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1. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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2. Kondo T, Matsuyoshi A, Matsuyoshi H, Goto R, Ono K, Honda Y, Iyama K, Tsuruzoe K, Miyamura N, Araki E: A case of primary thyroid squamous cell cancer: transformation from benign tumour associated with chronic thyroiditis? BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] A case of primary thyroid squamous cell cancer: transformation from benign tumour associated with chronic thyroiditis?
  • Primary squamous cell cancer of the thyroid gland (SCT) is a rare malignant tumour and is associated with a high mortality.
  • The cancer was identified with acute painful swelling of the thyroid gland, when the patient was under periodical observation for her chronic thyroiditis at our outpatient's clinic.
  • Early diagnosis and prompt treatment might have been essential for the successful management of this patient.

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  • (PMID = 21686450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029573
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3. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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4. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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5. Chen HC, Jen YM, Wang CH, Lee JC, Lin YS: Etiology of vocal cord paralysis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):167-71
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  • OBJECTIVE: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a sign of a certain underlying disease, a diagnosis which can be attributed to various causes.
  • In males, neoplasm was the most common cause occurring in 63 of 176 males, whereas surgery was most frequent in 59 of 115 females.
  • The possibility of a neoplasm must be ruled out before VCP is labeled idiopathic.
  • A benign thyroid tumor could also cause VCP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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6. Carlini M, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Castaldi F, Dell'Avanzato R, Zazza S: [Incidental thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid disease. Incidence in a total of 100 consecutive thyroidectomies]. Chir Ital; 2006 Jul-Aug;58(4):441-7
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  • [Title] [Incidental thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid disease. Incidence in a total of 100 consecutive thyroidectomies].
  • [Transliterated title] I microcarcinoma incidentale della tiroide nelle tireopade benigne. Incidenza su 100 tiroidectomie totali consecutive.
  • Over the past few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable.
  • Discovering new cases depends on the extended indications for total thyroidectomy for benign disease, on progress in the field of diagnostic instruments (ultrasound, scintigram, fine needle biopsy for cytology, CT scan, MRI), and on the pathology examination of very thin slices of specimens.
  • In spite of the high incidence reported in some autopsy series, suggesting that this tumour may have a good prognosis, some Authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis or mortality.
  • For all these reasons the surgical treatment of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and examine the clinical-pathological findings of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma in a series of 100 consecutive thyroidectomies and to evaluate whether complete removal of the gland should be adopted in all cases.
  • In the present series the incidence of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma was 21.6% (19/88).
  • Total thyroidectomy was considered the treatment of choice for diffuse benign disease and appeared to be necessary for both the diagnosis and treatment of incidental thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16999148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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7. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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8. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


9. Ditsch N, Liebhardt S, Von Koch F, Lenhard M, Vogeser M, Spitzweg C, Gallwas J, Toth B: Thyroid function in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1713-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid function in breast cancer patients.
  • In addition, oestrogen-like effects of thyroid hormones on breast cancer cell growth are seen in vitro.
  • Therefore, this study evaluated thyroid function in breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumour and healthy controls.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Breast cancer patients (n=65), women with carcinoma in situ (n=13) or benign breast tumour (n=27), and healthy controls (n=38) were included in the study.
  • Thyroid history was reported.
  • Thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3, TSH) and thyroid antibodies (TPO, TRAK and TG) were determined.
  • RESULTS: fT3 and fT4 levels were highest in breast cancer patients, and differed significantly from controls (fT3 and fT4: p<0.001) as well as from patients with benign breast tumour (fT3: p=0.021; fT4: p=0.017).
  • With regard to TRAK antibodies, breast cancer patients showed the highest levels differing significantly from women with benign breast tumours (p=0.048).
  • CONCLUSION: Significant differences in fT3/fT4 as well as TRAK levels were observed among breast cancer patients, women with benign breast tumours and healthy controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Case-Control Studies. Estrogens / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Prospective Studies. Risk. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / metabolism


10. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • In-situ hybridization of MMP-2 and MMP-7 mRNA in selected cases demonstrated the expression of these enzymes in the tumour cells as well as in some stromal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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11. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • [Title] IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the role of IQGAP1 in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and its potential as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.
  • The siRNA knockdown of IQGAP1 dramatically inhibited thyroid cancer cell invasion and colony formation.
  • This provided a mechanism for the invasive role of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IQGAP1, through genetic copy gain, plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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12. Santeusanio G, Schiaroli S, Ortenzi A, Mulè A, Perrone G, Fadda G: Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):231-5
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review.
  • Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare tumour principally found in adults in the pleural cavity.
  • Two cases of SFT of the thyroid gland are described in this paper showing their distinctive microscopical architecture, namely "patternless growth pattern".
  • Tumour cells revealed a diffuse strong positivity for CD34, CD99, bcl-2 and Vimentin, but negativity for Desmin, EMA, AE1/AE3, SMA, S-100 and CD31 antibodies.
  • The differential diagnosis of thyroid SFT includes different types of spindle cell proliferation, benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, fasciitis-like papillary carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • However, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings of SFT are so characteristic that this diagnosis seldom represent a difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20614321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807559
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / Review / Solitary fibrous tumour / Thyroid
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13. Skubis-Zegadło J, Nikodemska A, Przytuła E, Mikula M, Bardadin K, Ostrowski J, Wenzel BE, Czarnocka B: Expression of pendrin in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jul 11;93(1):144-51
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  • [Title] Expression of pendrin in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues.
  • The Pendred syndrome gene (PDS) encodes a transmembrane protein, pendrin, which is expressed in follicular thyroid cells and participates in the apical iodide transport.
  • Pendrin expression has been studied in various thyroid neoplasms by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and RT-quantitative real-time PCR.
  • The expression was related to the functional activity of the thyroid tissue.
  • Pendrin protein was detected in 73.3 and 76.7% of the follicular (FTC) and papillary (PTC) thyroid carcinomas, respectively, where pendrin was solely localised inside the cytoplasm.
  • Focal reactivity was detected in one follicular- and three papillary carcinomas, whereas pendrin protein was absent in three of 15 FTC and four of 30 PTC; mRNA of pendrin was detected in 92.4% of thyroid tumours.
  • The relative mRNA expression of pendrin was lower in cancers than in normal thyroid tissues (P<0.001).
  • The pendrin protein level was found to parallel its mRNA expression, which was not, however, related to the tumour size and tumour stage.
  • In conclusion, pendrin is expressed in the majority of differentiated thyroid tumours with high individual variability but its targeting to the apical cell membrane is affected.
  • [MeSH-major] Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15942636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC26A4 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361481
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14. Kubisch CH, Flatz WH, Göke B: [Incidentaloma of the pancreas]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar;46(3):292-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Inzidentalome des Pankreas.
  • Incidentalomas of the adrenal and thyroid gland are still often dismissed because they are common and mostly benign.
  • Thus, we recommend an early resection of pancreatic incidentalomas with a size of > 2 cm, in younger patients without concomitant diseases or increased operative risk, with a malignant histology, and with mucinous cells and increased tumour markers in blood samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / surgery. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18322885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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15. Jensen K, Patel A, Larin A, Hoperia V, Saji M, Bauer A, Yim K, Hemming V, Vasko V: Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. J Pathol; 2010 Jun;221(2):193-200
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  • [Title] Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • To test the hypothesis that herpes viruses may have a role in thyroid neoplasia, we analysed thyroid tissues from patients with benign (44) and malignant (65) lesions for HSV1 and HSV2 DNA.
  • In vitro experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV.
  • HSV1 was detected with the same frequency in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • HSV2 was significantly associated with papillary thyroid cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases.
  • The expression of HSV entry receptor nectin-1 was increased in thyroid tumours compared to normal thyroid tissue and further increased in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Nectin-1 expression was detected in all examined thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Inhibition of PI3K/AKT or MAPK/ERK signalling did not affect the level of nectin-1 expression but decreased thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV.
  • These findings showed that HSV is frequently detected in thyroid cancer.
  • During tumour progression, thyroid cells acquire increased susceptibility to HSV due to increased expression of viral entry mediator nectin-1 and activation of mitogenic signalling in cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Herpesvirus 1, Human / metabolism. Herpesvirus 2, Human / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Interferon-beta / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / virology

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  • (PMID = 20455254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / nectins; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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16. Denizot Y, Chianéa T, Labrousse F, Truffinet V, Delage M, Mathonnet M: Platelet-activating factor and human thyroid cancer. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jul;153(1):31-40
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  • [Title] Platelet-activating factor and human thyroid cancer.
  • The levels of PAF, lyso-PAF (the PAF precursor), phospholipase A2 activity (PLA2, the enzymatic activity implicated in lyso-PAF formation) and acetylhydrolase activity (AHA, the PAF-degrading enzyme) were investigated in various diseased thyroid tissues.
  • SUBJECTS: Control and diseased tissue of patients with a hyperplastic goitre (n = 14), a benign adenoma (n = 12) and a papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 15) were investigated.
  • RESULTS: PAF receptor transcripts were found in the human thyroid tissue.
  • PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA were present in control thyroid tissues, their levels being significantly correlated with each other, suggesting tiny regulations of the PAF metabolic pathways inside the thyroid gland.
  • PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA levels remained unchanged in diseased tissues of patients with a hyperplastic goitre, a benign adenoma and a papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • No difference was found between PAF, lyso-PAF, PLA2 and AHA levels with respect to the TNM tumour status and the histological sub-type of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • No correlation was found between tissue PAF levels and those of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, two angiogenic growth factors involved in thyroid cancer and that mediate their effect through PAF release in breast and colorectal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: PAF, PAF receptor transcripts and the enzymatic activities implicated in PAF production and degradation are present in the thyroid gland.
  • While the physiological role of PAF is presently unknown in thyroid physiology, this study highlights no evidence for a potentially important role of PAF during human thyroid cancer, a result that markedly differs from breast and colorectal ones.

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  • (PMID = 15994743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-deacetyl platelet activating factor; 0 / Platelet Activating Factor; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / platelet activating factor receptor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 3.1.1.- / Phospholipases A; EC 3.1.1.4 / Phospholipases A2; EC 3.1.1.47 / 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase
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17. Krause K, Karger S, Sheu SY, Aigner T, Kursawe R, Gimm O, Schmid KW, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis. J Endocrinol; 2008 Aug;198(2):291-9
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  • [Title] Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation.
  • Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function.
  • APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades.
  • In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues.
  • We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / pharmacology. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Transport / drug effects. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyrotropin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18480379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APBB1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Insulin; 0 / MAPK8IP1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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18. Pisello F, Geraci G, Sciumè C, Li Volsi F, Modica G: [Total thyroidectomy of choice in papillary microcarcinoma]. G Chir; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):13-9
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  • [Transliterated title] La tiroidectomia totale di principio nel microcarcinoma papillare.
  • INTRODUCTION: Today, the "gold standard" of surgical management of benign thyroid disease is still controversy.
  • There are different surgical approaches to the thyroid gland, from a radical, total thyroidectomy to a conservative treatment, lobectomy with or not isthmectomy.
  • In consideration of the more frequent incidence of small carcinomas accidentally founded in the context of the thyroid parenchyma removed for another pathology, the aim of this study is to bring a contribute to resolve the debate on the therapeutic choice in the surgical management of the thyroid benign disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006 502 thyroidectomy were performed in the Section of General and Thoracic Surgery of University of Palermo: 458 total thyroidectomy (91.3%), 2 partial thyroidectomy (0.3%), 24 (4.8%) lobectomy with isthmectomy and 18 (3.6%) reinterventions for relapse; 34 patients (6.8%) were preoperative suspected (cytological or ultrasonography) for thyroid cancer.
  • DISCUSSION: Papillary microcarcinoma is a "thyroid papillary cancer with a diameter < or = 1 cm? ".
  • Actually, there are no univocal data on natural history, nodal metastasis, biological and clinical behaviour, morbidity and mortality of these neoplasms; the certain data is that only the radical surgery can prevent relapse and incidentalomas that modify surgical approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, the surgical management of the all thyroid disease must be the more radical since the first time, because we think other approaches not correct to improve the complete health from the benign thyroid disease and to prevent (secondary prevention) papillary microcarcinoma not pre-operative diagnosed, because there are no preoperative pattern to make a correct diagnosis of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17313727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Larumbe A, Iglesias ME, Illarramendi JJ, Córdoba A, Gállego M: [Acral keratoses and inverted follicular keratosis presenting Cowden disease]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jul-Aug;98(6):425-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Queratosis acras y queratosis folicular invertida como manifestación de la enfermedad de Cowden.
  • Cowden disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple hamartomas in the skin, thyroid, breast, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Breast and thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant) develop in up to two thirds of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Keratosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Humans. Lymphangioma / etiology. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17663933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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20. Karlberg N, Karlberg S, Karikoski R, Mikkola S, Lipsanen-Nyman M, Jalanko H: High frequency of tumours in Mulibrey nanism. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):163-71
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  • Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a monogenic disorder with prenatal-onset growth failure, typical clinical characteristics, cardiopathy and tendency for a metabolic syndrome.
  • In this work, the frequency and pathology of malignant and benign tumours were analysed in a national cohort of 89 Finnish MUL patients aged 0.7-76 years.
  • The results show that the MUL patients have disturbed architecture with ectopic tissues and a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumours detectable in several internal organs.
  • Fifteen malignancies occurred in 13 patients (15%), seven of them in the kidney (five Wilms' tumours), three in the thyroid gland, two gynaecological cancers, one gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour, one neuropituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and one case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Our findings show that MUL is associated with frequent malignant tumours and benign adenomatous and vascular lesions, as well as disturbed organ development.
  • [MeSH-major] Mulibrey Nanism / complications. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Finland. Heart Neoplasms / complications. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prevalence. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / complications. Wilms Tumor / pathology


21. Guarino E, Tarantini B, Pilli T, Checchi S, Brilli L, Ciuoli C, Di Cairano G, Mazzucato P, Pacini F: Presurgical serum thyroglobulin has no prognostic value in papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):1041-5
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  • [Title] Presurgical serum thyroglobulin has no prognostic value in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • We investigated whether serum thyroglobulin determination before surgery for differentiated thyroid carcinoma may have any prognostic value with regard to tumour extension and disease outcome in a retrospective series of 71 patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Presurgical serum thyroglobulin levels were correlated with the size of the primary tumoral nodule (p = 0.006) and of the whole thyroid (p = 0.02).
  • The same correlation was found in a control group of patients with benign thyroid nodules, confirming that presurgical serum thyroglobulin cannot be used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Presurgical serum thyroglobulin levels did not differ among patients with tumor limited to thyroid gland or extending to cervical lymph nodes or invading outside the thyroid capsule or metastasising to distant size.
  • In addition presurgical serum thyroglobulin levels were not correlated with the disease outcome after a mean follow-up of 9 years: no difference was found among patients in complete remission or with persistent disease or dead from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16187912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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22. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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23. Mambo E, Chatterjee A, Xing M, Tallini G, Haugen BR, Yeung SC, Sukumar S, Sidransky D: Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 10;116(6):920-4
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  • [Title] Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer.
  • We examined mtDNA content in 25 pairs of normal and tumor breast tissue samples, 37 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 21 benign thyroid neoplasms and in 20 paired normal and PTC samples.
  • Our results showed that mtDNA content was reduced in 80% of the breast tumors relative to their corresponding normal. mtDNA was increased in papillary thyroid carcinomas, however, when compared to the corresponding normal DNA taken from the same individual.
  • Our findings indicate that changes in mtDNA content during carcinogenesis may be regulated in a tumor specific manner.
  • Additionally, changes in mtDNA levels did not correlate with tumor grade and metastasis, suggesting that these alterations may occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reference Values. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15856456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U01CA084986-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA077664-07
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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24. Bozza F, Vigili MG, Ruscito P, Marzetti A, Marzetti F: Surgical management of parapharyngeal space tumours: results of 10-year follow-up. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2009 Feb;29(1):10-5
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  • Although primary tumours of the parapharyngeal space are rare and account for only 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms, they represent a formidable challenge to the surgeon both in the assessment of the preoperative condition and the appropriate surgical approach.
  • Of these, 8 (66.6%) were benign and 4 (33.4%) malignant.
  • The positive predictive value of our fine-needle aspiration biopsy was 75% for benign tumours (3/4) and 100% (4/4) for malignant tumours.
  • Different surgical approaches were used: transcervical-transmandibular in 5 cases (41.6%); transparotid-transcervical in 4 patients (33.4%); transoral in 2 patients (16.6%) with a small pleomorphic adenoma of the deep lobe of parotid, and in the last case (8.4%), transcervical surgery was performed for papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis.
  • One patient with a recurrent parotid gland adenocarcinoma died of distant metastasis 4 years after parapharyngeal space surgery.
  • These 12 parapharyngeal space tumours were treated with use of one of the various surgical approaches described in relation to the histopathological diagnosis (benign or malignant), to the side (prestyloid or poststyloid) and to the size (+/-4 cm) of the neoplasia and, moreover, were observed at long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19609376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2689563
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mandibulotomy / Parapharyngeal space / Parapharyngeal tumour / Parotid / Pleomorphic adenoma / Surgical approach
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25. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. de Souza Meyer EL, Dora JM, Wagner MS, Maia AL: Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jun;62(6):672-8
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  • [Title] Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) catalyses the 5' monodeiodination of T4 and is highly expressed in normal human thyroid gland.
  • We have investigated D1 expression in a series of benign and malignant differentiated thyroid neoplasias.
  • DESIGN: Surgically isolated thyroid tumour fragments were used.
  • RESULTS: In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), D1 mRNA and activity levels were decreased compared with the surrounding tissue (0.25 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.09 +/- 0.54 arbitrary units (AU), P < 0.001 and 0.08 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.15 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.045, respectively).
  • By contrast, significantly higher D1 mRNA levels and enzyme activity were present in follicular adenoma (1.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.58 AU, P = 0.028 and 2.67 +/- 1.42 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.044, respectively) and in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) than in surrounding normal tissue (1.2 +/- 0.46 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.18 AU, P = 0.038 and 1.20 +/- 0.58 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.10 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001, respectively).
  • Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) activity was also significantly higher in metastatic FTC samples than in normal thyroid tissues (5.20 +/- 0.81 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.27 fmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that thyroid cell dedifferentiation promotes changes in D1 gene expression by pretranscriptional mechanisms and indicate that decreased D1 expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentiation towards papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15943828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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27. Hindié E, Zanotti-Fregonara P, Duron F, Keller I, Bouchard P, Devaux JY: Should 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients with residual thyroglobulin be re-treated with iodine 131? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Mar;66(3):329-34
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  • [Title] Should 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients with residual thyroglobulin be re-treated with iodine 131?
  • OBJECTIVE: The American consensus statement on patients with low-risk thyroid cancer, published in 2003, suggests repeat (131)I therapy if the thyroglobulin value is elevated at first follow-up.
  • METHODS: Among 407 patients with thyroid cancer who had total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation between January 2000 and December 2003, 12 patients with stage I thyroid cancer (any tumour (T), any node (N), metastasis (M)0 if < 45 years or T1, N0, M0 if > 45 years), were re-treated on the basis of their thyroglobulin level at first follow-up.
  • None of them had a T4 tumour.
  • Thyroglobulin levels after thyroid hormone withdrawal 'off-T4' ranged between 4.5 and 251 ng/ml (median 8).
  • Two patients had slight residual uptake only in the thyroid bed and negative ultrasound examination.
  • This finding was interpreted as benign (131)I thymic uptake.
  • The last three patients also had mediastinal thymic uptake associated with a slight thyroid bed uptake.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No distant lesions were found in a group of young 'low-risk' thyroid cancer patients given empirical (131)I therapy for residual thyroglobulin.
  • The authors also briefly discuss the hypothesis that enhanced thymus might be a source of benign thyroglobulin secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Patient Selection. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Retreatment. Risk Assessment / methods. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Gland / secretion. Thyroidectomy. Whole-Body Counting

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  • (PMID = 17302864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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28. Klein M, Catargi B: VEGF in physiological process and thyroid disease. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Dec;68(6):438-48
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  • [Title] VEGF in physiological process and thyroid disease.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of both benign and malignant disease processes in the thyroid gland.
  • VEGF-A is implicated in tumour growth and metastasis via blood vessels while VEGF-C and VEGF-D, involved in lymphangiogenesis, favour metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • High levels of VEGF expression in thyroid tumour cells may correlate with a poorer outcome in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / physiology. Thyroid Diseases / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17991452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / VEGFB protein, human; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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29. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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30. Martínez-Brocca MA, Castilla C, Navarro E, Amaya MJ, Travado P, Japón MA, Sáez C: Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):190-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our aim was to investigate whether anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bax were over-expressed in a large series of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) and to study their association with tumour presentation at diagnosis and prognosis.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We examined the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL and Bax in benign nodular thyroid disease (BNTD) and DTC and their association with clinicopathological parameters.
  • Thyroid tissue samples were collected from an unselected series of patients undergoing surgical resection for DTC (n = 74) or BNTD (n = 15).
  • Non-neoplastic thyroid tissue was largely unstained for both proteins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL might be a valuable tool in the prediction of tumour aggressiveness in DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17803695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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31. Wiseman SM, Melck A, Masoudi H, Ghaidi F, Goldstein L, Gown A, Jones SJ, Griffith OL: Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2811-26
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  • [Title] Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the molecular phenotype of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and benign thyroid lesions to identify molecular markers that allow for accurate thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays consisting of 100 benign and 105 malignant thyroid lesions, plus 24 lymph node samples, were stained for a panel of 57 molecular markers.
  • Significant associations between marker staining and tumor pathology (DTC versus benign) were determined using contingency table and Mann-Whitney U (MU) tests.
  • RESULTS: Of the 57 diagnostic markers evaluated 35 (61%) were significantly associated with a DTC diagnosis after multiple testing correction.
  • Of these, in DTC compared with benign thyroid tumors, 8 markers were downregulated and 27 upregulated.
  • The most significant markers for DTC diagnosis were: Galectin-3, Cytokeratin 19, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Androgen Receptor, p16, Aurora-A, and HBME-1.
  • Using the entire molecular marker panel, a Random Forests algorithm was able to classify tumors as DTC or benign with an estimated sensitivity of 87.9%, specificity of 94.0%, and an accuracy of 91.0%.
  • CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the DTC and benign thyroid tumor molecular phenotype has allowed for identification of a marker panel, composed of both established and novel markers, useful for thyroid cancer diagnosis.
  • These results suggest that further study of the molecular profile of thyroid tumors is warranted, and a diagnostic molecular marker panel may potentially improve patient selection for thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18612701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Rahbari R, Sansano IG, Elaraj DM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Prior head and neck radiation exposure is not a contraindication to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Jun;210(6):942-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism can have a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on localization studies showing single-gland disease.
  • In patients with a history of head and neck irradiation, due to the increased risk of multigland disease and risk of concurrent thyroid cancer, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is considered by some to be a contraindication.
  • There was no significant difference in concurrent benign thyroid neoplasm, thyroid cancer, and type of parathyroid disease (single vs multigland) in the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck irradiation should not be a contraindication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in the setting of preoperative localization studies showing single-gland disease and no concurrent thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20510803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Ahmed M, Bin Yousef H, Greer W, Faraz H, Al Sobhi S, Al Zahrani A, Raef H, Al Ghamdi A, Al Kadhi Y, Al Dayel F: Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. ANZ J Surg; 2008 Mar;78(3):139-43
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: A clinicopathological analysis and long-term follow up of 32 patients with Hurthle cell neoplasm (HCN) was undertaken to contrast the clinical and histological features between benign versus malignant HCN of thyroid and to examine the effect of treatment on the outcome.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 patients with HCN who were identified out of an archival clinical/pathological/imaging database of 3752 thyroid cancer patients seen between 1976 and June 2006.
  • All patients underwent thyroid surgery.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were classified as malignant HCN (MHCN) and 15 as benign HCN (BHCN).
  • The mean tumour size was 4.43 +/- 0.66 cm for MHCN, and 2.57 +/- 0.32 cm for BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • Multicentric tumour foci were evident in five cases (29%) of MHCN but none among the BHCN (P = 0.03).
  • At neck exploration cervical lymph node dissection was carried out in nine MHCN patients with findings of tumour metastases in 33%.
  • Postoperatively, three MHCN patients had no thyroid remnant on ultrasound and computed tomography of neck and undetectable serum thyroglobulin; these were considered to be in remission.
  • Fourteen other MHCN patients with postoperative thyroid remnant and/or distant metastases received 131I treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Features of MHCN consisted of a large tumour size, unequivocal capsular and vascular invasion, multicentric tumour foci, metastatic lymph node deposits in one-third of patients and presence of distant metastasis in a few.
  • Findings of dominant Hurthle cell cytology in a fine-needle aspiration biopsy from a thyroid nodule should prompt surgical resection of the lesion to assess malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2008 Mar;78(3):115 [18269467.001]
  • (PMID = 18269475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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34. Bocciolini C, Dall'olio D, Cavazza S, Laudadio P: Schwannoma of cervical sympathetic chain: assessment and management. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Jun;25(3):191-4
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  • Schwannoma arising from the cervical sympathetic chain is an uncommon benign nerve tumour.
  • This tumour most often presents as an asymptomatic solitary neck mass, with slow-growing and rare malignant degeneration.
  • Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult and investigations are not usually helpful.
  • Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and confirmation is often obtained by means of surgical pathology.
  • Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for this tumour, with recurrence being rare.
  • Diagnostic studies included computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound which confirmed a circumscribed mass in the upper left portion of the neck next to the thyroid gland.
  • The pathologic and radiological evaluations, treatment and postoperative complications of this neoplasm are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglia, Sympathetic / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • [Cites] Am Surg. 2000 Jan;66(1):52-5 [10651348.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2000 Jan;109(1):48-51 [10651412.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Otolaryngol. 2002 Jun;122(4):435-7 [12126003.001]
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  • [Cites] Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Mar;87(3):366-7 [12598461.001]
  • (PMID = 16450776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639869
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35. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The gland is distorted with a nodular surface.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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36. Takeyama H, Tabei I, Uchida K, Morikawa T: Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland. Br J Surg; 2009 May;96(5):490-5
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: It is difficult to differentiate histologically between benign and malignant follicular-type tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study evaluated whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was helpful in obtaining the correct diagnosis of malignant follicular-type tumours, as metastasis to the lymph nodes is sufficient evidence for a diagnosis of cancer.
  • METHODS: SLN biopsy was performed for 37 follicular-type tumours suspected to be malignant on the basis of preoperative examinations, but for which the diagnosis had not been confirmed.
  • SLN metastases were found in four of 12 patients with a malignant tumour identified by intraoperative frozen-section analysis.
  • Frozen-section analysis of the tumour itself identified only one follicular cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of SLN metastasis was helpful in diagnosing follicular thyroid cancer and thus enabling one-stage surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Mass Index. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Length of Stay. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19358183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Carlini M, Giovannini C, Castaldi F, Mercadante E, Dell'Avanzato R, Zazza S, Nania A, Santeusanio G, Passeri M, Di Perna P: High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jun;24(2):231-6
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  • [Title] High risk for microcarcinoma in thyroid benign diseases. Incidence in a one year period of total thyroidectomies.
  • Over the last few years, incidental thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC) has become a frequent disease and its incidence in some reports is considerable.
  • The discovery of new cases depends on the progress of the diagnostics (US scan, fine needle biopsy and cytology, CT, MRI), on the extended indications to thyroidectomy for benign disease and on the attention in pathologic examination of the specimen.
  • The clinical evolution of this disease is not well known: in spite of a high incidence reported in some autoptic series, suggesting that this tumour could have a good prognosis, some authors report an overall incidence of up to 11% of local recurrence, metastasis and mortality.
  • Aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the clinico-pathological findings of TMC over a one year period of total thyroidectomies for diffuse benign thyroid diseases, and to evaluate, on the basis of the frequency of incidental microcarcinoma, if the surgical procedure of complete removal of the gland should be adopted in any case.
  • In this series no patient had pre-operative diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of carcinoma and the incidence of TMC at the final histologic examination was 27.4%.
  • Total thyroidectomy confirmed to be the treatment of choice for diffuse benign diseases and appeared necessary to obtain both, diagnosis and treatment of incidental TMC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Risk. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar;26(1):2. Dell'Avanzato [corrected to Dell'Avanzato, R]
  • (PMID = 16110756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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38. Lee SM, Kwak KH: Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women. Cancer Nurs; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):310-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors.
  • To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery.
  • Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model.
  • CONCLUSION: The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer.
  • Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Logistic Models. Risk Assessment / organization & administration. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 20495449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9804
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Hasanzadeh H, Sharafi A, Allah Verdi M, Nikoofar A: Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Phys Med Biol; 2006 Sep 7;51(17):4375-83
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  • [Title] Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure.
  • In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs.
  • The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries.
  • Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours.
  • The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve.
  • The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively.
  • The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Models, Anatomic. Ovary. Parotid Gland. Radiation Dosage. Risk Assessment. Testis. Thyroid Gland

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  • (PMID = 16912387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9155
  • [Journal-full-title] Physics in medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Liu YY, van der Pluijm G, Karperien M, Stokkel MP, Pereira AM, Morreau J, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jun;64(6):617-24
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  • [Title] Lithium as adjuvant to radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: clinical and in vitro studies.
  • OBJECTIVE: Lithium has been reported to increase radioactive iodine (RaI) doses in benign thyroid disease and in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • DESIGN: In a clinical study, 12 patients were selected with metastases of DTC who had received previous RaI therapy without lithium (control) that had not influenced tumour progression, despite RaI accumulation in metastases.
  • In an in vitro study, iodide uptake was studied in the benign rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, in the polarized non-thyroid MDCK cell line, stably transfected with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) to study the effects of lithium on NIS in a non-thyroid background, and the human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC133-hNIS to study lithium effects in a background of DTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lithium Carbonate / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Aged. Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radiotherapy. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rats. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transfection / methods. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16712662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 2BMD2GNA4V / Lithium Carbonate
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41. Nio Y, Iguchi C, Itakura M, Toga T, Hashimoto K, Koike M, Omori H, Sato Y, Endo S: High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1607-10
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  • [Title] High incidence of synchronous or metachronous breast cancer in patients with malignant and benign thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders.
  • BACKGROUND: Although many reports indicated an association between thyroid diseases and breast cancer, such an association still remains controversial.
  • The present study was aimed to clarify the association of thyroid diseases with the breast cancer incidence.
  • In the patients with benign and malignant thyroid tumor or tumor-like disorders, the incidence of other malignancies was surveyed, and the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with breast cancer was also surveyed.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 2005, a total of 201 female patients received surgery for tumor or tumor-like disorders, including 65 carcinoma, 68 adenoma, 61 adenomatous goiter and 7 chronic thyroiditis cases.
  • RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of breast cancer was 16.4% (33/201) in the patients, who received thyroid surgeries and was much higher than other malignancies: 2.0% gastric cancer, 1.0% uterine and colorectal cancer.
  • The incidence rate of breast cancer in each disease was 13.8% for thyroid cancer, 16.2% for adenoma and 21.3% for adenomatous goiter, but no incidence for chronic thyroiditis.
  • On the other hand, in the patients with breast cancer during the same period in our department, the frequency of thyroid cancer was only 2.1% (7/340).
  • CONCLUSION: It appears that thyroid cancer, adenoma and adenomatous goiter were associated with the risk of breast cancer, but chronic thyroiditis was not related.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications


42. Listewnik MH, Birkenfeld B, Chosia M, Elbl B, Zaborek B: [Occurrence of malignant lesions in patients referred to 131I therapy due to benign thyroid diseases]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:2-6
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  • [Title] [Occurrence of malignant lesions in patients referred to 131I therapy due to benign thyroid diseases].
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the range of this problem in patients considered for radioiodine therapy due to benign thyroid diseases.
  • All patients were subjected to routine procedure which comprised of thyroid function assessment, radioiodine uptake, thyroid scan, ultrasound examination.
  • Cytological diagnosis was: in 3 patients--ca papillare, in 3--follicular tumour, in 1--Hürthle'a cell tumour, and in one patient histopathological examination was required without definitive cytological diagnosis.
  • In six patients primary diagnosis was toxic nodular goiter, in three patients Graves' disease.
  • 3. Thyroid scan is supportive in choosing a proper place for FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / pathology. Hyperthyroidism / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17091449.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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43. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal pheochromocytoma are diagnosed the most often in patients with arterial hypertension or with thyroid medullar cancer and suspicion of MEN II syndromes.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • Among 35 patients operated on more than 12 months ago 2 patients died: 1 patient with malignant pheochromocytoma (PASS=8 points) and 1 patient with MEN IIA syndrome (due to disseminated thyroid medullar cancer).
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):767-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of cell-cycle regulatory genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy results.
  • We hypothesized that genes that regulate cell-cycle progression would be differentially expressed in malignant versus benign thyroid nodules and could serve as diagnostic markers and markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • METHODS: We used a cDNA array with 96 cell-cycle regulatory genes to identify differentially expressed genes in pooled benign versus malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Genes up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold in malignant thyroid neoplasms were further evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 95 patients with hyperplastic nodules (n = 19), follicular adenoma (n = 19), follicular thyroid cancer (n = 19), the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19), and papillary thyroid cancer (n = 19).
  • RESULTS: cDNA array analysis showed that cyclin B1, MCM5, MCM7, RAD9, ubiquitin C, CDK6, SKP2, and APAF1 were up-regulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative PCR showed that MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 mRNA expression were significantly higher in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms (< or = 0.0012).
  • The level of MCM7 mRNA expression was higher in T4 than in T1, T2, and T3 differentiated thyroid cancers (P < 0.0127).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM5, MCM7, and RAD9 are overexpressed in malignant thyroid neoplasms of follicular cell origin.
  • These genes may be useful markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms as an adjunct to FNA biopsy.
  • MCM7 mRNA expression is higher in locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16547620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 139691-42-2 / rad9 protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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45. Tomoda C, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Miyauchi A: Transient vocal cord paralysis after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid tumor. Thyroid; 2006 Jul;16(7):697-9
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  • [Title] Transient vocal cord paralysis after fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Complications of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are exceedingly rare.
  • Here we describe patients diagnosed as having transient vocal cord paralysis after FNAB of benign thyroid tumor.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients with concurrent diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis after FNAB.
  • These patients had solid and/or cystic lesion in the thyroid.
  • Cytologic findings were benign tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of vocal cord paralysis in patients with thyroid tumor after FNAB is reported to be 0.036%, the true incidence is unknown because asymptomatic subjects are not screened.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / chemically induced. Vocal Cords / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16889495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Xu F, Liu B, Chen XY, Zhou EX, Fan DF, Ma Y, Tang ZH: [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;11(2):120-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 12 children under the age of 14 years, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between August 1998 and August 2008, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A hard thyroid mass was observed in 10 out of 12 children with thyroid carcinoma, but only one out of 15 children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in children with thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than that in children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • There was no significant difference in the final diagnostic rate of thyroid carcinoma between ultrasonography and CT scans (75% vs 83%; >0.05).
  • All of 12 cases were pathologically confirmed as differentiated thyroid carcinoma, including papillary carcinoma (7 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinoma is mostly differentiated and characterized by hard thyroid mass and cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and CT is helpful to the diagnosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma.
  • The treatment outcome may be satisfactory by optimal therapy in children with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19222949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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