic use. Codeine / administration & dosage. Codeine / therapeutic use. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Implants. Excipients. Female. Hydromorphone / administration & dosage. Hydromorphone / therapeutic use. Ligation. Morphine / administration & dosage. Morphine / therapeutic use. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Polyesters. Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reaction Time / drug effects. Sciatic Neuropathy / complications. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 16305370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2018
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Polyesters; 0 / poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate); 25249-16-5 / Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; Q812464R06 / Hydromorphone; Q830PW7520 / Codeine; Y8335394RO / Bupivacaine
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25. Irwin EF, Saha K, Rosenbluth M, Gamble LJ, Castner DG, Healy KE: Modulus-dependent macrophage adhesion and behavior. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2008;19(10):1363-82
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  • We synthesized interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) coatings with varying moduli to test the hypothesis that lower moduli surfaces attenuate THP-1 cell attachment and activation.
  • The surface chemistry and moduli of the IPN coatings were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively.
  • The global amount of TNF-alpha released did not vary for IPN surfaces of different moduli; however, the amount of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 released demonstrated a biphasic response, where lower (approx.
  • 348 kPa) moduli IPN surfaces attenuated IL-8 secretion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / metabolism. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytokines / metabolism. Cytokines / secretion. Humans. Inflammation / metabolism. Inflammation / pathology. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Polymers / chemistry. Polymers / pharmacology. Spectrum Analysis. X-Rays

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  • (PMID = 18854128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR 43187; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB 002027
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Polymers
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26. Jain E, Srivastava A, Kumar A: Macroporous interpenetrating cryogel network of poly(acrylonitrile) and gelatin for biomedical applications. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2009 Dec;20 Suppl 1:S173-9
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  • [Title] Macroporous interpenetrating cryogel network of poly(acrylonitrile) and gelatin for biomedical applications.
  • Cryogels are supermacroporous gel network formed by cryogelation of appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors at subzero temperature.
  • One of the important aspect of cryogel is simple approach by which they can be synthesized and use of aqueous solvent for their synthesis which make them suitable for different biological applications.
  • Various modifications of the cryogels have been sought which involves coupling of various ligands to its surfaces, grafting of polymer chain to cryogel surface or interpenetrating networks of two or more polymers to form a cryogel which provides diversity of its applications.
  • In the following work we have synthesized full interpenetrating network of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-gelatin with varied gelatin concentration.
  • The PAN-gelatin cryogel interpenetrating network is macroporous in nature and has high percentage swelling equilibrium in the range of 862-1,200 with a flow rate greater than 10 ml/min, which characterizes the interconnectivity of pores and convective flow within the network.
  • PAN-gelatin interpenetrating cryogel network has good mechanical stability as determined by Young's modulus which varies from 123 kPa to 819 kPa depending upon the polymer concentration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomechanical Phenomena. Biomedical Technology / methods. CHO Cells. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Compressive Strength. Cricetinae. Cricetulus. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Cryogels. Materials Testing. Porosity. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18597161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Cryogels; 0 / Hydrogels; 25014-41-9 / polyacrylonitrile; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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27. Peng HT, Martineau L, Shek PN: Hydrogel-elastomer composite biomaterials: 1. Preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks and in vitro characterization of swelling stability and mechanical properties. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2007 Jun;18(6):975-86
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  • [Title] Hydrogel-elastomer composite biomaterials: 1. Preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks and in vitro characterization of swelling stability and mechanical properties.
  • We prepared interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) composed of a gelatin hydrogel and a HydroThane elastomer to combine the advantages of both polymers into one biomaterial.
  • Optical light microscopy confirmed hydrogel domains were interspaced into an elastomer network.
  • Hydration and stability studies in aqueous solution showed that, although the IPN biomaterials exhibited stable swelling for more than 30 days, approximately 10% and 50% loss of the hydrogel component were confirmed at room temperature and 37 degrees C, respectively, using gel permeation chromatography (GPC).
  • The preparation and characterization methods were well established and formed the basis of further developing the biomaterials.

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  • (PMID = 17243001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Elastomers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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28. Yin L, Ding J, Zhang J, He C, Tang C, Yin C: Polymer integrity related absorption mechanism of superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer networks for oral delivery of insulin. Biomaterials; 2010 Apr;31(12):3347-56
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  • [Title] Polymer integrity related absorption mechanism of superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer networks for oral delivery of insulin.
  • Superporous hydrogel containing poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan interpenetrating polymer networks (SPH-IPN) was evaluated as the oral delivery vehicle for insulin, emphasizing on the effect of polymer integrity on insulin absorption mechanisms.
  • The integral SPH-IPN (I-SPH-IPN) and powdered SPH-IPN (P-SPH-IPN) exhibited potent and equivalent in vitro enzymatic inhibition capacities, which were attributed to both enzyme incorporation and Ca(2+) deprivation.
  • Nevertheless, I-SPH-IPN showed marked superiority to P-SPH-IPN in in vivo enzymatic inhibition.
  • Through reversible opening of epithelial tight junctions, I-SPH-IPN notably enhanced paracellular permeability of insulin in Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised rat intestine by 4.9 and 4.2 folds, respectively, wherein I-SPH-IPN outperformed P-SPH-IPN by 2.5 and 2.3 folds, respectively.
  • Besides, orally delivered I-SPH-IPN could retain in rat intestine for more than 8 h while P-SPH-IPN was quickly eliminated, suggesting better retentive properties of I-SPH-IPN.
  • Such results were further confirmed by in vivo assessment in that oral administration of insulin-loaded I-SPH-IPN yielded notable insulin absorption and hypoglycemic effect, while P-SPH-IPN was ineffective.
  • Finally, an oral acute and sub-acute toxicity study in mice confirmed biocompatibility of SPH-IPN.
  • Therefore, the detailed mechanism assessment confirmed that I-SPH-IPN was an effective and safe peroral carrier for protein drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adsorption. Animals. Caco-2 Cells. Humans. Ileum / metabolism. Male. Rats

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20116843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Polymers
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29. Reddy TT, Kano A, Maruyama A, Hadano M, Takahara A: Thermosensitive transparent semi-interpenetrating polymer networks for wound dressing and cell adhesion control. Biomacromolecules; 2008 Apr;9(4):1313-21
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  • [Title] Thermosensitive transparent semi-interpenetrating polymer networks for wound dressing and cell adhesion control.
  • Thermosensitive, transparent, and flexible semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) composed of segmented polyurethane urea/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (SPUU/ PNiPAAm) were new class of materials, which holds promise for its potential use as wound dressings.
  • The resulting semi-IPNs were also investigated for their dynamic water contact angles, thermodynamic interaction parameters, in vitro drug release, and cell adhesion and detachment.
  • In addition, NIH3T3 fibroblasts can attach to and detach from these semi-IPN films with varying temperature.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Drug Delivery Systems. Light. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Polyurethanes / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Sulfamethoxazole / pharmacokinetics. Sulfamethoxazole / pharmacology. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 18355026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyurethanes; 97343-15-2 / polyetherurethane urea; JE42381TNV / Sulfamethoxazole
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30. Kurkuri MD, Kulkarni AR, Kariduraganavar MY, Aminabhavi TM: In vitro release study of verapamil hydrochloride through sodium alginate interpenetrating monolithic membranes. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2001 Nov;27(10):1107-14
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  • [Title] In vitro release study of verapamil hydrochloride through sodium alginate interpenetrating monolithic membranes.
  • Polymeric sodium alginate interpenetrating network membranes containing verapamil hydrochloride were fabricated for transdermal application.
  • The membranes were evaluated for their physical properties, weight and thickness uniformity, water vapor transmission, as well as drug content uniformity.
  • The drug-loaded membranes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand the drug polymorphism inside the membrane.
  • The in vitro drug release was performed in distilled water using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell.
  • The release data were analyzed to understand the mechanism of drug release.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Calcium Channel Blockers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Membranes, Artificial. Verapamil / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Diffusion. Glucuronic Acid. Hexuronic Acids. Kinetics. Permeability. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11794813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9045
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; CJ0O37KU29 / Verapamil
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31. Collier TO, Anderson JM, Brodbeck WG, Barber T, Healy KE: Inhibition of macrophage development and foreign body giant cell formation by hydrophilic interpenetrating polymer network. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2004 Jun 15;69(4):644-50
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  • [Title] Inhibition of macrophage development and foreign body giant cell formation by hydrophilic interpenetrating polymer network.
  • These surfaces consisted of N-(2 aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EDS) and an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol).
  • The EDS surface promotes cell adhesion and the IPN minimizes protein adsorption and subsequent cell adhesion.
  • Adherent cells on the IPN surface did not form FBGCs but instead formed monocyte aggregates (73% of adherent cells formed aggregates at day 7 and 63% at day 10).
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Giant Cells, Foreign-Body / drug effects. Macrophages / drug effects. Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacology. Polymers / pharmacology. Silicone Elastomers / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Humans. Monocytes / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15162406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Silicone Elastomers; 1760-24-3 / aminoethyl-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide
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32. Bajpai AK, Bhanu S: In vitro release dynamics of insulin from a loaded hydrophilic polymeric network. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2004 Jan;15(1):43-54
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  • [Title] In vitro release dynamics of insulin from a loaded hydrophilic polymeric network.
  • A hydrophilic semi-interpenetrating polymer network of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAM) chains has been synthesized and its potential for controlled release of macromolecular drugs has been assessed by taking insulin as a representative drug.
  • The semi-IPN was characterized by IR studies and network parameters such as the average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc), crosslink density (q), and number of elastically effective chains (Ve) were evaluated.
  • The effect of chemical architecture of the IPN was investigated on the percent loading of insulin and its subsequent release from the loaded device.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents. Delayed-Action Preparations. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. In Vitro Techniques. Kinetics. Materials Testing. Molecular Weight. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Spectrophotometry, Infrared. Surface Properties. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 15338590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Insulin; 0 / polyacrylamide gels; 0 / polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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33. Soldani G, Losi P, Bernabei M, Burchielli S, Chiappino D, Kull S, Briganti E, Spiller D: Long term performance of small-diameter vascular grafts made of a poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane semi-interpenetrating polymeric network. Biomaterials; 2010 Mar;31(9):2592-605
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  • [Title] Long term performance of small-diameter vascular grafts made of a poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane semi-interpenetrating polymeric network.
  • The purpose of this preliminary in vivo study was to assess the blood and tissue compatibility behaviors of a novel compliant SDVGs, fabricated with a poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane (PEtU-PDMS) semi-interpenetrating polymeric network (semi-IPN) and featuring two different porous layers in the wall thickness.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carotid Artery, Common / drug effects. Carotid Artery, Common / pathology. Carotid Artery, Common / radiography. Compliance / drug effects. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects. Organ Specificity / drug effects. Prosthesis Implantation. Sheep. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20035992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Polyurethanes
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34. Lockhart K, Gahlawat SK, Soto-Mosquera D, Bowden TJ, Ellis AE: IPNV carrier Atlantic salmon growers do not express Mx mRNA and poly I:C-induced Mx response does not cure the carrier state. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2004 Oct;17(4):347-52
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  • Injection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in post-smolt Atlantic salmon induced a rapid and persistent expression of Mx mRNA from day 1 to at least day 11 when Mx:beta actin ratios were still at peak values of about 1.0.
  • In contrast, an Atlantic salmon grower population, shown to be carriers of IPNV by culture of the virus from plastic adherent kidney leucocytes, showed no evidence of the expression of Mx transcripts.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / metabolism. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / immunology. Poly I-C / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Animals. DNA Primers. Gene Expression / drug effects. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Salmo salar. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15312661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-4648
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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35. Kim JH, Kim SC: PEO-grafting on PU/PS IPNs for enhanced blood compatibility--effect of pendant length and grafting density. Biomaterials; 2002 May;23(9):2015-25
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  • Polyurethane (PU) homopolymers and PU/polystyrene (PS) interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were successfully synthesized changing the length of the pendant poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains and the grafting density of PEO chains.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Air. Animals. Blood Platelets / metabolism. Cattle. Fibrinogen / chemistry. Fibrinogen / metabolism. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Microscopy, Scanning Probe. Models, Chemical. Platelet Adhesiveness / drug effects. Temperature. Time Factors. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 11996043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / Polyurethanes; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen
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36. Kulkarni AR, Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Rudzinski WE: In-vitro release kinetics of cefadroxil-loaded sodium alginate interpenetrating network beads. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2001 Mar;51(2):127-33
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  • [Title] In-vitro release kinetics of cefadroxil-loaded sodium alginate interpenetrating network beads.
  • This paper reports the development of new interpenetrating polymeric networks of sodium alginate with gelatin or egg albumin cross-linked with a common cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde, for the in-vitro release of cefadroxil.
  • The experimental and derived quantities have been used to study their dependencies on the nature of the polymeric beads, transport mechanism, encapsulation efficiency and drug diffusion, as well as the cross-linking abilities of the polymers.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Cefadroxil / pharmacokinetics. Cephalosporins / pharmacokinetics. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry. Polymers / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Albumins / chemistry. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Diffusion. Fixatives / chemistry. Gelatin / chemistry. Glucuronic Acid. Glutaral / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Microspheres. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 11226819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-6411
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cephalosporins; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 280111G160 / Cefadroxil; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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37. Peng CA, Wang CH, Wang WL: Rapid antiviral assay using QD-tagged fish virus as imaging nanoprobe. J Virol Methods; 2010 Nov;169(2):412-5
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  • Development of rapid antiviral assays can expedite the process of screening potential agents against viral pathogens.
  • In the present study, fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) incorporated with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) were used as imaging nanoprobes to detect the threshold amount of poly I:C (an interferon inducer) required to induce zebrafish cells into an antiviral state against IPNV.
  • QD-IPNV hybrids were formed by colloidal clustering of negatively charged QDs and IPNV, using the cationic polymer polybrene (50 μg/mL).
  • To test the screening potential of the QD-IPNV hybrids for anti-IPNV drug candidates, zebrafish ZF4 cells primed with the immunostimulant poly I:C at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL for 6h were used as a model system.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Quantum Dots
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Immunologic Factors / pharmacology. Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods. Poly I-C / pharmacology. Zebrafish

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20691211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0984
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C
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38. Liu YY, Lü J, Shao YH: Preparation and characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-modified poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) hydrogels by interpenetrating polymer networks for sustained drug release. Macromol Biosci; 2006 Jun 16;6(6):452-8
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  • [Title] Preparation and characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-modified poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) hydrogels by interpenetrating polymer networks for sustained drug release.
  • In order to investigate the influence of hydrophobic moieties formed by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) in a hydrogel matrix on the release behavior of the hydrogel, a series of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm)-modified poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (P(HEA-co-HEMA)) via interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared by a sequential UV solution polymerization.
  • Interestingly, it was found that P(HEA-co-HEMA)/PNIPAm IPN indicated a single glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the T(g)s of the IPNs increased with an increase in the PNIPAm component.
  • This phenomenon may be attributed to hydrogen bonding between the two polymer networks, but the hydrogen bonding exerts less influence on the swelling behavior of the IPNs, due to the fact that IPNs can respond to changes in temperature like PNIPAm.
  • Using 2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulphiny]acetamide (modafinil, MOD) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) as model drug compounds, the release behavior of the IPNs was studied at body temperature, and it was found that the presence of PNIPAm could retard drug release regardless of the solubility of the drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylates / chemistry. Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16761277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1616-5187
  • [Journal-full-title] Macromolecular bioscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Macromol Biosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; J94PBK7X8S / acrylic acid
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39. Catauro M, Raucci M, Ausanio G: Sol-gel processing of drug delivery zirconia/polycaprolactone hybrid materials. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2008 Feb;19(2):531-40
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  • [Title] Sol-gel processing of drug delivery zirconia/polycaprolactone hybrid materials.
  • Sodium ampicillin was incorporate in the hybrid materials to verify the effect as local controlled drug delivery system.
  • The structure of interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between Zr-OH group (H donator) in the sol-gel intermediate species and carboxylic group (H-acceptor) in the repeating units of the polymer.

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  • [Cites] Biomaterials. 2003 Jun;24(13):2161-75 [12699652.001]
  • [Cites] J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2004 Sep;15(9):991-5 [15448406.001]
  • (PMID = 17619979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polycarboxylate Cement; 25766-59-0 / polycarbonate; C6V6S92N3C / Zirconium; S38N85C5G0 / zirconium oxide
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40. Mundargi RC, Patil SA, Kulkarni PV, Mallikarjuna NN, Aminabhavi TM: Sequential interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel microspheres of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) for oral controlled drug delivery to intestine. J Microencapsul; 2008 Jun;25(4):228-40
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  • [Title] Sequential interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel microspheres of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) for oral controlled drug delivery to intestine.
  • Sequential interpenetrating networks of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(vinyl alcohol) have been prepared and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain pH sensitive microspheres by a water-in-oil emulsification method.
  • Microspheres have been used to deliver the chosen model anti-inflammatory drug viz., ibuprofen to the intestine.
  • The interpenetrating polymer network formed was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
  • Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses were done on drug-loaded microspheres to confirm the polymorphism of ibuprofen.
  • The in vitro release results indicated a dependence on the pH of the release media, extent of cross-linking and the amount of drug loading.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Hydrogel / chemistry. Intestines / metabolism. Microspheres. Polymethacrylic Acids / chemistry. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Biological Transport. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Ibuprofen / administration & dosage. Particle Size. Polymers / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18465310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-5246
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microencapsulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Microencapsul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polymethacrylic Acids; 25087-26-7 / polymethacrylic acid; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; WK2XYI10QM / Ibuprofen
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41. Skjesol A, Aamo T, Hegseth MN, Robertsen B, Jørgensen JB: The interplay between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the IFN system: IFN signaling is inhibited by IPNV infection. Virus Res; 2009 Jul;143(1):53-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The interplay between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and the IFN system: IFN signaling is inhibited by IPNV infection.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a major pathogen in the aquaculture industry worldwide.
  • Indications of IPNV being able to evade or counteract innate host defense come from its lack of ability to induce strong type I interferon (IFN) responses in cell culture.
  • IPNV VP4 and VP5 inhibit IFN-induced expression from the Mx promoter, indicating that these proteins contribute to the antagonistic effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / drug therapy. Fish Diseases / virology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line. GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Host-Pathogen Interactions. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Salmon. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Viral Nonstructural Proteins / metabolism. Viral Structural Proteins / metabolism. Virulence. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19463721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-1702
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / VP2 protein, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus; 0 / VP5 protein, infectious bursal disease virus; 0 / Viral Nonstructural Proteins; 0 / Viral Structural Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / VP4 protease, birnavirus; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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42. Suri S, Schmidt CE: Cell-laden hydrogel constructs of hyaluronic acid, collagen, and laminin for neural tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part A; 2010 May;16(5):1703-16
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  • We have engineered collagen and hyaluronic acid interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels with and without laminin as a 3D culture system for Schwann cells in an attempt to devise novel neural regeneration therapies.
  • Moreover, in hydrogels with high cell density, cells underwent spreading and proliferation, and the cell numbers increased by day 14 as assessed qualitatively using a Live/dead assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and quantitatively using a CellTiter 96 AQueous non-radioactive cell proliferation assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen / pharmacology. Hyaluronic Acid / pharmacology. Laminin / pharmacology. Nervous System / drug effects. Schwann Cells / metabolism. Tissue Engineering / methods. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / biosynthesis. Cell Shape / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Coculture Techniques. Hydrogel / pharmacology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Immunohistochemistry. Nerve Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20136524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue engineering. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Eng Part A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Laminin; 0 / S100 Proteins; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; 9061-61-4 / Nerve Growth Factor
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43. Boppana R, Kulkarni RV, Mutalik SS, Setty CM, Sa B: Interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin for controlled release of lipid lowering drug. J Microencapsul; 2010;27(4):337-44
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  • [Title] Interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin for controlled release of lipid lowering drug.
  • Novel interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and egg albumin loaded with a lipid lowering drug, simvastatin, were prepared by ionotropic gelation and covalent cross-linking method.
  • The IPN beads were characterized by differential scanning colorimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after entrapment into IPN matrix.
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to find the chemical stability of drug in the polymer matrix and scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the surface morphology.
  • The ionically cross-linked beads were capable of releasing drug up to 7 h, whereas the drug release was extended up to 12 h in case of dual cross-linked beads.
  • The beads which were prepared with higher concentration of glutaraldehyde released the drug more slowly.
  • The release data were fitted to an empirical equation to determine the transport mechanism, which indicated the non-Fickian trend for drug transport.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / chemistry. Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations. Hydrogel / chemistry. Microspheres
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Hypolipidemic Agents / administration & dosage. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Molecular Structure. Simvastatin / administration & dosage. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 20163285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-5246
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microencapsulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Microencapsul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9004-32-4 / Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin
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44. Husseini GA, Diaz de la Rosa MA, Gabuji T, Zeng Y, Christensen DA, Pitt WG: Release of doxorubicin from unstabilized and stabilized micelles under the action of ultrasound. J Nanosci Nanotechnol; 2007 Mar;7(3):1028-33
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  • Polymeric micelles are being investigated as chemotherapy drug delivery carriers using ultrasound as a trigger mechanism.
  • The aim of this paper is to measure the release of Doxorubicin (Dox) from the core of unstabilized Pluronic P105 micelles, Pluronic P105 micelles stabilized with an interpenetrating network of N,N-diethylacrylamide, and micelles of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(oligolactylmethacrylate) with stabilized cores.
  • An ultrasonic exposure chamber with fluorescence detection was used to measure the release of the antineoplastic agent from both stabilized and unstabilized micelles.
  • Although there is a difference in the amount of release between the different compounds, the onset of release occurs at about the same ultrasonic power density for all carriers investigated in this study.
  • The threshold of drug release for all the compounds correlates to the emergence of subharmonic peaks detected in the acoustic spectra.
  • We hypothesize that shearing events caused by cavitating bubbles play an important role in the acoustically activated release of chemotherapy agents delivered from various polymeric drug delivery vehicles.

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  • (PMID = 17450870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4880
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nanosci Nanotechnol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA98138
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Micelles; 0 / Nanocapsules; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS20481; NLM/ PMC2034393
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45. Lin CH, Lin WC, Yang MC: Fabrication and characterization of ophthalmically compatible hydrogels composed of poly(dimethyl siloxane-urethane)/Pluronic F127. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces; 2009 Jun 1;71(1):36-44
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  • Finally, the semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogel was achieved by reacting with silicone marcomer and Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer under UV-photopolymerization (mSi-PU/F127).
  • Overall results demonstrated that the mSi-PU/F127 semi-IPN hydrogel provided silicone hydrogel materials not only having relatively high oxygen permeability and a relatively low modulus, but also enhancing hydrophilicity and anti-protein adsorption.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Isocyanates / chemistry. Materials Testing. Methacrylates / chemistry. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Molecular Structure. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19188049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4367
  • [Journal-full-title] Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Isocyanates; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Polymers; 0 / polyethylene glycol methacrylate; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 43B0856528 / isophorone diisocyanate
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46. Patel S, Tsang J, Harbers GM, Healy KE, Li S: Regulation of endothelial cell function by GRGDSP peptide grafted on interpenetrating polymers. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2007 Nov;83(2):423-33
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  • [Title] Regulation of endothelial cell function by GRGDSP peptide grafted on interpenetrating polymers.
  • Here we conjugated GRGDSP peptide to the nonfouling surface of an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), and investigated the effects of the immobilized GRGDSP molecules on EC functions under static and flow conditions at well-defined GRGDSP surface densities (approximately 0 to 3 pmol/cm2).
  • EC migration on lower-density GRGDSP-IPN surfaces was faster under static condition.
  • Under flow condition with shear stress at 12 dyn/cm2, EC migration was inhibited on GRGDSP-IPN surfaces, which may be attributed to the assembly of large focal adhesions induced by shear stress, suggesting a catch-bond characteristic for RGD-integrin binding.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopolymers / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Peptides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cattle. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Molecular Sequence Data. Proteins / metabolism. Surface Properties

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17455217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR43187
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proteins; 91037-75-1 / glycyl-arginyl-glycyl-aspartyl-seryl-proline
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47. Rodriguez-Tenreiro C, Diez-Bueno L, Concheiro A, Torres-Labandeira JJ, Alvarez-Lorenzo C: Cyclodextrin/carbopol micro-scale interpenetrating networks (ms-IPNs) for drug delivery. J Control Release; 2007 Oct 18;123(1):56-66
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  • [Title] Cyclodextrin/carbopol micro-scale interpenetrating networks (ms-IPNs) for drug delivery.
  • Cross-linking of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP beta CD) with ethyleneglycol diglycidylether (EGDE) in carbopol dispersions enabled the synthesis of cyclodextrin hydrogels with domains of interpenetrating acrylic microgels (micro-scale-IPNs) in a single step under mild conditions.
  • Control HP beta CD hydrogel and ms-IPNs were loaded with estradiol and ketoconazole by immersion in drug suspensions, some of which were autoclaved to enhance (up to a 50%) drug/cyclodextrin affinity. ms-IPNs prepared with 0.8% or 1.0% carbopol showed the highest loading due to their greater swelling degree and, consequently, mesh size.
  • The total loading of the ms-IPNs greatly exceeded (up to 200-fold) the amount dissolved in their aqueous phase, which highlights the main role of drug complexation with the cross-linked cyclodextrins.
  • The affinity of the drug for HP beta CD sustained the release for several days; the rate being also dependent on carbopol content and on pH of the medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclodextrins / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Microspheres. Polyvinyls / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylic Resins. Cross-Linking Reagents / administration & dosage. Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17761336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Cyclodextrins; 0 / Polyvinyls; 9007-20-9 / carboxypolymethylene
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48. Chung A, Gao Q, Kao WJ: Macrophage matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 gene and protein expression following adhesion to ECM-derived multifunctional matrices via integrin complexation. Biomaterials; 2007 Jan;28(2):285-98
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  • To investigate beta1 and beta3 containing integrin-mediated adhesion and subsequent MMP-2/-9 protein and gene expression in human blood-derived monocytes, biofunctional peptides immobilized onto flexible polyethylene glycol (PEG) arms were grafted onto a gelatin-based interpenetrating network (IPN).
  • Adherent monocyte density was dramatically greater in the presence of RGD immobilized onto flexible PEG arms of the gelatin-based IPN.
  • Anti-integrin beta1 or beta3 antibody pretreatment of monocytes led to a general decrease in MMP-2/-9 protein expression.
  • These results demonstrate the importance of beta1 and beta3 containing integrins in mediating monocyte adhesion onto RGD immobilized onto flexible PEG arms of the IPN.
  • The results also reveal that MMP-2/-9 protein and gene expression is influenced by the presence of gelatin and not the ligands immobilized on the PEG arms of the IPN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Line. Humans. Integrin alphaVbeta3. Integrins / physiology. Monocytes / cytology. Monocytes / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16979234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB6613; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL77825
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alphaVbeta3; 0 / Integrins; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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49. Farkas G, Márton J, Mándi Y, Leindler L: Surgical management and complex treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis: 18-year experience at a single center. J Gastrointest Surg; 2006 Feb;10(2):278-85
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  • [Title] Surgical management and complex treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis: 18-year experience at a single center.
  • Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN), the most severe form of acute pancreatitis, is responsible for most cases of pancreatitis-related morbidity and mortality.
  • Since 1986, 220 patients with IPN have been treated.
  • In 108 of the 220 cases, some other surgical intervention (distal pancreatic resection, splenectomy, total pancreatectomy, cholecystectomy, colon resection, etc.) was also performed.
  • In our experience, IPN responds well to adequate surgical treatment, continuous, longstanding widespread drainage and lavage, together with supportive therapy consisting of immunonutrition and modification of cytokine production, combined with adequate antibiotic and antifungal medication.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Arginine / therapeutic use. Cause of Death. Cholecystectomy. Colectomy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Female. Glutamine / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Nutritional Support. Pancreatectomy. Pentoxifylline / therapeutic use. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Splenectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16455462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; SD6QCT3TSU / Pentoxifylline
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50. Mohan N, Nair PD: A synthetic scaffold favoring chondrogenic phenotype over a natural scaffold. Tissue Eng Part A; 2010 Feb;16(2):373-84
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  • A synthetic poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(caprolactone) semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) scaffold and gelatin-albumin, made of natural polymers, are used for the study.
  • The polymers in the semi-IPN synthetic scaffold mimic the properties of collagen and glycosaminoglycans present in native cartilage.
  • Mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to chondrocytes in the presence of growth factors is also enhanced in the synthetic semi-IPN scaffold.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / pharmacology. Chondrogenesis / drug effects. Gelatin / pharmacology. Polyesters / pharmacology. Polyvinyl Alcohol / pharmacology. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aggrecans / metabolism. Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Shape / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrocytes / drug effects. Chondrocytes / metabolism. Chondrocytes / ultrastructure. Glycosaminoglycans / metabolism. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / cytology. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / drug effects. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / metabolism. Porosity / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Staining and Labeling. Sus scrofa. X-Ray Microtomography

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  • (PMID = 19566439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue engineering. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Eng Part A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aggrecans; 0 / Albumins; 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; 0 / Polyesters; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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51. Zhou J, Wang G, Zou L, Tang L, Marquez M, Hu Z: Viscoelastic behavior and in vivo release study of microgel dispersions with inverse thermoreversible gelation. Biomacromolecules; 2008 Jan;9(1):142-8
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  • The dispersion of microgels with two interpenetrating polymer networks of poly( N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid) (PNIPAM-IPN-PAAc) has been studied for its viscoelastic behavior, biocompatibility, and in vivo release properties.
  • The IPN microgels in water had an average hydrodynamic radius of about 85 nm at 21 degrees C, measured by dynamic light scattering method.
  • The storage and loss moduli ( G' and G'') of dispersions of IPN microgels were measured in the linear stress regime as functions of temperature and frequency at various polymer concentrations using a stress-controlled rheometer.
  • For dispersions with polymer concentrations of 3.0 and 6.0 wt % above 33 degrees C, the samples behave as viscoelastic solids and the storage modulus was larger than the loss modulus over the entire frequency range.
  • At pH 2.5, when heated above the gelation temperature, IPN microgels flocculate by pumping a large amount of water from the gel.
  • Using an animal implantation model, the biocompatibility and drug release properties of the IPN microgel dispersion were evaluated.
  • Fluorescein as a model drug was mixed into an aqueous microgel dispersion at ambient temperature.
  • This drug-loaded liquid was then injected subcutaneously in Balb/C mice from Taconic Farms.
  • The test results have shown that the IPN microgels did not adversely promote foreign body reactions in this acute implantation model and the presence of gelled microgel dispersion substantially slowed the release of fluorescein.

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  • (PMID = 18067257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB007271; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB007271-01A2; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM074021; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM074021
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS339289; NLM/ PMC3536501
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52. Brigham MD, Bick A, Lo E, Bendali A, Burdick JA, Khademhosseini A: Mechanically robust and bioadhesive collagen and photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating networks. Tissue Eng Part A; 2009 Jul;15(7):1645-53
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  • [Title] Mechanically robust and bioadhesive collagen and photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating networks.
  • In this work, we present a class of hydrogels that leverage the favorable properties of the photo-cross-linkable hyaluronic acid (HA) and semi-interpenetrating collagen components.
  • The mechanical properties of the semi-interpenetrating-network (semi-IPN) hydrogels far surpass those achievable with collagen gels or collagen gel-based semi-IPNs.
  • Furthermore, the inclusion of the semi-interpenetrating collagen chains provides a synergistic mechanical improvement over unmodified HA hydrogels.

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  • (PMID = 19105604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue engineering. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Eng Part A
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE019024-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB007249-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB007249-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / RL1 DE019024-03; None / None / / RL1 DE019024-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R21 EB007249; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL092836; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / RL1 DE019024-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / RL1 DE019024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Methacrylates; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS106198; NLM/ PMC2709163
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53. Zhao S, Cao M, Li H, Li L, Xu W: Synthesis and characterization of thermo-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) macromer, N-isopropylacrylamide, and sodium alginate. Carbohydr Res; 2010 Feb 11;345(3):425-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synthesis and characterization of thermo-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) macromer, N-isopropylacrylamide, and sodium alginate.
  • Thermo-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels were prepared via in situ copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) with poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEG-co-PCL) macromer in the presence of sodium alginate by UV irradiation technology.
  • The salt sensitivity of the semi-IPN hydrogels was dependent on the content of sodium alginate introduced in the hydrogels.
  • It was found that the introduction of sodium alginate with semi-IPN structure improved mechanical strength of the hydrogels and the cumulative release percentage of BSA from the hydrogels.
  • Such double-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogel materials could be exploited as potential candidates for drug delivery carriers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemical synthesis. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Alginates / chemistry. Ethylene Oxide / chemistry. Ethylene Oxide / radiation effects. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Kinetics. Lactones / chemistry. Lactones / radiation effects. Physicochemical Processes. Rheology. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Temperature. Ultraviolet Rays

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. N-ISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE .
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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20031120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-426X
  • [Journal-full-title] Carbohydrate research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carbohydr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Lactones; 0 / PLC(20)-b-PEO(44); 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; B7GFF17L9U / N-isopropylacrylamide; JJH7GNN18P / Ethylene Oxide
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54. Yim ES, Zhao B, Myung D, Kourtis LC, Frank CW, Carter D, Smith RL, Goodman SB: Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel particles in RAW 264.7 macrophage and MG-63 osteoblast cell lines. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2009 Dec;91(3):894-902
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel particles in RAW 264.7 macrophage and MG-63 osteoblast cell lines.
  • One candidate compound, a poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PEG/PAA) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), was developed for use in corneal prostheses and was recently engineered for potential orthopedic use.
  • Particles of the PEG/PAA IPN thus seem to stimulate biological responses similar to those in other biocompatible materials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Interleukin-1beta / metabolism. Mice. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Osteoblasts / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NITRIC OXIDE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19072924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4965
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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55. Chen Y, Ding D, Mao Z, He Y, Hu Y, Wu W, Jiang X: Synthesis of hydroxypropylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) particles with semi-interpenetrating polymer network structure. Biomacromolecules; 2008 Oct;9(10):2609-14
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  • [Title] Synthesis of hydroxypropylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) particles with semi-interpenetrating polymer network structure.
  • To develop a novel type of semi-IPN particles using biocompatible materials, hydroxypropylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) (HPC-PAA) particles with semi-interpenetrating polymer network structure and a porosity-structural surface were prepared by direct polymerization of acrylic acid monomer in the reaction system comprised of HPC and AA monomer and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAAm).
  • Successful loading of the gel particles with oxaliplatin, a hydrophilic antitumor drug, was achieved by take advantage of the complex interaction between the platinum atom of oxaliplatin and the carboxylic group of PAA in the gel particles.
  • Considering the good biosafety, simple and mild preparation strategy and tunable size as well as the stimuli-responsive properties, the HPC-PAA gel particles should be a promising candidate for the drug delivery system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamides / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Cell Line, Tumor. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 18759474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Polymers; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; EDK4RIE19C / N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide; RFW2ET671P / hydroxypropylcellulose
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56. de las Heras AI, Rodríguez Saint-Jean S, Pérez-Prieto SI: Salmonid fish viruses and cell interactions at early steps of the infective cycle. J Fish Dis; 2008 Jul;31(7):535-46
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  • A flow cytometric virus-binding assay that directly visualizes the binding and entry of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and virus haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) to several cell lines was established.
  • Treatment of the cells with antiviral agents, such as amantadine or chloroquine, did not affect the binding of IPNV and VHSV, but reduced IHNV binding by more than 30%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Hydrolases / pharmacology. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus / drug effects. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus / physiology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / physiology. Novirhabdovirus / drug effects. Novirhabdovirus / physiology. Virus Attachment / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18482382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2761
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fish diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Fish Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.- / Hydrolases
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57. Risbud MV, Hardikar AA, Bhat SV, Bhonde RR: pH-sensitive freeze-dried chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydrogels as controlled release system for antibiotic delivery. J Control Release; 2000 Jul 31;68(1):23-30
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  • The aim of this study was to develop a pH-sensitive chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) based controlled drug release system for antibiotic delivery.
  • The hydrogels were synthesised by crosslinking chitosan and PVP blend with glutaraldehyde to form a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN).
  • The semi-IPN formation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis.
  • Freeze-dried membranes released around 73% of the amoxicillin (33% by air-dried) in 3 h at pH 1.0 and, thus, had superior drug-release properties to air-dried hydrogels.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Chitin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Hydrogels / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chitosan. Freeze Drying / methods. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Pharmaceutic Aids / administration & dosage. Povidone / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10884576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Pharmaceutic Aids; 1398-61-4 / Chitin; 9003-39-8 / Povidone; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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58. Liu Y, Chan-Park MB: Hydrogel based on interpenetrating polymer networks of dextran and gelatin for vascular tissue engineering. Biomaterials; 2009 Jan;30(2):196-207
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  • [Title] Hydrogel based on interpenetrating polymer networks of dextran and gelatin for vascular tissue engineering.
  • Hydrogel networks are highly desirable as three-dimensional (3-D) tissue engineering scaffolds for cell encapsulation due to the high water content and ability to mimick the native extracellular matrix.
  • This study seeks to address both limitations through application of a novel cell-encapsulating hydrogel family based on the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of gelatin and dextran bifunctionalized with methacrylate (MA) and aldehyde (AD) (Dex-MA-AD).
  • Further, our IPN hydrogels have higher dynamic storage moduli (i.e. on the order of 10(4)Pa) than polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels (around 10(2)-10(3)Pa) commonly used for smooth muscle cells (SMCs) encapsulation.
  • Our dextran-based IPN hydrogels not only supported endothelial cells (ECs) adhesion and spreading on the surface, but also allowed encapsulated SMCs to proliferate and spread in the bulk interior of the hydrogel.
  • These IPN hydrogels appear promising as 3-D scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldehydes / chemistry. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Endothelial Cells / cytology. Humans. Methacrylates / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18922573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Polymers; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans
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59. Geyer OC, Schwabe P, Wingler F: [Plastics on the eye - plastics in the eye. Human-optic materials]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2002 Jan-Feb;219(1-2):21-5
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  • All of them derive from the chemistry of industrial product developments.
  • They should not provoke any reaction in the eye and not themselves be altered by the biological surroundings.
  • RESULTS: All materials used for IOL's - with the exception of the homopolymer of methylmethacrylate - consist of polymer mixtures forming socalled interpenetrating networks which appear as an uniform material.
  • Based on the different polymer formulations different aging and fatigue properties are the outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Polymeric materials used for IOL's should be subjected in addition to the test methods listed in EN-ISO 11 979/5 to chemical, polymeranalytic and mechanical substance examinations.
  • Identification of all ingredients of the intraocular materials should be prescribed and labeled in line with the revelations of common medical drugs prescriptions.

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  • (PMID = 11932805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polymers
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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60. Kulkarni RV, Sreedhar V, Mutalik S, Setty CM, Sa B: Interpenetrating network hydrogel membranes of sodium alginate and poly(vinyl alcohol) for controlled release of prazosin hydrochloride through skin. Int J Biol Macromol; 2010 Nov 1;47(4):520-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interpenetrating network hydrogel membranes of sodium alginate and poly(vinyl alcohol) for controlled release of prazosin hydrochloride through skin.
  • Interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel membranes of sodium alginate (SA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by solvent casting method for transdermal delivery of an anti-hypertensive drug, prazosin hydrochloride.
  • The X-ray diffraction studies indicated the amorphous dispersion of drug in the membranes.
  • Differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirmed the IPN formation and suggests that the membrane stiffness increases with increased concentration of glutaraldehyde (GA) in the membranes.
  • The in vitro drug release study was performed through excised rat abdominal skin; drug release depends on the concentrations of GA in membranes.
  • The IPN membranes extended drug release up to 24 h, while SA and PVA membranes discharged the drug quickly.
  • The primary skin irritation and skin histopathology study indicated that the prepared IPN membranes were less irritant and safe for skin application.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Hydrogel / chemistry. Membranes, Artificial. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Prazosin / pharmacology. Skin / drug effects. Skin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Cross-Linking Reagents / pharmacology. Delayed-Action Preparations. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Permeability / drug effects. Rats. Skin Irritancy Tests. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Steam. Tensile Strength / drug effects. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20678518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biological macromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Steam; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; XM03YJ541D / Prazosin
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61. Collet B, Munro ES, Gahlawat S, Acosta F, Garcia J, Roemelt C, Zou J, Secombes CJ, Ellis AE: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus suppresses type I interferon signalling in rainbow trout gonad cell line but not in Atlantic salmon macrophages. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2007 Jan-Feb;22(1-2):44-56
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  • [Title] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus suppresses type I interferon signalling in rainbow trout gonad cell line but not in Atlantic salmon macrophages.
  • On exposure to interferon (IFN) or IFN inducing agents, the cells produce luciferase.
  • [MeSH-major] Fish Diseases / immunology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / immunology. Interferon Type I / metabolism. Oncorhynchus mykiss. Salmo salar
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. DNA Primers / chemistry. GTP-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression / immunology. Gonads / cytology. Luciferases / analysis. Luciferases / metabolism. Macrophages / immunology. Macrophages / virology. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Poly I-C / immunology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Signal Transduction / immunology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16713304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-4648
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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62. Moya J, Pizarro H, Jashés M, De Clercq E, Sandino AM: In vivo effect of EICAR (5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-carboxamide) on experimental infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Antiviral Res; 2000 Nov;48(2):125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo effect of EICAR (5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-carboxamide) on experimental infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
  • The in vivo antiviral effect of 5-ethynyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-carboxamide (EICAR) was evaluated in coho salmon and rainbow trout fry, experimentally infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV).
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Oncorhynchus kisutch / virology. Oncorhynchus mykiss / virology. Ribonucleosides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fish Diseases / drug therapy. Fish Diseases / virology

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  • (PMID = 11114414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-3542
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ribonucleosides; 118908-07-9 / 5-ethynyl-1-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide
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63. Samuelsen OB, Nerland AH, Jørgensen T, Schrøder MB, Svåsand T, Bergh O: Viral and bacterial diseases of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, their prophylaxis and treatment: a review. Dis Aquat Organ; 2006 Aug 30;71(3):239-54
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  • Well-known viruses such as the nodavirus that causes viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) have been isolated from Atlantic cod and can be a potential problem under intensive rearing conditions.
  • No commercial vaccines against nodavirus are currently available, whereas vaccines against IPNV infections based upon inactivated virus as well as IPNV recombinant antigens are available.
  • A number of investigations of the pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents in cod and their efficacy in treating bacterial infections have been reviewed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics. Anti-Bacterial Agents / standards. Antibody Formation / genetics. Probiotics. Vaccination / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17058605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0177-5103
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of aquatic organisms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Aquat. Org.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 130
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64. Zhao SP, Ma D, Zhang LM: New semi-interpenetrating network hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and properties. Macromol Biosci; 2006 Jun 16;6(6):445-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New semi-interpenetrating network hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and properties.
  • Amphiphilic hydrogels composed of aliphatic polyesters and poly(ethylene glycol) have potential applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and other biomedical devices due to their advantageous biological properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability.
  • To address these limitations, new semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) diacrylate macromer and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPGG) were prepared by a low intensity ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation method, and characterized by FT-IR, DSC and WAXD analysis.
  • It was found that the introduction of the semi-IPN structure and HPGG decreased the crystallinity of PEG segments in the hydrogel, and improved the swelling and mechanical properties of the hydrogel, as well as lowered the release percentage of BSA from the hydrogel.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylates / chemistry. Animals. Biodegradation, Environmental. Biomechanical Phenomena. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Caproates / chemistry. Cattle. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Galactans / chemistry. Lactones / chemistry. Light. Mannans / chemistry. Molecular Structure. Plant Gums. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polymers / chemistry. Rheology. Serum Albumin, Bovine / secretion. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Ultraviolet Rays. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 16761276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1616-5187
  • [Journal-full-title] Macromolecular bioscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Macromol Biosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Caproates; 0 / Galactans; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Mannans; 0 / Plant Gums; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 502-44-3 / caprolactone; E89I1637KE / guar gum
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65. Santi N, Sandtrø A, Sindre H, Song H, Hong JR, Thu B, Wu JL, Vakharia VN, Evensen Ø: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo independent of VP5 expression. Virology; 2005 Nov 10;342(1):13-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo independent of VP5 expression.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of a highly infectious disease in salmonid fish, encodes a small non-structural protein designated VP5.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus VP5 is dispensable for virulence and persistence. J. Virol.
  • The wild-type rNVI15 virus encodes a truncated 12-kDa VP5 protein, rNVI15-15K encodes a full-length 15-kDa VP5, whereas rNVI15-DeltaVP5 is deficient in VP5 expression.
  • However, substitutions of putative functionally important amino acids in the BH2 domain of VP5 of IPNV-Sp strains were identified, which might influence the anti-apoptosis effect of the protein, and partly explain the apparent absence of this specific function.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / pathology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / genetics. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / pathogenicity. Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line. Cell Membrane Permeability. Gene Expression. Genes, Viral. In Vitro Techniques. Liver / pathology. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Pancreas / pathology. Salmo salar. Salmonidae. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 16126243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Nonstructural Proteins
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66. Hong JR, Guan BJ, Her GM, Evensen O, Santi N, Wu JL: Aquatic birnavirus infection activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB via tyrosine kinase signalling leading to cell death. J Fish Dis; 2008 Jun;31(6):451-60
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  • Our previous studies found that infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) induces host apoptotic cell death, possibly through a newly synthesized protein trigger.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Death. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Genistein / pharmacology. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18471101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-7775
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fish diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Fish Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / benzyloxycarbonyl-isoleucyl-glutamyl(O-tert-butyl)-alanyl-leucinal; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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67. Modak B, Sandino AM, Arata L, Cárdenas-Jirón G, Torres R: Inhibitory effect of aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from Heliotropium filifolium on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication. Vet Microbiol; 2010 Feb 24;141(1-2):53-8
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  • [Title] Inhibitory effect of aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from Heliotropium filifolium on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication.
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a disease caused by a birnavirus affecting several wild and commercial aquatic organisms.
  • This infectious disease results in significant losses in the farming industry and therefore effective therapeutic agents are needed to control outbreaks caused by this pathogen.
  • Our goal was to evaluate in vitro antiviral effect of a group of natural compounds (geranyl aromatic derivatives) isolated from the resinous exudate of the plant Heliotropium filifolium (Heliotropiaceae), semi-synthetics compounds obtained from them, and the resinous exudate, on CHSE-214 cell line infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using a virus plaque inhibition assay at various concentrations.
  • These results allow propose that the ester filifolinyl senecionate is a good candidate for used as antiviral therapy for IPN virus in salmon fry.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Heliotropium / chemistry. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / drug effects. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / physiology. Plant Exudates / pharmacology. Virus Replication / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA / metabolism. RNA / metabolism. Salmon

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19818567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2542
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Plant Exudates; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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68. Soppimath KS, Kulkarni AR, Aminabhavi TM: Controlled release of antihypertensive drug from the interpenetrating network poly(vinyl alcohol)-guar gum hydrogel microspheres. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2000;11(1):27-43
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  • [Title] Controlled release of antihypertensive drug from the interpenetrating network poly(vinyl alcohol)-guar gum hydrogel microspheres.
  • Poly(vinyl alcohol)-guar gum interpenetrating network microspheres were prepared by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde.
  • Nifedipine, an antihypertensive drug, was loaded into these matrices before and after cross-linking to study its release patterns.
  • Furthermore, the microspheres were characterized for drug entrapment efficiency, particle size, transport of water into the matrix and drug release kinetics.
  • The in vitro release study indicated that the release from these microspheres is not only dependent upon the extent of cross-linking, but also on the amount of the drug loaded as well as the method of drug loading.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Galactans / pharmacokinetics. Hydrogels / pharmacokinetics. Mannans / pharmacokinetics. Polyvinyl Alcohol / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Cross-Linking Reagents. Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics. Drug Carriers. Drug Compounding. Glutaral. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Microspheres. Nifedipine / pharmacokinetics. Particle Size. Plant Gums. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 10680606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Galactans; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Mannans; 0 / Plant Gums; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; E89I1637KE / guar gum; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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69. Liu X, Kubo T, Diao H, Benjamas J, Yonemichi T, Nishi N: DNA/polyvinyl alcohol interpenetrating polymer network as stationary phase for thin layer chromatography. Anal Biochem; 2009 Oct 1;393(1):67-72
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  • [Title] DNA/polyvinyl alcohol interpenetrating polymer network as stationary phase for thin layer chromatography.
  • By cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) and subsequent cross-linking DNA with a UV irradiation, a DNA/PVA interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) is formed and was used to coat the surface of the porous silica particles of the TLC.
  • On the practical side, the DNA-modified TLC have high prospects in diverse applications, including efficacy evaluation of a medicine, toxicity assessment of a pollutant at the molecular level, as well as separation of enantiomers such as dyes, amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleotides, and drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acids / analysis. Amino Acids / chemistry. Animals. Circular Dichroism. Molecular Structure. Salmon. Spectrophotometry. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 19539598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0309
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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70. Losi P, Briganti E, Magera A, Spiller D, Ristori C, Battolla B, Balderi M, Kull S, Balbarini A, Di Stefano R, Soldani G: Tissue response to poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane-fibrin composite scaffolds for controlled delivery of pro-angiogenic growth factors. Biomaterials; 2010 Jul;31(20):5336-44
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  • For this purpose a composite scaffold made of a poly(ether)urethane-polydimethylsiloxane (PEtU-PDMS) semi-interpenetrating polymeric network (semi-IPN) and fibrin loaded growth factors (GFs), such as VEGF and bFGF, was manufactured using spray, phase-inversion technique.
  • In conclusion, this study showed that the semi-IPN composite scaffold acting as a pro-angiogenic GFs delivery system has therapeutic potential for the local treatment of ischemic tissue and wound healing.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / pharmacology. Dimethylpolysiloxanes / pharmacology. Fibrin / pharmacology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Polyurethanes / pharmacology. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Delayed-Action Preparations. Disease Models, Animal. Hindlimb / blood supply. Hindlimb / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ischemia / pathology. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Polyurethanes; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / polyetherurethane; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 63148-62-9 / baysilon; 9001-31-4 / Fibrin
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71. Watkins AW, Southard SL, Anseth KS: Characterizing multilaminated hydrogels with spatially varying network structure and solute loading using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Acta Biomater; 2007 Jul;3(4):439-48
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  • [Title] Characterizing multilaminated hydrogels with spatially varying network structure and solute loading using confocal laser scanning microscopy.
  • Multilaminated controlled release devices were formed through photopolymerization techniques to produce hydrogels with spatially varying solute loadings and network structures composed of poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG).
  • Using low molecular weight fluorescent dyes as model drugs, the distribution profiles were characterized non-invasively in pseudo-real-time with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) during release studies.
  • However, in devices composed of alternating layers of PHEMA and PEG, differences from predicted behavior were experimentally observed in both concentration profiles and release rates, suggesting interfacial obstruction of diffusion, possibly due to the formation of interpenetrating networks.

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  • (PMID = 17236830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7061
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biomaterialia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomater
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE012998; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE012998-08; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE12998
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polymers; 25249-16-5 / Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS26268; NLM/ PMC2682343
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72. Park YD, Tirelli N, Hubbell JA: Photopolymerized hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks. Biomaterials; 2003 Mar;24(6):893-900
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  • [Title] Photopolymerized hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels and interpenetrating networks.
  • Hyaluronic acid (HA) was derivatized with methacrylic esters used for the preparation of hydrogels via photopolymerization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Division / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Elasticity. Fibroblasts / cytology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Humans. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase. Indicators and Reagents. Molecular Weight. Photochemistry. Polyethylene Glycols. Skin / cytology

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  • (PMID = 12504509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; EC 3.2.1.35 / Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
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73. Shivappa RB, McAllister PE, Edwards GH, Santi N, Evensen O, Vakharia VN: Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system. Dev Biol (Basel); 2005;121:165-74
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  • [Title] Development of a subunit vaccine for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus using a baculovirus insect/larvae system.
  • Various attempts to develop a vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) have not yielded consistent results.
  • Thus, at present, no commercial vaccine is available that can be used with confidence to immunize fry of salmon and trout.
  • High yields of IPNV proteins were obtained and the structural proteins self assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs).
  • We tested the immunogenicity of the putative VLP antigen in immersion vaccine experiments (two concentrations) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, and by intraperitoneal immunisation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts using an oil adjuvant formulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Fish Diseases / prevention & control. Gene Expression. Genes, Viral / genetics. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / genetics. Salmonidae. Vaccination / veterinary. Viral Structural Proteins / genetics. Viral Vaccines / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Viral / immunology. Antigens, Viral / immunology. Baculoviridae. Cells, Cultured. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Genetic Vectors / immunology. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Spodoptera. Transfection. Vaccines, Subunit / genetics. Virion / immunology. Virion / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15962479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-6074
  • [Journal-full-title] Developments in biologicals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev Biol (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Vaccines, Subunit; 0 / Viral Structural Proteins; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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74. Pescosolido L, Miatto S, Di Meo C, Cencetti C, Coviello T, Alhaique F, Matricardi P: Injectable and in situ gelling hydrogels for modified protein release. Eur Biophys J; 2010 May;39(6):903-9
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  • The resulting Interpenetrating Polymer Network showed a synergistic mechanical behavior that can be exploited to target the hydrogel properties towards specific biomedical needs.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis. Methacrylates / chemistry. Proteins / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Dental Materials. Dextrans / chemical synthesis. Dextrans / chemistry. Drug Carriers. Drug Delivery Systems. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Injections. Materials Testing. Rheology

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  • (PMID = 19326113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1017
  • [Journal-full-title] European biophysics journal : EBJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Biophys. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Dental Materials; 0 / Dextrans; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Proteins; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid
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75. Al-Kahtani Ahmed A, Bhojya Naik HS, Sherigara BS: Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-based pH-sensitive semi-interpenetrating network microspheres for controlled release of diclofenac sodium. Carbohydr Res; 2009 Mar 31;344(5):699-706
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  • [Title] Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-based pH-sensitive semi-interpenetrating network microspheres for controlled release of diclofenac sodium.
  • pH-Sensitive semi-interpenetrating networks (IPNs) based on chitosan (Cs) and acrylamide-grafted hydroxyethylcellulose (AAm-g-HEC) were prepared in the form of microspheres (MPs) by emulsion-crosslinking technique using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker.
  • Diclofenac sodium (DS) drug was successfully encapsulated into IPN microspheres by varying the ratio of Cs and AAm-g-HEC, % drug loading, and amount of GA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Delivery Systems. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Molecular Structure. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 19246032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-426X
  • [Journal-full-title] Carbohydrate research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carbohydr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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76. Hamcerencu M, Desbrieres J, Popa M, Riess G: Stimuli-sensitive xanthan derivatives/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels: influence of cross-linking agent on interpenetrating polymer network properties. Biomacromolecules; 2009 Jul 13;10(7):1911-22
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  • [Title] Stimuli-sensitive xanthan derivatives/N-isopropylacrylamide hydrogels: influence of cross-linking agent on interpenetrating polymer network properties.
  • This article first describes the preparation and characterization of a novel class of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives/β-cyclodextrin acrylate/N-isopropylacrylamide stimuli-responsive hydrogels synthesized by free radical polymerization.
  • By copolymerization of these maleate polysaccharides with a known temperature sensitive precursor (N-isopropylacrylamide) water-swollen hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) were obtained.
  • By changing the feed composition ratio of precursors and cross-linking agent (β-cyclodextrin acrylate or N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, respectively) the phase transition temperature (lower critical solution temperature) could also be adjusted near the body temperature for the potential applications in biomedical and biotechnology fields.
  • The role of the cross-linking agent on these properties is more particularly discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Cross-Linking Reagents. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Temperature. Transition Temperature

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  • (PMID = 19499889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; B7GFF17L9U / N-isopropylacrylamide; TTV12P4NEE / xanthan gum
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77. Zhang XZ, Wu DQ, Chu CC: Synthesis, characterization and controlled drug release of thermosensitive IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels. Biomaterials; 2004 Aug;25(17):3793-805
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  • [Title] Synthesis, characterization and controlled drug release of thermosensitive IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels.
  • A method was developed to prepare thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogels with an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure for the purpose of improving its mechanical properties, response rate to temperature and sustained release of drugs.
  • Although the differential scanning calorimetry data exhibited similarly lower critical solution temperature (LCST) between IPN- and non-IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels, an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the IPNs relative to the normal PNIPAAm hydrogel was observed.
  • The interior morphology of the IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the IPN hydrogels showed a fibrillar-like porous network structure that normal PNIPAAm did not have.
  • Furthermore, by measuring the temperature dependence of the swelling ratio and deswelling kinetics, these IPN hydrogels also exhibited improved intelligent characteristics (e.g., controllable faster response rate) that depended on the composition ratio of the two network components.
  • From the applications viewpoint, the effects of a shrinking-reswelling cycle around the LCST on the properties of the IPN hydrogels were examined to determine if these properties would be stable for potential applications.
  • The release data suggested that an improved controlled release could be achieved by the IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels without losing their intelligent properties.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry. Serum Albumin, Bovine / administration & dosage. Serum Albumin, Bovine / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Compressive Strength. Diffusion. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Kinetics. Materials Testing. Molecular Conformation. Sensitivity and Specificity. Surface Properties. Temperature. Tensile Strength. Transition Temperature. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15020155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide
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78. Agnihotri SA, Aminabhavi TM: Development of novel interpenetrating network gellan gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel microspheres for the controlled release of carvedilol. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2005 Jul;31(6):491-503
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  • [Title] Development of novel interpenetrating network gellan gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel microspheres for the controlled release of carvedilol.
  • Novel interpenetrating polymeric network microspheres of gellan gum and poly(vinyl alcohol) were prepared by the emulsion cross-linking method.
  • Carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug, was successfully loaded into these microspheres prepared by changing the experimental variables such as ratio of gellan gum:poly(vinyl alcohol) and extent of cross-linking in order to optimize the process variables on drug encapsulation efficiency, release rates, size, and morphology of the microspheres.
  • Formation of interpenetrating network and the chemical stability of carvedilol after preparing the microspheres was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
  • Differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction studies were made on the drug-loaded microspheres to investigate the crystalline nature of the drug after encapsulation.
  • Results indicated a crystalline dispersion of carvedilol in the polymer matrix.
  • The mechanical properties of interpenetrating polymeric networks prepared were investigated.
  • Network parameters such as molar mass between cross-links and cross-linking density for interpenetrating polymeric networks were calculated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbazoles / pharmacokinetics. Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics. Microspheres. Polysaccharides, Bacterial / chemistry. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Propanolamines / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antihypertensive Agents / chemistry. Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning / methods. Hydrogel / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods. Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods. Tensile Strength. X-Ray Diffraction / methods

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  • (PMID = 16109622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9045
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Carbazoles; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 0 / Propanolamines; 0K47UL67F2 / carvedilol; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 71010-52-1 / gellan gum; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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79. Changez M, Koul V, Dinda AK: Efficacy of antibiotics-loaded interpenetrating network (IPNs) hydrogel based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin for treatment of experimental osteomyelitis: in vivo study. Biomaterials; 2005 May;26(14):2095-104
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  • [Title] Efficacy of antibiotics-loaded interpenetrating network (IPNs) hydrogel based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin for treatment of experimental osteomyelitis: in vivo study.
  • The safety and efficacy of gentamycin sulphate (GS)- or vancomycin hydrochloride (VCl)-loaded polymer devices based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin crosslinked selectively using 0.3 mol % N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide and 1 wt% glutaraldehyde were evaluated by varying the drug concentration onto the devices.
  • The placebo and drug-loaded device of AxGx (acrylic acid:gelatin: 1:1 w/w) were employed for the treatment of experimental osteomyelitis in rabbit.
  • The drug concentration was measured following implantation in the adjacent tissue of femoral cavity, and serum.
  • In femoral cavity maximum drug concentration was found on the 7th day with all the four types of devices.
  • No drug was found after 21 days, at the local site with devices AxGx-1a and AxGx-1b (12+/-1 mg), whereas it was detected after 6 weeks with 16+/-1 mg device (44% w/w GS or VCl).
  • Macroscopic evaluation after treatment revealed that swelling, redness, local warmth and drainage decreased depending upon the drug loading of the implants.
  • Sequential radiographs, histology, microbiologic assay and scanning electron micrography demonstrated devices AxGx-1b and AxGx-1c (16+/-1 mg of 44% w/w drug loading) to be the most suitable device, which heals the infection after 6 weeks of treatment.
  • None of the implant showed toxic level of drug in serum at any given time.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Drug Implants / administration & dosage. Drug Implants / chemistry. Gentamicins / administration & dosage. Hydrogels / chemistry. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy. Vancomycin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Rabbits. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15576184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Gentamicins; 0 / Hydrogels; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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80. Liu YY, Shao YH, Lü J: Preparation, properties and controlled release behaviors of pH-induced thermosensitive amphiphilic gels. Biomaterials; 2006 Jul;27(21):4016-24
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  • [Title] Preparation, properties and controlled release behaviors of pH-induced thermosensitive amphiphilic gels.
  • Two pH-induced thermosensitive amphiphilic gels for controlled drug release were constructed with thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and hydrophobic poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) by interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) technology.
  • It is found that the IPN hydrogels show pH-induced thermosensitivity at physiological temperature.
  • When the amphiphilic gels with IPN structure were immersed in water, the hydrophobic moieties formed by PEA have the potential to act as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, from which drug may be released slowly.
  • Using drug daidzein (DAI) as a model molecule, controlled release behaviors of the IPNs were investigated.
  • It is found that the presence of permanently hydrophobic PEA network can indeed slow the release rate of DAI and to some extent overcome disadvantageous burst effect of PNIPAm-based networks in hydration state.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Isoflavones / administration & dosage. Isoflavones / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16563494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / poly(ethylacrylate); 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide; 6287WC5J2L / daidzein
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81. Tiğli RS, Gümüşderelioğlu M: Evaluation of alginate-chitosan semi IPNs as cartilage scaffolds. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2009 Mar;20(3):699-709
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  • In this study, alginate and alginate:chitosan semi interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying process.
  • This is why, alginate:chitosan semi IPN scaffolds were prepared at the crosslinking condition mentioned above in 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50% (v/v) alginate:chitosan ratios.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Chondrocytes / cytology. Chondrogenesis. Cross-Linking Reagents. Freeze Drying. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Materials Testing. Mice. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Tissue Engineering

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  • (PMID = 18987950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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82. Covernton PO, Lester RA: Prolonged stimulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat interpeduncular nucleus has differential effects on transmitter release. Int J Dev Neurosci; 2002 Jun-Aug;20(3-5):247-58
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  • In the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists, bicuculline-sensitive spontaneous GABA inhibitory synaptic currents (IPSCs) could be readily resolved in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) maintained as brain slices.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholine / metabolism. Acetylcholine / secretion. Animals. Cholinergic Fibers / drug effects. Cholinergic Fibers / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. GABA Antagonists / pharmacology. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Glutamic Acid / secretion. Neural Inhibition / drug effects. Neural Inhibition / physiology. Rats. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects. Synaptic Transmission / physiology. Tetrodotoxin / pharmacology. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / secretion

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  • (PMID = 12175860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-5748
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD38985; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS31669
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / GABA Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 4368-28-9 / Tetrodotoxin; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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83. Gitsov I, Zhu C: Novel functionally grafted pseudo-semi-interpenetrating networks constructed by reactive linear-dendritic copolymers. J Am Chem Soc; 2003 Sep 17;125(37):11228-34
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  • [Title] Novel functionally grafted pseudo-semi-interpenetrating networks constructed by reactive linear-dendritic copolymers.
  • This paper describes the synthesis of amphiphilic pseudo-semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (pseudo-semi-IPNs) containing linear poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) cross-linked through monodendritic fragments.
  • A unique feature of the synthetic strategy is the permanent attachment of the linear segment to the PEG network by a transesterification reaction between the hydroxyl groups at both ends of the PEG and peripheral ethyl ester moieties in the monodendron portion of a linear poly(styrene)-dendritic poly(benzyl ether) AB block copolymer.
  • The formation of an interlock structure between the linear block and the network matrix in the pseudo-semi-IPN is evidenced by the results from spectroscopic analyses and differential scanning calorimetry measurements.
  • The accessibility of functional centers in the grafted semi-IPN is confirmed by model reactions with fluorescent markers, fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR techniques and shows the potential of these novel materials as sequestering reagents for resin capture-release applications in parallel synthesis, combinatorial chemistry, and advanced drug design.

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  • (PMID = 16220941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-7863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Salminen O, Seppä T, Gäddnäs H, Ahtee L: Effect of acute nicotine on Fos protein expression in rat brain during chronic nicotine and its withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav; 2000 May;66(1):87-93
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  • To study the cholinergic regulation of hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) we investigated the effects of acute nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, SC, 60 min) on Fos-like immunostaining (IS) during chronic nicotine and its withdrawal in rats.
  • On the seventh day of nicotine infusion this effect partially persisted in IPN but was abolished in PVN and SON.
  • IPN is connected to midbrain limbic system, so in agreement with our earlier observations, it seems that limbic nicotinic receptors do not very readily desensitize during chronic nicotine infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Nicotine / toxicity. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / analysis. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Male. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / chemistry. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptors, Nicotinic / physiology. Supraoptic Nucleus / chemistry. Supraoptic Nucleus / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 10837847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-3057
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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85. Changez M, Burugapalli K, Koul V, Choudhary V: The effect of composition of poly(acrylic acid)-gelatin hydrogel on gentamicin sulphate release: in vitro. Biomaterials; 2003 Feb;24(4):527-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hydrogels based on poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin crosslinked with N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (0.5mol%) and glutaraldehyde (4%), respectively, forming an interpenetrating network were employed as matrices, for studying the loading and release of gentamicin sulphate.
  • The drug release in phosphate buffer was faster as compared to water or citrate buffer.
  • Fitting the data of release studies in Peppas model indicated that the release of drug from full IPNs in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), water (pH approximately 5.8) and citrate buffer (pH 4) were diffusion controlled.
  • With increasing gelatin percentage in the polymer, rate of drug release was faster and almost 85% of the loaded drug was released within 7 days in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4).
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry. Gelatin / chemistry. Gentamicins / chemistry. Hydrogels / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biocompatible Materials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12437947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Gentamicins; 0 / Hydrogels; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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86. Catauro M, Raucci MG, de Marco D, Ambrosio L: Release kinetics of ampicillin, characterization and bioactivity of TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized by sol-gel processing. J Biomed Mater Res A; 2006 May;77(2):340-50
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  • Sodium ampicillin was incorporated in the hybrid material to verify the effect as local controlled drug delivery system.
  • The structure of a hybrid materials interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH group (H-donator) in the sol-gel intermediate species and carboxylic group (H-acceptor) in the repeating units of the polymer.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampicillin / pharmacokinetics. Biocompatible Materials / pharmacokinetics. Drug Carriers / pharmacokinetics. Gels / pharmacokinetics. Polyesters / pharmacokinetics. Titanium / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Materials Testing. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Molecular Structure. Surface Properties

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16404715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Mater Res A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Gels; 0 / Polyesters; 15FIX9V2JP / titanium dioxide; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone; 7C782967RD / Ampicillin; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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87. García-Rosado E, Cano I, Martín-Antonio B, Labella A, Manchado M, Alonso MC, Castro D, Borrego JJ: Co-occurrence of viral and bacterial pathogens in disease outbreaks affecting newly cultured sparid fish. Int Microbiol; 2007 Sep;10(3):193-9
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  • This study describes the isolation and characterization of the potential causative agents, either bacteria or viruses, of these outbreaks.
  • The development of cytopathic effects (CPE) on different fish cell lines, the application of specific nested-PCR tests for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and subsequent sequence analyses were used for virus detection and identification.
  • VNNV, related to the striped jack neural necrosis virus (SJNNV) genotype, and VHSV, related to the genotype Ia, were the only viruses detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Molecular Sequence Data. Nodaviridae / classification. Nodaviridae / genetics. Nodaviridae / isolation & purification. Novirhabdovirus / classification. Novirhabdovirus / genetics. Novirhabdovirus / isolation & purification. Photobacterium / classification. Photobacterium / genetics. Photobacterium / isolation & purification. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Vibrio / classification. Vibrio / genetics. Vibrio / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18076001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1139-6709
  • [Journal-full-title] International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF522824/ EF523822/ EF523823
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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88. Park SB, You JO, Park HY, Haam SJ, Kim WS: A novel pH-sensitive membrane from chitosan--TEOS IPN; preparation and its drug permeation characteristics. Biomaterials; 2001 Feb;22(4):323-30
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  • [Title] A novel pH-sensitive membrane from chitosan--TEOS IPN; preparation and its drug permeation characteristics.
  • Drug permeation experiments were also performed in phosphate buffer solution of the pH of 2.5 and 7.5, respectively.
  • Lidocaine HCl, sodium salicylate and 4-acetamidophenol were selected as model drugs to examine the effect of ionic property of drug on the permeation behavior.
  • The effects of membrane composition and the external pH on the swelling and the drug permeation behavior of IPN membrane could be summarized as follows; chitosan incorporated into TEOS IPN swelled at pH 2.5 while shrunk at pH 7.5.
  • According to swelling behavior, an increase in pH from 2.5 to 7.5 yielded an increase in the rate of drug permeation because of the shrinking of the incorporated chitosan in TEOS IPN, while decrease in pH resulted in low permeation rate.
  • The optimal TEOS-chitosan ratio for maximum pH-sensitivity existed and drug permeation was influenced not only with the external pH but also with the ionic interactions between the drug and membrane.

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  • (PMID = 11205435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Silanes; 1398-61-4 / Chitin; 42064KRE49 / tetraethoxysilane; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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89. Angadi SC, Manjeshwar LS, Aminabhavi TM: Interpenetrating polymer network blend microspheres of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for controlled release of isoniazid. Int J Biol Macromol; 2010 Aug 1;47(2):171-9
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  • [Title] Interpenetrating polymer network blend microspheres of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for controlled release of isoniazid.
  • Glutaraldehyde crosslinked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) blend microspheres of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) were prepared in the form of microspheres (66-82 microm dia) and investigated for the controlled release (CR) of isoniazid (INH), an antituberculosis drug.
  • Microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the uniform distribution of drug in the matrices, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) to study thermal stabilities of IPN blends.
  • Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to understand chemical interactions and to assess the IPN structure.
  • Drug-loaded microspheres were produced in spherical shapes with encapsulation efficiency ranging from 50 to 66%.
  • Equilibrium swelling measured in pH 7.4 buffer solution as well as in vitro release of drug in pH 1.2 and 7.4 buffer solutions indicated the dependence of drug release on crosslinking as well as blend composition of the IPN matrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cellulose / analogs & derivatives. Chitosan / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Isoniazid / chemistry. Isoniazid / metabolism. Microspheres
  • [MeSH-minor] Buffers. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / metabolism. Diffusion. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Particle Size. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Thermogravimetry. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biological macromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Buffers; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; 9004-62-0 / hydroxyethylcellulose; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; V83O1VOZ8L / Isoniazid
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90. Taraschenko OD, Shulan JM, Maisonneuve IM, Glick SD: 18-MC acts in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus to attenuate dopamine sensitization to morphine in the nucleus accumbens. Synapse; 2007 Jul;61(7):547-60
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  • 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a novel iboga alkaloid congener, is a potential treatment for drug addiction.
  • 18-MC has been shown to decrease self-administration of drugs (e.g., morphine, methamphetamine, nicotine) and attenuate opioid withdrawal in rats.
  • In vitro studies have shown that 18-MC is a potent antagonist of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors, and alpha3beta4 antagonism is believed to be the primary mechanism responsible for 18-MC's effects on drug self-administration and possibly on morphine-induced changes in mesolimbic dopamine.
  • While there are very low densities of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors in the mesolimbic pathway, these receptors are prominently localized in the medial habenula (MHb) and in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN).
  • These nuclei and the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway connecting them are believed to function as part of an alternate reward pathway modulating the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway known to be involved in drug addiction.
  • In the present study, to determine if 18-MC acts in the MHb or in the IPN, the effects of local infusion of 18-MC into these brain areas were assessed on mesolimbic dopamine responses to acute and repeated morphine treatment.
  • Administration of 18-MC (10 mug) into either the IPN or MHb blocked the sensitized dopamine response to repeated morphine in the nucleus accumbens; 18-MC had no effect on the dopamine response to acute morphine.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine / metabolism. Ibogaine / analogs & derivatives. Mesencephalon / drug effects. Morphine / administration & dosage. Narcotics / administration & dosage. Nucleus Accumbens / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid / metabolism. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Interactions. Female. Homovanillic Acid / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17447255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-4476
  • [Journal-full-title] Synapse (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Synapse
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 18-methoxycoronaridine; 0 / Narcotics; 102-32-9 / 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid; 3S814I130U / Ibogaine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
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91. Martin-Armas M, Sommer AI, Smedsrød B: Studies on uptake and intracellular processing of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by Atlantic cod scavenger endothelial cells. J Fish Dis; 2007 Nov;30(11):701-10
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  • [Title] Studies on uptake and intracellular processing of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by Atlantic cod scavenger endothelial cells.
  • We focused on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) as it is a well-known virus with a broad host range, and causes significant economic losses in the salmon industry.
  • [MeSH-major] Birnaviridae Infections / veterinary. Endothelial Cells / virology. Fish Diseases / virology. Gadus morhua / virology. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiprotozoal Agents / pharmacology. Chloroquine / pharmacology. Endocytosis / drug effects. Endocytosis / physiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / analysis. Ligands. Monensin / pharmacology. Receptors, Virus / metabolism. Time Factors. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 17958614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-7775
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fish diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Fish Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Virus; 886U3H6UFF / Chloroquine; 906O0YJ6ZP / Monensin
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92. Nygaard R, Husgard S, Sommer AI, Leong JA, Robertsen B: Induction of Mx protein by interferon and double-stranded RNA in salmonid cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol; 2000 Jul;10(5):435-50
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  • Mx protein is one of several antiviral proteins that are induced by the type I interferons (IFN), IFNalpha and beta, in mammals.
  • In this work induction of a 76 kDa Mx protein by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or type I IFN-like activity in Atlantic salmon macrophages, Atlantic salmon fibroblast cells (AS cells) and in Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214) is reported.
  • Type I IFN-like activity was produced by the stimulation of Atlantic salmon macrophages with the synthetic dsRNA polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C).
  • A correlation appeared to exist between Mx protein expression and protection against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) induced by IFN in CHSE-214 cells.
  • Several observations in the present work suggest that, as in mammals, the induction of Mx protein by dsRNA in fish cells primarily occurs via induction of type I IFN.
  • First, type I IFN-like activity but not poly I:C, induced Mx protein expression in CHSE-214 cells.
  • The present work supports the notion of using Mx protein as a molecular marker for the production of putative type I IFN in fish.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / biosynthesis. GTP-Binding Proteins. Interferon Type I / pharmacology. Leucine Zippers. Protein Biosynthesis. RNA, Double-Stranded / pharmacology. Salmo salar
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western / veterinary. Cell Line. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel / veterinary. Macrophages / drug effects. Macrophages / metabolism. Myxovirus Resistance Proteins. Poly I-C / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 10994588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-4648
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish & shellfish immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Shellfish Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Myxovirus Resistance Proteins; 0 / RNA, Double-Stranded; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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93. Ding F, Hsu SH, Wu DH, Chiang WY: Drug release from interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and gelatin. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed; 2009;20(5-6):605-18
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  • [Title] Drug release from interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and gelatin.
  • In order to develop new materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and gelatin were synthesized.
  • Sequential IPNs were prepared by polymerizing and cross-linking PEGMEA in the presence of gelatin using redox initiators (e.g., ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TEMED)), as well as NMBA as the cross-linking agent.
  • The swelling kinetics, mechanical properties and drug-release behavior of these IPNs were analyzed.
  • The drug loading was very high due to the full-IPN structure.
  • The drug-release velocity was mainly affected by the content of PEGMEA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Gelatin / chemistry. Methacrylates / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomechanical Phenomena. Caffeine / administration & dosage. Cross-Linking Reagents. Delayed-Action Preparations. Hydrogels / chemical synthesis. Hydrogels / chemistry. Kinetics. Materials Testing. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 19323879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-5063
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / polyethylene glycol methacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 3G6A5W338E / Caffeine; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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94. Reddy TT, Kano A, Maruyama A, Hadano M, Takahara A: Synthesis and characterization of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and N-isopropylacrylamide for wound dressing. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater; 2009 Jan;88(1):32-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synthesis and characterization of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and N-isopropylacrylamide for wound dressing.
  • Thermosensitive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) composed of crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) and linear segmented polyurethane urea (SPUU) were synthesized via thermal initiated free radical polymerization.
  • Synthesized semi-IPNs of various compositions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water equilibrium swelling at different temperatures, drug lading, drug release, cell adhesion, and detachment.
  • The semi-IPN films of all the compositions were transparent in dry state and negative thermosensitivity in their swelling ratio, that is, lower swelling levels with increasing temperature.
  • The drug release study revealed that the rate of drug release is fast in case of pure SPUU compared to PNiPAAm and semi-IPN film.
  • Drug release depended mainly on solubility of the drugs and physical networks between SPUU and PNiPAAm.
  • Finally NIH3T3 cells were seeded on the semi-IPN films and found that cells were securely attached and proliferated to confluence.
  • Upon cooling, cells were detached from the semi-IPN films.
  • Therefore, the semi-IPN films may be good candidate materials for wound dressing applications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Drug Carriers. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Design. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties. Temperature

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18780359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4981
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyurethanes; 25189-55-3 / poly-N-isopropylacrylamide
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95. Lee J, Feldman AR, Chiu E, Chan C, Kim YN, Delmas B, Paetzel M: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of truncated and mutant forms of VP4 protease from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun; 2006 Dec 1;62(Pt 12):1235-8
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  • [Title] Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of truncated and mutant forms of VP4 protease from infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.
  • In viruses belonging to the Birnaviridae family, virus protein 4 (VP4) is the viral protease responsible for the proteolytic maturation of the polyprotein encoding the major capsid proteins (VP2 and VP3).
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the prototype of the aquabirnavirus genus, is the causative agent of a contagious disease in fish which has a large economic impact on aquaculture.
  • [MeSH-major] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus / chemistry. Serine Endopeptidases / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17142905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-3091
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / VP4 protease, birnavirus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2225366
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96. Yin L, Zhao X, Cui L, Ding J, He M, Tang C, Yin C: Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer networks. Food Chem Toxicol; 2009 Jun;47(6):1139-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of superporous hydrogel containing interpenetrating polymer networks.
  • The superporous hydrogel containing poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) interpenetrating polymer networks (SPH-IPN) that had been developed as an oral delivery vehicle for protein drugs was subject to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing, thus evaluating its biological safety in use.
  • In a battery of cytotoxicity assays on RBL-2H3 and Caco-2 cells, the SPH-IPN caused minimal damage towards cell viability, lysosomal activity, and metabolic activity following both direct and indirect treatment.
  • The SPH-IPN did not induce cell apoptosis or DNA breakage in the above cell lines; it did not increase micronucleus (MN) incidence in mouse bone marrow, either.
  • Therefore, the SPH-IPN was preliminarily considered to be biocompatible and might be a safe carrier for protein drugs.
  • In addition, using the HPLC method, residual acrylic acid, acrylamide, and glutaraldehyde in the SPH-IPN were quantified to be 1.4, 2.0, and below 0.2 ppm, respectively.
  • Lack of these low molecular monomers and crosslinker that were mainly responsible for the toxicity provided evidence for the good biocompatibility of the SPH-IPN.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / toxicity. Chitosan / analogs & derivatives. Hydrogels / toxicity. Mutagens. Pharmaceutical Vehicles / toxicity. Polymers / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamide / toxicity. Acrylates / toxicity. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Comet Assay. DNA Fragmentation. Glutaral / toxicity. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Materials Testing. Micronucleus Tests. Neutral Red

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Glutaraldehyde .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SODIUM ACRYLATE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACRYLAMIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Acrylic acid .
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  • (PMID = 19425232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylates; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Polymers; 0 / poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)-O-carboxymethyl chitosan; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; 261QK3SSBH / Neutral Red; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; J94PBK7X8S / acrylic acid; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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97. Lopes CM, Felisberti MI: Mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-gelatin IPN hydrogels. Biomaterials; 2003 Mar;24(7):1279-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-gelatin IPN hydrogels.
  • IPN hydrogels based on poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and gelatin were obtained by casting of aqueous solution using potassium persulphate and glutaraldehyde as respective crosslinking agents.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Water .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GELATIN .
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  • (PMID = 12527269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Polyvinyls; 0 / Pyrrolidinones; 0 / poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone); 059QF0KO0R / Water; 25249-16-5 / Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate; 9000-70-8 / Gelatin
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98. Matricardi P, Onorati I, Coviello T, Alhaique F: Drug delivery matrices based on scleroglucan/alginate/borax gels. Int J Pharm; 2006 Jun 19;316(1-2):21-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Drug delivery matrices based on scleroglucan/alginate/borax gels.
  • The aim of this work is to obtain a new drug delivery matrix, especially designed for protein delivery, based on biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, and to describe its main physico-chemical properties.
  • A polysaccharide based semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) was built up, composed by sodium alginate chains interspersed into a scleroglucan/borax hydrogel network.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Borates / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Design. Glucans / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Freeze Drying. Gels. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Myoglobin / chemistry. Solubility. Surface Properties. Tablets, Enteric-Coated

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BORAX .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALGINIC ACID .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM ALGINATE .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALGIN .
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  • (PMID = 16554128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Borates; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Gels; 0 / Glucans; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 0 / Myoglobin; 0 / Tablets, Enteric-Coated; 1303-96-4 / borax; 39464-87-4 / scleroglucan; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid
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99. Kumar P, Bhatia M: Functionalization of chitosan/methylcellulose interpenetrating polymer network microspheres for gastroretentive application using central composite design. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol; 2010 Nov-Dec;64(6):497-506
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functionalization of chitosan/methylcellulose interpenetrating polymer network microspheres for gastroretentive application using central composite design.
  • This study focuses on evaluation of the chitosan methylcellulose interpenetrating polymer network (CS/MC IPN) microspheres intended for mucoadhesive gastroretentive application and the optimization of formulation of cinnarizine-loaded CS/MC IPNs using response surface methodology (RSM).
  • A central composite design (CCD) for two factors at three levels each was employed to systematically evaluate the effect of critical formulation variables, namely ratio of polymers (X1) and glutaraldehyde (X2) on geometric mean diameter (dg), swelling index (SI), percent encapsulation efficiency (EE), percent mucoadhesion at the end of 4 h (MA), and time taken for 50% of drug release (T(50)).
  • The drug release was extended up to 16 h and release rates were fitted to the Power law equation and Higuchi's model to compute the diffusional parameters.
  • The high degree of prognosis (due to low values of error) obtained using RSM corroborates that a two-factor CCD is quite efficient in optimizing drug delivery systems that exhibit nonlinearity in response(s).
  • The results thus indicate that CS/MC IPNs could be employed in the future as potential gastroretentive systems for weakly basic drugs.
  • LAY ABSTRACT: The present research explores the ability of a network of two biopolymers-chitosan (CS) and methylcellulose (MC)-to prolong the stay of a dosage form in the stomach, in the form of mucoadhesive microspheres, and to sustain the release of cinnarizine from the same.
  • Further, the various batches of formulation were evaluated for their degree of mucoadhesiveness, which is related to the concentration of the polymers used and also on the amount of crosslinking agent required to form the interpenetrating network (IPN) between the two polymers.
  • For the finally optimized formulation, the experimental value of percent mucoadhesion after 4 h was found to be 77.23 ± 2.78% and the time taken to release 50% of drug was 5.60 ± 0.32 h.
  • The low values of error obtained using RSM corroborates that a CCD is quite efficient in optimizing drug delivery systems.
  • The results thus indicate that CS/MC IPNs could be employed in the future as potential gastroretentive systems for weakly basic drugs.

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  • (PMID = 21502060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-2124
  • [Journal-full-title] PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PDA J Pharm Sci Technol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Polymers; 9004-67-5 / Methylcellulose; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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100. Wang B, Liu M, Chen Z, Liang R, Ding S, Chen S, Jin S: Preparation, characterization and controlled release investigation of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(acrylic acid)/triazole modified poly(vinyl alcohol). Int J Pharm; 2007 Feb 22;331(1):19-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preparation, characterization and controlled release investigation of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(acrylic acid)/triazole modified poly(vinyl alcohol).
  • A series of interpenetrating polymer networks of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/triazole modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (TMIPNs) were synthesized by radical polymerization in methanol at room temperature with l-ascorbic acid (Vc) and peroxide hydrogen (H2O2) as initiators and trihydroxymethyl propane glycidol ether (6360) as a crosslinker.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Hydrogels / chemistry. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Triazoles / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Compounding. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Transition Temperature. Water / chemistry

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SODIUM CHLORIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Water .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. POLYVINYL ALCOHOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Carbomer .
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  • (PMID = 17107765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / Triazoles; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol; 9003-01-4 / carbopol 940
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