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1. Nuernberg D, Ignee A, Dietrich CF: [Ultrasound in gastroenterology. Biliopancreatic system]. Med Klin (Munich); 2007 Feb 15;102(2):112-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • GALLBLADDER: Ultrasound has become widely accepted for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease.
  • An obstruction of the bile ducts and its localization are easily recognized.
  • Ultrasound contrast agents have proven to be useful for clarification of biliary tumors.
  • BILE DUCT SYSTEM: Even with the most modern equipment the sensitivity for choledocholithiasis is still largely dependent on the examiner's expertise und differs between 25% and 100%.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis shows bile duct dilation like "a string of pearls" and typical perihepatic lymph node enlargement.
  • PANCREAS: In diagnostic imaging of the pancreas ultrasound stands at the beginning of a diagnostic cascade.
  • Usually, a CT scan is additionally performed when ultrasound examination is incomplete or limited through examination condition or if doubts on diagnostic accuracy arise.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma seems to be less vascularized in comparison to the surrounding tissue, while endocrine tumors and macro- and microcystic adenoma are rather hypervascularized.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ultrasonography. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / ultrasonography. Cholecystitis / ultrasonography. Choledocholithiasis / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Endosonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Humans. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Polyps / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 17323018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 228
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2. Sheehan MT, Nippoldt TB: Hepatolithiasis (intrahepatic stone) during octreotide therapy for acromegaly: a case report. Pituitary; 2000 Dec;3(4):227-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatolithiasis (intrahepatic stone) during octreotide therapy for acromegaly: a case report.
  • We report a case of hepatolithiasis (intrahepatic stone) complicated by gram-negative sepsis in a 37 year old male with acromegaly being treated with octreotide.
  • Gallstones and bile sludge are common side effects of octreotide therapy but rarely become symptomatic or require treatment.
  • Hepatolithiasis is uncommon in western countries but is quite prevalent in East Asia and is often associated with a predisposing condition that causes intrahepatic bile stasis (eg. bile duct stricture).
  • In addition to its known effect on gallbladder stasis, octreotide alters bile acid composition and may thus hasten intrahepatic sludge and stone formation.
  • Extra caution should be taken in using octreotide or its long-acting analog in patients otherwise predisposed to intrahepatic bile stasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholelithiasis / chemically induced. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Octreotide / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bilirubin / analysis. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholesterol / analysis. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections. Hepatectomy. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Liver / injuries. Liver / surgery. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / surgery. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Sepsis / complications. Sepsis / drug therapy. Sepsis / microbiology. Surgical Wound Infection / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11788010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Ergolines; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. National Toxicology Program: NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) (CAS No. 35065-27-1) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (Gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2006 May;(529):4-168
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Structurally related compounds that bind to the AhR and exhibit biological actions similar to TCDD are commonly referred to as "dioxin-like compounds" (DLCs).
  • Manufacture and use of the chemical was stopped due to increased PCB residues in the environment, but it continues to be released into the environment through the use and disposal of products containing PCBs, as by-products during the manufacture of certain organic chemicals, and during the combustion and biodegradation of some waste materials.
  • PCB 153 was also included in a mixture study with PCB 126, since previous studies have demonstrated interactions between PCB 153 and DLCs on pharmacokinetic and biological effects.
  • The incidences of diffuse fatty change in the 300 microg/kg or greater groups and bile duct hyperplasia of the liver in 300 microg/kg and 3,000 microg/kg (core and stop-exposure) groups were significantly increased.
  • A single hepatocellular adenoma was observed in the 3,000 microg/kg core study group.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Carcinogens / toxicity. Polychlorinated Biphenyls / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Bile Duct / chemically induced. Adenoma, Bile Duct / pathology. Administration, Oral. Animals. Bile Duct Neoplasms / chemically induced. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Enlargement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Hepatocytes / pathology. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 16835634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; ZRU0C9E32O / 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl
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4. Dietrich CF: Characterisation of focal liver lesions with contrast enhanced ultrasonography. Eur J Radiol; 2004 Jun;51 Suppl:S9-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) have improved the detection rate of liver tumours in recent years.
  • SonoVue (Bracco Imaging Spa) has been shown to be particularly advantageous in the differentiation of benign and malignant liver tumours and, therefore, possibly represents a new cost-effective competitive alternative to other liver imaging modalities (e.g. computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging), thus allowing these important technologies to be available for other indications (e.g. brain, thorax).
  • The role of USCA for better characterisation, which is possible through the analysis of flow characteristics in real time, places a particular emphasis on agent use.
  • Liver tumours known to be hyperperfused in the arterial phase (e.g. focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma, and hyperperfused metastases) can be better detected and characterised.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Cysts / ultrasonography. Fatty Liver / ultrasonography. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 15234021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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5. Celli N, Gaiani S, Piscaglia F, Zironi G, Camaggi V, Leoni S, Righini R, Bolondi L: Characterization of liver lesions by real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Jan;19(1):3-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the most common patterns of various common liver lesions at real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with second-generation contrast agents and their role in the differentiation of malignant from benign lesions.
  • The final diagnosis was made by contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging or by ultrasonography-guided biopsy when the diagnosis was equivocal at conventional imaging techniques (45 lesions).
  • RESULTS: In noncirrhotic patients, the hypoechoic pattern in portal and sinusoidal phase (rapid washout) or the markedly hypoechoic or anechoic pattern in sinusoidal phase (marked late washout) showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 96.8, 100 and 98.2% for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • In cirrhotic patients, early arterial enhancement showed a sensitivity of 93.9% for the diagnosis of malignancy, with a specificity as low as 55.5% given the presence of arterial enhancement in 5/9 nodules resulted dysplastic at histological analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides sensitive and specific criteria for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant liver lesions, and in most cases it may replace more expensive and invasive imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods

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  • (PMID = 17206071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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6. Xu HX: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the biliary system: Potential uses and indications. World J Radiol; 2009 Dec 31;1(1):37-44
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  • However, it is lack of the ability to depict the microcirculation of some lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis for some biliary diseases.
  • The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has reached the field of bile duct disease in recent years and promising results have been achieved.
  • (1) Where there is a need to make a characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC);.
  • (2) For differentiation diagnosis between ICC and other tumors (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastasis) or infectious diseases;.
  • (3) For differentiation diagnosis between biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma;.
  • (6) To make a distinction between gallbladder cholesterol polyp, adenoma and polypoid cancer;.
  • (8) For differentiation diagnosis between motionless sludge and gallbladder cancer;.
  • (9) For differentiation diagnosis between common bile duct cancer and sludge or stone without acoustic shadowing; and (10) In patients who are suspected of having a drop of their percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage tube, US contrast agent can be administered to through the tube detect the site of the tube.

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  • (PMID = 21160719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1949-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999303
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bile duct / Cholangiocarcinoma / Contrast-enhanced ultrasound / Gallbladder / Polypoid lesion / Ultrasound contrast agent
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7. Hohmann J, Loddenkemper C, Albrecht T: Assessment of a biliary hamartoma with contrast-enhanced sonography using two different contrast agents. Ultraschall Med; 2009 Apr;30(2):185-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of a biliary hamartoma with contrast-enhanced sonography using two different contrast agents.
  • Low-MI contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with SonoVue (Bracco, Milano, Italy) showed an enhancement pattern which was typical for benign liver lesions while high-MI CEUS with Levovist (Schering, Berlin, Germany) revealed a contrast defect in the liver late phase (4:30 min p. i.) which is typical for a malignant lesion.
  • Histology showed a benign biliary hamartoma and incomplete cirrhosis.
  • The findings confirmed that liver-specific contrast agents have the ability to detect very small focal liver lesions not derived from hepatic tissue but may lead to a misinterpretation as a malignant lesion.
  • Nevertheless biliary duct adenomas are benign lesions with almost the same perfusion properties as normal liver parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Bile Duct / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Diseases / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Hamartoma / ultrasonography. Phospholipids. Polysaccharides. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18726842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / contrast agent BR1; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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8. Harisinghani MG, Hahn PF: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of liver cancer. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2002 Sep;31(3):759-76, vi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CT and MRI have benefited from rapid technologic advances, and MRI, in particular, from the advent of new contrast agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12481730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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