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1. Zhang GW, Que QM, Pan JH: [Study of the recognition between alpinetin and calf thymus DNA]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2008 Aug;28(8):1910-3
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  • [Title] [Study of the recognition between alpinetin and calf thymus DNA].

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  • (PMID = 18975831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Flavanones; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / alpinetin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA
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2. Collins A, Littman DR: Selection and lineage specification in the thymus: commitment 4-stalled. Immunity; 2005 Jul;23(1):4-5
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  • [Title] Selection and lineage specification in the thymus: commitment 4-stalled.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD4 / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • [CommentOn] Immunity. 2005 Jul;23(1):75-87 [16039581.001]
  • (PMID = 16039574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7613
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunity
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4
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3. Anagnostou VK, Doussis-Anagnostopoulou I, Tiniakos DG, Karandrea D, Agapitos E, Karakitsos P, Kittas C: Ontogeny of intrinsic innervation in the human thymus and spleen. J Histochem Cytochem; 2007 Aug;55(8):813-20
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  • [Title] Ontogeny of intrinsic innervation in the human thymus and spleen.
  • Our aim was to assess the nature and distribution of parenchymal nerves in human fetal thymus and spleen.
  • In human fetal thymus, NSE-, NF-, S100-, PGP9.5-, and TH-positive nerves were identified associated with large blood vessels from 18 gestational weeks (gw) onwards, increasing in density during development.
  • The predominant perivascular distribution of most parenchymal nerves implies that thymic and splenic innervation may play an important functional role during intrauterine life.
  • [MeSH-major] Spleen / innervation. Thymus Gland / innervation

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  • (PMID = 17438351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Penkov D, Palazzolo M, Mondino A, Blasi F: Cytosolic sequestration of Prep1 influences early stages of T cell development. PLoS One; 2008 Jun 18;3(6):e2424
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  • OBJECTIVE: Prep1 and Pbx2 are the main homeodomain DNA-binding proteins of the TALE (three amino acid loop extension) family expressed in the thymus.
  • Transgenic thymi reveal increased numbers of CD4(-) CD8(-) CD44(-) (DN3 and DN4) thymocytes, due to a higher frequency of DN2 and DN4 Pbx1NT thymocytes in the S phase.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Flow Cytometry. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. S Phase. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / metabolism


5. Laan M, Kisand K, Kont V, Möll K, Tserel L, Scott HS, Peterson P: Autoimmune regulator deficiency results in decreased expression of CCR4 and CCR7 ligands and in delayed migration of CD4+ thymocytes. J Immunol; 2009 Dec 15;183(12):7682-91
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  • This study examines whether Aire can modulate the production of the thymic chemokines involved in corticomedullary migration and thus play a role in intrathymic thymocyte migration and maturation.
  • Aire deficiency resulted in reduced gene expression and protein levels of the CCR4 and CCR7 ligands in whole thymi of mice, as determined by quantitative PCR analysis and ELISA.
  • The expression of the CCR4 ligands coincided with Aire expression in the CD80(high) medullary thymic epithelial cells, whereas the expression of the CCR7 ligands was detected in other cell populations.
  • In vivo, Aire deficiency resulted in a diminished emigration of mature CD4(+) T cells from the thymi of 5-day-old mice.
  • In conclusion, Aire regulates the production of CCR4 and CCR7 ligands in medullary thymic epithelial cells and alters the coordinated maturation and migration of thymocytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Differentiation / immunology. Cell Line. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / immunology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Ligands. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19923453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 067503
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / Ccr4 protein, mouse; 0 / Ccr7 protein, mouse; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, CCR4; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2795747; NLM/ UKMS28195
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6. Koelsch U, Schraven B, Simeoni L: SIT and TRIM determine T cell fate in the thymus. J Immunol; 2008 Nov 1;181(9):5930-9
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  • [Title] SIT and TRIM determine T cell fate in the thymus.
  • Thymic selection is a tightly regulated developmental process essential for establishing central tolerance.
  • The intensity of TCR-mediated signaling is a key factor for determining cell fate in the thymus.
  • Herein, we show that SIT (SHP2 Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein) and TRIM (TCR-interacting molecule), two structurally related transmembrane adaptors, cooperatively regulate TCR signaling potential, thereby influencing the outcome of thymic selection.
  • Indeed, in female HY TCR transgenic mice, positive selection was completely converted into negative selection resulting in small thymi devoided of double-positive thymocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / physiology. Membrane Proteins / physiology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18941181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SIT protein, mouse; 0 / TRIM protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11
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7. Liang BB, Liu HG, Cao JT: [Antitumor effect of polysaccharides from cactus pear fruit in S180-bearing mice]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jun;27(6):580-4
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  • Tumor inhibition rates, values of thymus index, spleen index, superoxide dismutase (SOD), maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen monoxidum (NO) were recorded.
  • Changes in ultra-structures of tumor cells under transmission electron microscopy were observed.
  • RESULTS: The tumor inhibition rates in CTX group, high, middle and low dose groups were 7.78%, 31.13%%, 49.70%, 61.07%, respectively.
  • The thymus index was significantly higher in middle and high dose groups than in NS group [(2.61+/-0.43) mg x g(-1) and (2.65+/-0.73) mg x g(-1) vs. (2.22+/-0.24) mg x g(-1), P<0.05].
  • Under electron microscopy, polysaccharide or CTX treated tumor cells showed typical morphology of early apoptosis with condensed chromatin at the margins of nuclei, disintegrated nucleolus and vacuoles in the cytoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 18570729.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Polysaccharides; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide
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8. Hazzit M, Baaliouamer A, Faleiro ML, Miguel MG: Composition of the essential oils of Thymus and Origanum species from Algeria and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. J Agric Food Chem; 2006 Aug 23;54(17):6314-21
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  • [Title] Composition of the essential oils of Thymus and Origanum species from Algeria and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
  • The composition of the essential oils of Origanum and Thymus species restricted to Algeria and the North Africa region was determined.
  • The oils of oregano plants were strongly characterized by p-cymene (16.8-24.9%), gamma-terpinene (16.8-24.9%), thymol (8.4-36.0%), and carvacrol (1.1-29.7%), a thymol chemotype for Origanum floribundum and a alpha-terpineol chemotype for Thymus numidicus being described for the first time.
  • The strains of Listeria monocytogenes tested were relatively resistant to the action of essential oils of either Origanum or Thymus species.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology. Antioxidants / pharmacology. Oils, Volatile / chemistry. Oils, Volatile / pharmacology. Origanum / chemistry. Thymus Plant / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16910725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Oils, Volatile; 1G1C8T1N7Q / 4-cymene; 3J50XA376E / Thymol; 4YGF4PQP49 / gamma-terpinene; 9B1J4V995Q / carvacrol
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9. Riva F, Rahman MM, Turin L, Ceciliani F, Russo S, Tribbioli G, Lecchi C: TIR8 receptor expression in bovine tissues. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2010 Jul;136(1-2):65-70
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  • Expression of TIR8 mRNA was also detected in lymph nodes, thymus and thyroid gland.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20227770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2534
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-1
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10. Gu B, Zhang J, Chen Q, Tao B, Wang W, Zhou Y, Chen L, Liu Y, Zhang M: Aire regulates the expression of differentiation-associated genes and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Apr 2;394(2):418-23
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  • Previously known to function in the thymus stromal cells and peripheral lymphoid organs respectively, Aire and Deaf1 help regulate the ectopic expression of diverse tissue-specific antigens to establish self-immune tolerance.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20226168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI057798-06; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI079466; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI057798-06; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI079466-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI068956-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI068956; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI079466-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI057798; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI068956-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / DEAF1 protein, human; 0 / Deaf1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS206118; NLM/ PMC2885885
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11. Frericks M, Esser C: A toolbox of novel murine house-keeping genes identified by meta-analysis of large scale gene expression profiles. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2008 Dec;1779(12):830-7
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  • We validated the invariant expression levels of eight of the house-keeper candidates in lymph nodes, thymus, liver, kidney and brain of four different mouse strains.

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  • (PMID = 18790095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
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12. Li N, Boyd K, Dempsey PJ, Vignali DA: Non-cell autonomous expression of TNF-alpha-converting enzyme ADAM17 is required for normal lymphocyte development. J Immunol; 2007 Apr 1;178(7):4214-21
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  • Lack of TACE function resulted in a partial block in T cell development at the double-negative 4:double-positive transition in the thymus, a loss of B cell development/maturation in the spleen, and a lack of B cell follicle and germinal center formation in the spleen.

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  • (PMID = 17371977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 39480; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 59778; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 63363
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 128559-51-3 / RAG-1 protein; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase
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13. Suter SE, Gouthro TA, McSweeney PA, Nash RA, Haskins ME, Felsburg PJ, Henthorn PS: Optimized transduction of canine paediatric CD34(+) cells using an MSCV-based bicistronic vector. Vet Res Commun; 2006 Nov;30(8):881-901
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  • We have used a murine MSCV-based bicistronic retroviral vector, containing the common gamma chain (gammac) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) cDNAs, to optimize retroviral transduction of canine cells, including an adherent canine thymus fibroblast cell line, Cf2Th, as well as normal canine CD34(+) bone marrow (BM) cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Fibroblasts. Genes / genetics. Mice. Retroviridae / genetics. Thymus Gland / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17139538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-7380
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR02512; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P40 RR002512; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI33177; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR T3207063; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI43745; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK54481; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR12211; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI043745
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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14. Nishio H, Iwata M, Suzuki K: Postmortem molecular screening for cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 mutations in sudden unexplained death: R420W mutated case with characteristics of status thymico-lymphatics. Circ J; 2006 Nov;70(11):1402-6
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  • Interestingly, 1 case showed an enlarged thymus with accompanying hypertrophy of the tonsils and mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology. Genetic Testing / methods. Lymphatic System / pathology. Mutation, Missense / genetics. Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / genetics. Thymus Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Autopsy. Cardiovascular System / pathology. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Diagnosis. Exons. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17062961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-9843
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
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15. Quintana A, Schwarz EC, Schwindling C, Lipp P, Kaestner L, Hoth M: Sustained activity of calcium release-activated calcium channels requires translocation of mitochondria to the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem; 2006 Dec 29;281(52):40302-9
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  • Sustained Ca(2+) influx across plasma membrane through calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels is required for T-cell development in the thymus, gene transcription, and proliferation and differentiation of naïve T-cells into armed effectors cells.

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  • (PMID = 17056596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels; EC 3.6.1.- / Kinesin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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16. Tsuchiya B, Sato Y, Kameya T, Okayasu I, Mukai K: Differential expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in normal human tissues. Arch Histol Cytol; 2006 Jun;69(2):135-45
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  • N-cadherin was selectively expressed on epithelial cells of the thymus, pituitary, pancreas, liver, adrenal, endometrium of the uterus, ovary, and stomach as well as in neuronal tissues.

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  • (PMID = 16819153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-9465
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of histology and cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Histol. Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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17. Oberholzer C, Tschoeke SK, Bahjat K, LaFace D, Hutchins B, Clare-Salzler MJ, Moldawer LL, Oberholzer A: In vivo transduction of thymic dendritic cells with adenovirus and its potential use in acute inflammatory diseases. Scand J Immunol; 2005 Apr;61(4):309-15
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  • [Title] In vivo transduction of thymic dendritic cells with adenovirus and its potential use in acute inflammatory diseases.
  • In cancer therapy, targeting of DC with adenovirus has been proved to be effective in inhibiting tumour growth, as well as in reducing the number of tumour metastases.
  • The aim of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo transduction of DC in a murine lymphocyte-rich compartment (thymus) as a potential treatment for acute inflammatory diseases.
  • Nearly 50% of the total thymic DC were transduced with a first-generation adenoviral construct following intrathymic injection, and post-transductional inflammation was neglectable.
  • Transduction of thymic cells with adenoviral recombinants was able to induce the expression of an intracellular protein (beta-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein), as well as the secretion of human interleukin-10, within the local compartment.
  • Furthermore, this induction of the latter significantly decreased thymic apoptosis in the applied model of acute bacterial peritonitis (cecal ligation and puncture).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Thymus Gland / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caspase 3. Caspases / immunology. Female. Flow Cytometry. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / biosynthesis. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / immunology. Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-10 / blood. Interleukin-10 / genetics. Interleukin-10 / secretion. Interleukin-6 / blood. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Sepsis / immunology. Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms. Transduction, Genetic. Transgenes. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology. beta-Galactosidase / biosynthesis. beta-Galactosidase / genetics. beta-Galactosidase / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15853912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9475
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P30 HL-59412; United States / PHS HHS / / R01 G-63041; United States / PHS HHS / / R37 G-40586
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Casp3 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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18. Kinoshita N, Ashizawa K, Abe K, Yamasaki N, Nakamura A, Tagawa T, Soda H, Nagayasu T, Hayashi T: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thymus associated with Sjögren's syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(5):436-9
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  • [Title] Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thymus associated with Sjögren's syndrome: report of a case.
  • The tumor was resected under video-assisted thoracoscopy and it was pathologically diagnosed to be thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the thymus is rare, and its pathological diagnosis requires sufficient knowledge and experience.
  • Since thymic MALT lymphoma is distinct from MALT lymphoma of other sites in several ways, including gene abnormalities and geographic distribution, an alternative oncogenic pathway and the influence of racial and/or environmental factors must be considered to be involved.
  • However, since the number of reported thymic MALT lymphomas is limited, these issues are still unclear.
  • The accumulation of further similar cases will help to elucidate various issues concerning thymic MALT lymphoma associated with Sjögren's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18560967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Zhang B, Duan Z, Zhao Y: Mouse models with human immunity and their application in biomedical research. J Cell Mol Med; 2009 Jun;13(6):1043-58
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  • Peripheral constitution of human immunity in SCID or Rag(null) mice has been achieved by transplantation of mature human immune cells, foetal human thymus, bone marrow, liver tissues, lymph nodes or a combination of these, although efficiency needs to be improved.
  • The applications of the humanized mice to study the development and response of human immune cells, human autoimmune diseases, virus infections, transplantation biology and tumour biology are reviewed as well.

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  • (PMID = 18419795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-4934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 177
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4496103
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20. de Pooter RF, Schmitt TM, de la Pompa JL, Fujiwara Y, Orkin SH, Zúñiga-Pflücker JC: Notch signaling requires GATA-2 to inhibit myelopoiesis from embryonic stem cells and primary hemopoietic progenitors. J Immunol; 2006 May 1;176(9):5267-75
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  • The bone marrow and thymus, although both hemopoietic environments, induce very distinct differentiation outcomes.
  • This distinction suggests that the thymic environment acts to restrict the hemopoietic fates available to thymic immigrants.


21. Li LS, Huang ZB, Wang YX, Liu X, Li YP, Ge XH: [Study on the interaction of water-soluble p-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl) calix[8] arene with DNA by fluorescent spectrometry]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2005 Jul;25(7):1088-91
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  • The authors observed that the fluorescence of ADM was quenched by calf thymus DNA, and the fluorescence intensity of DNA-ADM enhanced with the increasing of the CX8 gradually.

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  • (PMID = 16241062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 130036-26-9 / Calixarenes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA
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22. Alvarez B, Revilla C, Chamorro S, López-Fraga M, Alonso F, Domínguez J, Ezquerra A: Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue expression of porcine Toll-like receptor 4. Dev Comp Immunol; 2006;30(4):345-55
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  • Using RT-PCR analysis, porcine TLR4 transcripts were detected in DCs, monocytes and macrophages, and in tissue samples of bone marrow, thymus, lymph node, spleen, brain, liver, kidney and ovary.

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  • (PMID = 16139355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-305X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental and comparative immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Comp. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AJ628065
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
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23. Restrepo CS, Pandit M, Rojas IC, Villamil MA, Gordillo H, Lemos D, Mastrogiovanni L, Diethelm L: Imaging findings of expansile lesions of the thymus. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2005 Jan-Feb;34(1):22-34
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  • [Title] Imaging findings of expansile lesions of the thymus.
  • The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings of the different expansile lesions of the thymus.
  • The thymus is the most common site of origin of these masses.
  • Primary neoplasms of the thymus are thymoma, thymolipomas, carcinoma, carcinoid, primary germ cell tumors, and lymphoma.
  • Other lesions that cause thymic enlargement and that can be confused with neoplasia are thymic cysts and thymic hyperplasia.
  • The basic concepts regarding embryology, anatomy, and histology relevant for the differential diagnosis of an enlarged thymic gland are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Thymus Gland. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mediastinal Cyst / diagnosis. Mediastinal Cyst / radiography. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15644860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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24. Di Naro E, Cromi A, Ghezzi F, Raio L, Uccella S, D'Addario V, Loverro G: Fetal thymic involution: a sonographic marker of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Jan;194(1):153-9
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  • [Title] Fetal thymic involution: a sonographic marker of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is a relationship between the sonographic fetal thymus size and the presence of an intrauterine infection in patients with preterm labor.
  • Fetal thymus perimeter was measured sonographically, and amniocentesis for the microbiologic assessment of the amniotic cavity was performed.
  • In all cases with intrauterine infection and in 23.8% of cases without intrauterine infection, the fetal thymus perimeter was below the 5th percentile for gestational age (10/10 women vs 5/21 women; P < .01).
  • The fetal thymus was below the 5th percentile for gestational age in 100%, 71.4%, and 12.5% of patients with histologic signs of funisitis and isolated chorioamnionitis and without histologic signs of infection, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Fetal thymus involution in preterm labor patients is strongly associated with funisitis, which is the histologic manifestation of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Infections. Chorioamnionitis / microbiology. Obstetric Labor, Premature. Thymus Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 16389025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Carlsén M, Cilio CM: Normal T cell development in the absence of thymic insulin expression. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Oct;1079:205-12
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  • [Title] Normal T cell development in the absence of thymic insulin expression.
  • Ectopic expression of insulin in thymus has been suggested to be involved in tolerance induction against pancreatic beta cells and in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis.
  • However, it is not known whether thymic insulin expression would also influence thymocyte maturation and differentiation.
  • Early fetal thymi were cultured in fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs) and the development of thymocytes was studied by flow cytometry.
  • The results revealed no significant difference in thymocyte maturation in the absence of thymic insulin.
  • Taken together, these data do not support a role for thymic insulin in thymocyte differentiation and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin / deficiency. T-Lymphocytes / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / embryology

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  • (PMID = 17130556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin
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26. Hsu HC, Li L, Zhang HG, Mountz JD: Genetic regulation of thymic involution. Mech Ageing Dev; 2005 Jan;126(1):87-97
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  • [Title] Genetic regulation of thymic involution.
  • In this review, we have summarized our work using combined complex statistical genetics, bioinformatics, and functional genomics to determine the genetic basis of the age-related thymic involution in C57BL/6J X DBA/2J recombinant inbred mice and the parental B6 and D2 mice.
  • We have shown that these mice provided a valuable genetic model that can permit resampling of thymuses from different aged but genetically identical animals and determination of the relative significance of age-associated changes in the thymus.
  • The importance of IL-12b in maintaining thymic integrity and function during the aging process was confirmed by a more rapid involution of the thymus in IL-12b knockout (IL-12b-/-) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice.
  • Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), increased expression of peroxiredoxin was found to be correlated with thymic involution.
  • Our results suggest the possibility to identify the complex molecular network that can be associated with the regulation of thymic involution in aged mice using a high-dimensional functional genomics approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / genetics. Chromosomes / genetics. Quantitative Trait Loci / genetics. Thymus Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15610766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Mechanisms of ageing and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mech. Ageing Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG 16653; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI46990
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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27. Maemura K, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Dohi T, Egashira Y, Shibayama Y, Watanabe M: Antigen-presenting cells expressing glutamate decarboxylase 67 were identified as epithelial cells in glutamate decarboxylase 67-GFP knock-in mouse thymus. Tissue Antigens; 2006 Mar;67(3):198-206
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  • [Title] Antigen-presenting cells expressing glutamate decarboxylase 67 were identified as epithelial cells in glutamate decarboxylase 67-GFP knock-in mouse thymus.
  • Recent flow cytometric analyses have shown that a variety of self-antigens, including GAD, are ectopically transcribed and expressed in particular cell populations of the thymus, although consensus concerning the cellular phenotype has not been obtained.
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the localization and cellular phenotype of GAD67-expressing cells in the thymus at a cellular level with a novel approach using GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice, in which GFP is expressed specifically in GAD67-positive cells.
  • GFP-positive cells were detected in the thymic medulla and were identified as epithelial cells by immunohistochemistry.
  • Almost all GFP-positive cells were positive for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen staining and were positive for both cytokeratin and Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I, markers of medullary thymic epithelial cells, but were negative for CD11c, Gr-1, and CD45, markers of dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-lymphocytes, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen-Presenting Cells / enzymology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Thymus Gland / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16573556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2815
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue antigens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Antigens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alexa fluor 546; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / Quinolinium Compounds; 0 / Ulex europaeus lectins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9035-68-1 / Proinsulin; EC 4.1.1.15 / Glutamate Decarboxylase
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28. Karimi S, Mohammadi F, Pejhan S, Bakhshayeshkaram M, Akhavan-Azaril P, Bahadori M: Hemomediastinum and bilateral hemothorax with extensive angiomatosis of anterior mediastinum. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2006 Sep;65(3):172-4
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  • Angiomatosis is a rare, benign but clinically extensive and serious vascular lesion of soft tissue.
  • On operation, hemorrhagic sponge-like vascular tissue patches were seen extensively in pericardium, pleura, lymph node and thymus as well.
  • The pathologic evaluation revealed characteristic features of soft tissue angiomatosis involving thymus, lymph node, pleura, pericardium and its fibrofatty tissue.
  • Diffuse angiomatosis should be considered for differential diagnosis of vascular lesions of anterior mediastinum.

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  • (PMID = 17220109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Monaldi Arch Chest Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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29. Chen Z, Zhang T, Han Y, Zhu L: Resonance light scattering spectroscopy study of interaction between norfloxacin and calf thymus DNA and its analytical application. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2006 Nov;65(3-4):919-24
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  • [Title] Resonance light scattering spectroscopy study of interaction between norfloxacin and calf thymus DNA and its analytical application.
  • The interaction between norfloxacin and calf thymus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) has been studied by a resonance light scattering (RLS) technique with a common spectrofluorometer.
  • In Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer (pH 5.87), norfloxacin has a maximum peak 405.5 nm and the RLS intensity is remarkably enhanced by trace amount of calf thymus dsDNA due to the interaction between norfloxacin and dsDNA.
  • Based on the enhanced RLS intensity, a novel method for sensitive determination of calf thymus dsDNA concentration ranging from 0.02 to 2.3 microg ml(-1) was developed.

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  • (PMID = 17010661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-1425
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Buffers; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA; N0F8P22L1P / Norfloxacin
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31. Singh R, Kaur B, Farmer PB: Detection of DNA damage derived from a direct acting ethylating agent present in cigarette smoke by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol; 2005 Feb;18(2):249-56
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  • The limit of detection of the method for N-7EtG was 2.0 fmol injected on column with 100 microg of calf thymus DNA as the matrix (0.6 N-7EtG adducts per 10(8) nucleotides).
  • A linear dose-response was observed for the formation of N-7EtG in calf thymus DNA treated with diethyl sulfate at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microM.
  • Calf thymus DNA treated with smoke generated from 1, 5, and 10 commercially available cigarettes resulted in the formation of 1.3, 3.6, and 8.4 N-7EtG adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 15720129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-228X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical research in toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Res. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Smoke; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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32. Yavari A, Nazeri V, Sefidkon F, Hassani ME: Influence of some environmental factors on the essential oil variability of Thymus migricus. Nat Prod Commun; 2010 Jun;5(6):943-8
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  • [Title] Influence of some environmental factors on the essential oil variability of Thymus migricus.
  • Essential oils of the air-dried aerial parts of five populations of Thymus migricus Klokov & Desj.
  • [MeSH-major] Environment. Oils, Volatile / chemistry. Plant Oils / chemistry. Thymus Plant / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20614832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-578X
  • [Journal-full-title] Natural product communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Prod Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oils, Volatile; 0 / Plant Oils
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33. Scofield VL, Yan M, Kuang X, Kim SJ, Wong PK: The drug monosodium luminol (GVT) preserves crypt-villus epithelial organization and allows survival of intestinal T cells in mice infected with the ts1 retrovirus. Immunol Lett; 2009 Feb 21;122(2):150-8
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  • These diseases destroy both the thymus and the small and large intestines, after infecting and killing T-lineage cells in both tissues.
  • In FVB/N strain mice that are infected at birth, thymic atrophy, CD4+ T cell loss, intestinal collapse, body wasting, and death occur by approximately 30-40 days postinfection (dpi).
  • Apoptosis of ts1-infected T-lineage cells, in the thymus, peripheral lymphoid system and intestines is caused by accumulation of the ts1 mutant viral envelope preprotein gPr80(env), which is inefficiently cleaved into the mature viral proteins gp70 and PrP15E.
  • As in the thymus, GVT may protect the intestine by reducing oxidant stress in infected intestinal T cells, perhaps by prevention of gPr80(env) accumulation via Nrf2 upregulation in the IECs.

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  • (PMID = 19186189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0542
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07784; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH077470; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH71583; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS43984
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / NF-E2-Related Factor 2; 0 / Retroviridae Proteins; 5EXP385Q4F / Luminol
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34. Xue Z, Yu W, Wu M, Wang J: In vivo antitumor and antioxidative effects of a rapeseed meal protein hydrolysate on an S180 tumor-bearing murine model. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 2009 Nov;73(11):2412-5
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  • [Title] In vivo antitumor and antioxidative effects of a rapeseed meal protein hydrolysate on an S180 tumor-bearing murine model.
  • The antitumor and antioxidative activities of a rapeseed protein hydrolysate (RSCH) obtained from rapeseed meal were evaluated by using an in vivo S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice model.
  • Tumor-bearing female mice were given RSCH for 10 at doses of 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/d by gastric perfusion.
  • RSCH significantly decreased the tumor weight by 44% and 53% in the 100 and 150 mg/kg/d groups, respectively, without causing mortality or growth retardation.
  • The thymus and spleen indices (organ weight relative to body weight) were increased significantly in the 150 mg/kg/d group.
  • The phagocytic capability of coeliac macrophages and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were significantly increased in tumor-bearing mice treated with RSCH at 150 mg/kg/d.

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  • (PMID = 19897919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-6947
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Protein Hydrolysates
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35. Xiang B, Yi M, Wang L, Liu W, Zhang W, Ouyang J, Peng Y, Li W, Yin D, Zhou M, Liu H, Wu M, Wang R, Li X, Li G: Preparation of polyclonal antibody specific for NOR1 and detection of its expression pattern in human tissues and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai); 2009 Sep;41(9):754-62
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  • Human heart, liver, spleen, stomach, colon, kidney, skeletal muscle, thymus, and pancreas are all deficient of NOR1 protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Immunoassay / methods. Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19727524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7270
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / OSCP1 protein, human
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36. Galandová J, Ovádeková R, Ferancová A, Labuda J: Disposable DNA biosensor with the carbon nanotubes-polyethyleneimine interface at a screen-printed carbon electrode for tests of DNA layer damage by quinazolines. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2009 Jun;394(3):855-61
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  • A screen-printed carbon working electrode within a commercially available screen-printed three-electrode assembly was modified by using a composite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in polyethylenimine (PEI) followed by covering with the calf thymus dsDNA layer.

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  • (PMID = 19306115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2650
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Nanotubes, Carbon; 0 / Quinazolines; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; 9002-98-6 / Polyethyleneimine; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA
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37. Wolf VH, Menossi M, Mourão GB, Gatti MS: Molecular basis for porcine parvovirus detection in dead fetuses. Genet Mol Res; 2008;7(2):509-17
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  • In 60.7% of the fetuses, PPV were detected in all tissue samples (lung, heart, thymus, kidney, and spleen).
  • [MeSH-major] Parvoviridae Infections / diagnosis. Parvovirus, Porcine / genetics. Swine Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18561384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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38. Quaglino P, Caproni M, Antiga E, Del Bianco E, Osella-Abate S, Savoia P, Frezzolini A, Schena D, Marzano A, Volpi W, De Simone C, Parodi A, Fabbri P, Bernengo MG, Italian Group of Immunopathology: Serum levels of the Th1 promoter IL-12 and the Th2 chemokine TARC are elevated in erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and correlate with soluble Fas ligand expression. An immunoenzymatic study from the Italian Group of Immunopathology. Dermatology; 2007;214(4):296-304
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and regulated upon activation, normal T-lymphocyte-expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) expression in EM and SJS/TEN and to correlate with the serum levels of the Th1 promoter interleukin (IL)-12 and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL).

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17460400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCL17 protein, human; 0 / CCL22 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL17; 0 / Chemokine CCL22; 0 / Chemokine CCL5; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Chemokines, CC; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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39. Bayés M, Rabasseda X, Prous JR: Gateways to clinical trials. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol; 2005 Mar;27(2):145-59
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  • This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 3-AP, 667-coumate, 9-aminocamptothecin; Ad5CMV-p53, AES-14, alefacept, anecortave acetate, APC-8024, APD-356, asoprisnil; Bevacizumab, bimakalim, bimatoprost, BLP-25, BR-1; Caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dexanabinol, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, DNA.HIVA; Efaproxiral sodium, ertapenem sodium; Frovatriptan; HuMax-EGFr, HYB-2055, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, Id-KLH vaccine, imatinib mesylate; Lapatinib, lonafarnib, Motexafin lutetium, MVA.HIVA, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nesiritide, NS-2330; Olmesartan medoxomil; Peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, perifosine, pimecrolimus, pregabalin; QbG-10; Ralfinamide, rasburicase, rFGF-2, Ro-31-7453; Sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib; Tadalafil, TC-1734, telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, thymus nuclear protein, tipifarnib; Vandetanib, vibriolysin, vildagliptin, voriconazole.


40. Wilson T, Stark C, Holmbom J, Rosling A, Kuusilehto A, Tirri T, Penttinen R, Ekholm E: Fate of bone marrow-derived stromal cells after intraperitoneal infusion or implantation into femoral bone defects in the host animal. J Tissue Eng; 2010;2010:345806
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  • When injected intraperitoneally, Y-chromosome-positive cells were found in all studied organs: heart muscle, lung, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, skin, and femoral bone marrow with a few exceptions regardless of whether they had gone through osteogenic differentiation or not.

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  • (PMID = 21350643.001).
  • [ISSN] 2041-7314
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of tissue engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Tissue Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3042670
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41. Chamanza R, Marxfeld HA, Blanco AI, Naylor SW, Bradley AE: Incidences and range of spontaneous findings in control cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in toxicity studies. Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Jun;38(4):642-57
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  • Parathyroid, thyroid, and pituitary cysts; ectopic thymus in the parathyroid or thyroid gland; accessory spleen within the pancreas; and adrenohepatic fusion were among the most common congenital findings.

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  • (PMID = 20448082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Zhao L, Chen Y, Ren S, Han Y, Cheng H: Studies on the chemical structure and antitumor activity of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizobium sp. N613. Carbohydr Res; 2010 Mar 30;345(5):637-43
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  • The antitumor activity of REPS was evaluated in mice bearing sarcoma 180, hepatoma 22, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor, respectively.
  • At doses of 10-60 mg/kg, it was observed that tumor formation decreased significantly (P <0.01), but the relative spleen and thymus weight, the phagocytic function of monocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum hemolysis antibody increased significantly (P <0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Polysaccharides / chemistry. Polysaccharides / pharmacology. Rhizobium / chemistry. Sarcoma 180 / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Hemolysis / drug effects. Hypersensitivity, Delayed. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Mice. Monocytes / drug effects. Monocytes / metabolism. Oxidation-Reduction. Periodic Acid / chemistry. Phagocytosis. Spleen / cytology. Spleen / drug effects. Spleen / metabolism. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / drug effects. Thymus Gland / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20100608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-426X
  • [Journal-full-title] Carbohydrate research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carbohydr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polysaccharides; 10450-60-9 / Periodic Acid; B45A1BUM4Q / metaperiodate
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43. Sultan Y, Walsh R, Monreal C, DeRosa MC: Preparation of functional aptamer films using layer-by-layer self-assembly. Biomacromolecules; 2009 May 11;10(5):1149-54
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  • Thin films consisting of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) as the polycation and both poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) and the aptamer as the polyanions were deposited by the layer-by-layer approach and were compared to films prepared using calf thymus DNA or a random single-stranded oligonucleotide.

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  • (PMID = 19385646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aptamers, Nucleotide; 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Polyethylenes; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / Rhodamines; 26062-79-3 / poly-N,N-dimethyl-N,N-diallylammonium chloride; 2609-88-3 / lissamine rhodamine B; 70KO0R01RY / polystyrene sulfonic acid; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA
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44. Pitt LA, Hubert FX, Scott HS, Godfrey DI, Berzins SP: NKT cell development in the absence of the autoimmune regulator gene (Aire). Eur J Immunol; 2008 Oct;38(10):2689-96
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  • Studies to date have failed to demonstrate any significant impact on the development or function of the FOXP3+ Treg compartment, but NKT cells represent a distinct regulatory cell lineage that also develop in the thymus and which are known to influence self-tolerance.

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  • (PMID = 18828139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Transcription Factors
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45. Yu S, Cantorna MT: The vitamin D receptor is required for iNKT cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Apr 1;105(13):5207-12
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  • CD1d-reactive natural killer T (NKT) cells with an invariant T cell receptor Valpha14 rearrangement are a unique subset of lymphocytes, which play important roles in immune regulation, tumor surveillance, and host defense against pathogens.
  • Extrinsic factors that impact iNKT cell development and function in VDR KO mice include a failure of the liver to support homeostatic proliferation and reduced thymic expression of CD1d and other factors important for optimal antigen presentation in the thymus.


46. Qin YF, Yang JB, Xie CH, Shao J, Zhao ZY: [Study on clinical features and fluorescence in situ hybridization detections of 22q11 microdeletion syndrome]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Jun;24(3):284-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical features and the diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of 22q11 microdeletion syndrome (22q11 DS).
  • The diagnosis and correlated clinical factors of 22q11 DS were investigated by using the multiple factor Logistic regression analysis and Chi-square test.
  • The Logistic regression predictive equation for 22q11 DS was: y=-8.206+2.324x1+2.725x2+1.674x3, P=exp(y)/[1+exp(y)], in which the concomit ant variables were facial dysmorphic features (x1), congenital heart defects (x2), thymus scarcity/infection problem (x3), the P value meant the probability of diagnosis of 22q11 DS.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. DiGeorge Syndrome / diagnosis. DiGeorge Syndrome / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17557238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-9406
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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47. Dan WB, Guan ZB, Zhang C, Li BC, Zhang J, Zhang SQ: Molecular cloning, in vitro expression and bioactivity of goose B-cell activating factor. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2007 Jul 15;118(1-2):113-20
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  • RT-PCR results showed that gBAFF mRNA is expressed in thymus and more highly expressed in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen.

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  • (PMID = 17482274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-2427
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ874394
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell Activating Factor; 0 / DNA, Complementary
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48. Murakami K, Haneda M, Qiao S, Naruse M, Yoshino M: Prooxidant action of rosmarinic acid: transition metal-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. Toxicol In Vitro; 2007 Jun;21(4):613-7
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  • Treatment of DNA from plasmid pBR322 and calf thymus with rosmarinic acid plus copper caused strand scission and formed 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA.

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  • (PMID = 17267171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol In Vitro
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Caffeic Acids; 0 / Cinnamates; 0 / Cyclic N-Oxides; 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Depsides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Spin Labels; 0 / Transition Elements; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; 9007-49-2 / DNA; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 4.2.1.3 / Aconitate Hydratase; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine; MQE6XG29YI / rosmarinic acid; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; U2S3A33KVM / caffeic acid; U78ZX2F65X / tempol
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49. Fernando SC, Najar FZ, Guo X, Zhou L, Fu Y, Geisert RD, Roe BA, DeSilva U: Porcine kallikrein gene family: genomic structure, mapping, and differential expression analysis. Genomics; 2007 Mar;89(3):429-38
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  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-based expression analysis of porcine kallikreins showed a complex expression pattern across different tissues with the thymus being the only tissue expressing all 13 kallikrein genes.

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  • (PMID = 17210241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-7543
  • [Journal-full-title] Genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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50. Bergljung L: [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist]. Sven Med Tidskr; 2005;9(1):147-53
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  • Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis.
  • He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus.

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  • (PMID = 17153181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1402-9871
  • [Journal-full-title] Svensk medicinhistorisk tidskrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sven Med Tidskr
  • [Language] swe
  • [Publication-type] Biography; English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Keynes G
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51. Tian JL, Feng L, Gu W, Xu GJ, Yan SP, Liao DZ, Jiang ZH, Cheng P: Synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic property and nuclease activity of a new binuclear cobalt(II) complex. J Inorg Biochem; 2007 Feb;101(2):196-202
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  • In this paper, the interaction with calf thymus DNA was investigated by UV absorption and fluorescent spectroscopy.

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  • (PMID = 17140667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0162-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of inorganic biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Inorg. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 3G0H8C9362 / Cobalt; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.1.- / Deoxyribonucleases
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52. Levina A, Harris HH, Lay PA: Binding of chromium(VI) to histones: implications for chromium(VI)-induced genotoxicity. J Biol Inorg Chem; 2006 Mar;11(2):225-34
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  • The first evidence has been obtained for Cr(VI) (chromate) binding to isolated calf thymus (CT) histones under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, Cl(-) concentration 152 mM, 310 K).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. DNA / metabolism. Humans. Macromolecular Substances. Models, Molecular. Molecular Structure. Protein Conformation. Proteins / metabolism. Spectrum Analysis. Thymus Gland / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16362419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-8257
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological inorganic chemistry : JBIC : a publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Inorg. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; 0 / Histones; 0 / Macromolecular Substances; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Proteins; 0R0008Q3JB / Chromium; 18540-29-9 / chromium hexavalent ion; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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53. Chau H, Wong V, Chen NJ, Huang HL, Lin WJ, Mirtsos C, Elford AR, Bonnard M, Wakeham A, You-Ten AI, Lemmers B, Salmena L, Pellegrini M, Hakem R, Mak TW, Ohashi P, Yeh WC: Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein is required for T cell survival and cycling. J Exp Med; 2005 Aug 1;202(3):405-13
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  • These Rag chimeric mutant mice (rcFLIP-/-) had severely reduced numbers of T cells in the thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen, although mature T lymphocytes did develop.

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  • (PMID = 16043518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, CD28; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein; 0 / Cflar protein, mouse; 0 / Fadd protein, mouse; 0 / Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / Casp8 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2213079
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54. Picca CC, Caton AJ: The role of self-peptides in the development of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Curr Opin Immunol; 2005 Apr;17(2):131-6
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  • The thymus produces a unique lineage of cells known as CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, and the exact processes leading to their development continue to be defined.
  • Highly specific interactions between developing thymocytes and cognate self-antigens expressed by radioresistant elements in the thymus have been shown to drive CD4+ CD25+ regulatory-T-cell development.
  • The self-peptide(s) that mediate thymic selection of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells can also promote their expansion in the periphery, and self-peptides might also play a role in the conversion of CD4+ CD25- T cells into CD25+ regulatory T cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15766671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-7915
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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55. Zamisch M, Tian L, Grenningloh R, Xiong Y, Wildt KF, Ehlers M, Ho IC, Bosselut R: The transcription factor Ets1 is important for CD4 repression and Runx3 up-regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation in the thymus. J Exp Med; 2009 Nov 23;206(12):2685-99
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  • [Title] The transcription factor Ets1 is important for CD4 repression and Runx3 up-regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation in the thymus.
  • The transcription factor Ets1 contributes to the differentiation of CD8 lineage cells in the thymus, but how it does so is not understood.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that Ets1 is required for the proper termination of CD4 expression during the differentiation of major histocompatability class 1 (MHC I)-restricted thymocytes, but not for other events associated with their positive selection, including the initiation of cytotoxic gene expression, corticomedullary migration, or thymus exit.

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  • (PMID = 19917777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9538
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI081052; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI081052; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit; 0 / Ets1 protein, mouse; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Runx3 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806616
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56. Roberts KP, Sobrino JA, Payton J, Mason LB, Turesky RJ: Determination of apurinic/apyrimidinic lesions in DNA with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Chem Res Toxicol; 2006 Feb;19(2):300-9
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  • Further experiments with 5',3'-bisphosphate-deoxyribose and heat/acid-treated calf thymus DNA showed similar labeling, digestion, and detection results.

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  • (PMID = 16485907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-228X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical research in toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Res. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxylamines; 2086-26-2 / 4-nitrobenzyloxyamine; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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57. Radojevic K, Arsenovic-Ranin N, Kosec D, Pesic V, Pilipovic I, Perisic M, Plecas-Solarovic B, Leposavic G: Neonatal castration affects intrathymic kinetics of T-cell differentiation and the spleen T-cell level. J Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;192(3):669-82
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  • To test putative interdependence in the ontogenesis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and thymic-lymphatic axes, thymocyte differentiation and maturation was examined in neonatally castrated (Cx) adult rats.
  • In the hypercellular thymi of Cx rats, the proportion of the least mature CD4(-)CD8(-)TCRalphabeta(-) triple negative (TN) thymocytes was reduced, while the proportions of all downstream double positive (DP) subsets (TCRalphabeta(-), TCRalphabeta(low) and TCRalphabeta(high)) were increased when compared with neonatally sham-castrated (Sx) adult rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Orchiectomy. Spleen / immunology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / physiology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17332534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta; 11028-71-0 / Concanavalin A; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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58. Kreslavsky T, von Boehmer H: gammadeltaTCR ligands and lineage commitment. Semin Immunol; 2010 Aug;22(4):214-21
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  • Two major T lymphocyte lineages--alphabeta and gammadelta T cells--develop in the thymus from common precursors.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20447836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-3618
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI045846; United States / PHS HHS / / R01 A151378; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI051378-08; United States / PHS HHS / / R01 A145846; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI045846-10; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI051378-08; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI051378; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI045846-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
  • [Number-of-references] 95
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS204296; NLM/ PMC2912151
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59. Hu Q, Sader A, Parkman JC, Baldwin TA: Bim-mediated apoptosis is not necessary for thymic negative selection to ubiquitous self-antigens. J Immunol; 2009 Dec 15;183(12):7761-7
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  • [Title] Bim-mediated apoptosis is not necessary for thymic negative selection to ubiquitous self-antigens.
  • T cell education in the thymus is critical for establishing a functional, yet self-tolerant, T cell repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / immunology. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / physiology. Autoantigens / biosynthesis. Cell Differentiation / immunology. Membrane Proteins / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19933852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-8659
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Bcl-2-like protein 11; 0 / H-Y Antigen; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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60. Shen R, Wang P, Tang N: Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA-binding properties and cytotoxic activity of the copper (II) complex involving xanthone. J Fluoresc; 2009 Nov;19(6):1073-82
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  • The interaction of Cu (II) complex with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) has been investigated by spectrophotometric titrations, ethidium bromide (EB) displacement experiments, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and viscosity measurements.
  • Furthermore, the Cu (II) complex was tested against tumor cell lines including ECA109, SGC7901 and GLC-82 by MTT (microculture tetrazolium) method.
  • The studies of DNA-binding agree with the effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetonitriles / chemistry. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / chemical synthesis. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Cattle. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Circular Dichroism. Coordination Complexes / chemical synthesis. Coordination Complexes / chemistry. Coordination Complexes / metabolism. Coordination Complexes / pharmacology. Crystallography, X-Ray. Ethidium. Humans. Ions / chemistry. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Models, Molecular. Oxygen Compounds / chemical synthesis. Oxygen Compounds / chemistry. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization. Spectrophotometry, Infrared. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 19578987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4994
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fluorescence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fluoresc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coordination Complexes; 0 / Ions; 0 / Oxygen Compounds; 0 / Xanthones; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EN464416SI / Ethidium; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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61. Wencker M, Gazzolo L, Duc Dodon M: The leukemogenic activity of TaxHTLV-1 during human alphabeta T cell development. Front Biosci (Schol Ed); 2009;1:194-204
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  • Studies of alph abeta T-cell development in the thymus have shown that beta-selection, an early important checkpoint, is regulated by transcription factors that are decisive in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival.

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  • (PMID = 19482695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-0524
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Biosci (Schol Ed)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, tax; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta; 0 / tax protein, Human T-lymphotrophic virus 1
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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62. Bi E, Huang C, Hu Y, Wu X, Deng W, Lin G, Liu Z, Tian L, Sun S, Mao K, Zou J, Zheng Y, Sun B: Novel function of perforin in negatively regulating CD4(+) T cell activation by affecting calcium signaling. Cell Res; 2009 Jul;19(7):816-27
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  • It seems that the perforin deficiency does not influence T cell development in thymus spleen and lymph node.

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  • (PMID = 19290021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-7838
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / NFATC Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 126465-35-8 / Perforin
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63. Ahrens L, Siebert U, Ebinghaus R: Total body burden and tissue distribution of polyfluorinated compounds in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German Bight. Mar Pollut Bull; 2009 Apr;58(4):520-5
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  • The major amount of the total PFCs burden in the bodies was in blood (38%) and liver (36%), followed by muscle (13%), lung (8%), kidney (2%), blubber (2%), heart (1%), brain (1%), thymus (<0.01%) and thyroid (<0.01%).

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  • (PMID = 19121527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3363
  • [Journal-full-title] Marine pollution bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mar. Pollut. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorocarbons; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical
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64. Buglio D, Georgakis GV, Hanabuchi S, Arima K, Khaskhely NM, Liu YJ, Younes A: Vorinostat inhibits STAT6-mediated TH2 cytokine and TARC production and induces cell death in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. Blood; 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1424-33
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  • Furthermore, vorinostat inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation and decreased its mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in the expression and secretion of Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and interleukin (IL)-5 and an increase in IP-10 levels.
  • Moreover, vorino-stat inhibited TARC secretion by dendritic cells that were activated by the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP).
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Death. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dendritic Cells / drug effects. Dendritic Cells / secretion. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans


65. Nichols LA, Chen Y, Colella TA, Bennett CL, Clausen BE, Engelhard VH: Deletional self-tolerance to a melanocyte/melanoma antigen derived from tyrosinase is mediated by a radio-resistant cell in peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes. J Immunol; 2007 Jul 15;179(2):993-1003
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  • Despite expression of tyrosinase transcripts in the thymus, central deletion does not shape the tyrosinase-specific CD8 T cell repertoire.

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  • (PMID = 17617591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78400; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI059996-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI068836; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI068836-01A2; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI068836-01A2; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM08136; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI07486; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI059996-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078400; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI059996; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI059996
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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66. Gorchakov VN, Golovko EA: [Structural and functional response of lymph node to sciatic nerve compression in combination with lymphotropic correction and without it]. Morfologiia; 2005;128(4):56-60
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  • With the increase of duration of postcompression period, the stable augmentation of the dimensions of a thymus-dependent zone was found in combination with the prevalence of a thymus-independent zone, which is indicative of the mixed variant of immune response to sciatic nerve compression.

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  • (PMID = 16400923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1026-3543
  • [Journal-full-title] Morfologii︠a︡ (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Morfologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Factors; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / pantohematogen
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67. Numnuam A, Kanatharana P, Mattiasson B, Asawatreratanakul P, Wongkittisuksa B, Limsakul C, Thavarungkul P: Capacitive biosensor for quantification of trace amounts of DNA. Biosens Bioelectron; 2009 Apr 15;24(8):2559-65
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  • Histones from calf thymus and shrimp were immobilized on gold electrodes covered with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid.
  • Each of these histones was used to detect DNA from calf thymus, shrimp and Escherichia coli.
  • Under optimum conditions, both histones from calf thymus and shrimp provided the same lower detection limit of 10(-5) ng l(-1) for DNA from different sources, i.e., calf thymus, shrimp and E. coli.
  • The standard curve for the affinity reaction between calf thymus histone and DNA shows sigmoidal behavior and two linear ranges, 10(-5) to 10(-2) ng l(-1) and 10(-1) to 10(2) ng l(-1), could be obtained.

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  • (PMID = 19201186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4235
  • [Journal-full-title] Biosensors & bioelectronics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosens Bioelectron
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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68. Bleul CC, Boehm T: BMP signaling is required for normal thymus development. J Immunol; 2005 Oct 15;175(8):5213-21
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  • [Title] BMP signaling is required for normal thymus development.
  • The microenvironment of the thymus fosters the generation of a diverse and self-tolerant T cell repertoire from a pool of essentially random specificities.
  • Epithelial as well as mesenchymal cells contribute to the thymic stroma, but little is known about the factors that allow for communication between the two cells types that shape the thymic microenvironment.
  • In this study, we investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in thymus development.
  • Transgenic expression of the BMP antagonist Noggin in thymic epithelial cells under the control of a Foxn1 promoter in the mouse leads to dysplastic thymic lobes of drastically reduced size that are ectopically located in the neck at the level of the hyoid bone.
  • Interestingly, the small number of thymocytes in these thymic lobes develops with normal kinetics and shows a wild-type phenotype.
  • Organ initiation of the embryonic thymic anlage in these Noggin transgenic mice occurs as in wild-type mice, but the tight temporal and spatial regulation of BMP4 expression is abrogated in subsequent differentiation stages.
  • We show that transgenic Noggin blocks BMP signaling in epithelial as well as mesenchymal cells of the thymic anlage.
  • Our data demonstrate that BMP signaling is crucial for thymus development and that it is the thymic stroma rather than developing thymocytes that depends on BMP signals.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology. Signal Transduction / immunology. Thymus Gland / growth & development. Thymus Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16210626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Whn protein; 148294-77-3 / noggin protein
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69. Hogan TV, Ang DK, Gleeson PA, van Driel IR: Extrathymic mechanisms of T cell tolerance: lessons from autoimmune gastritis. J Autoimmun; 2008 Nov;31(3):268-73
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  • While the thymus plays a key role in the prevention of many autoimmune phenomena it is clear that robust mechanisms external to the thymus are also vital in controlling self-reactive T cells.
  • Here we review the current concepts in the field of extrathymic tolerance and use recent studies of autoimmune gastritis to illustrate how T cells directed to a prominent, clinically relevant autoantigen, namely the gastric proton pump, can be silenced with little or no thymic involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastritis / immunology. Immune Tolerance / immunology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18499395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0896-8411
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of autoimmunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Autoimmun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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70. Shin S, Kim JH: In vitro inhibitory activities of essential oils from two Korean thymus species against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Arch Pharm Res; 2005 Aug;28(8):897-901
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  • [Title] In vitro inhibitory activities of essential oils from two Korean thymus species against antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
  • The in vitro inhibitory activities of essential oils from Thymus magnus and T. quinquecostatus as well as their main constituents were evaluated against susceptible and resistant species of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella typhimurium.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Bacteria / drug effects. Monoterpenes / pharmacology. Plant Oils / pharmacology. Thymol / pharmacology. Thymus Plant

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  • (PMID = 16178414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pharmacal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Plant Oils; 3J50XA376E / Thymol; 9B1J4V995Q / carvacrol; N0F8P22L1P / Norfloxacin
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71. Obernikhin SS, Makarova OV, Malaitsev VV, Bogdanova IM, Boltovskaya MN: Dynamics of morphofunctional changes in immune organs of BALB/c mice with experimental hepatitis. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2006 Apr;141(4):465-7
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  • The time course of morphofunctional changes in the liver, thymus, and spleen was observed in BALB/c mice with Con A-induced experimental hepatitis.
  • The progress of alterative changes in the liver was paralleled by intensification of accidental involution of the thymus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Hepatocytes / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Lymphocyte Activation. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Necrosis. Spleen / cytology. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17152372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Singh N, Singh SM, Prakash, Singh G: Restoration of thymic homeostasis in a tumor-bearing host by in vivo administration of medicinal herb Tinospora cordifolia. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol; 2005;27(4):585-99
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  • [Title] Restoration of thymic homeostasis in a tumor-bearing host by in vivo administration of medicinal herb Tinospora cordifolia.
  • In vivo administration of alcoholic extract of medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia (TC) to mice bearing a spontaneous T cell lymphoma designated as Dalton's lymphoma prevented tumor growth-dependent regression of thymus.
  • Restoration of thymus homeostasis was caused by TC-dependent augmentation in production of thymocyte growth promoting cytokines Interleukin-2 and Interferon-gamma from thymocytes.
  • TC administration retarded tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Thymus Gland / drug effects. Tinospora
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cytokines / metabolism. Deoxyribonucleases / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Homeostasis. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / metabolism. Interleukin-4 / metabolism. Lymphoma, T-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / prevention & control. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Plants, Medicinal. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16435578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-3973
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Plant Extracts; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 3.1.- / Deoxyribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease
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73. Pelayo R, Welner R, Perry SS, Huang J, Baba Y, Yokota T, Kincade PW: Lymphoid progenitors and primary routes to becoming cells of the immune system. Curr Opin Immunol; 2005 Apr;17(2):100-7
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  • Particularly contentious is the nature of cells that seed the thymus, because different progenitors can generate T cells under experimental circumstances.
  • Non-renewing progenitors with a high density of c-Kit in bone marrow are likely to replenish the thymus under normal circumstances and most closely resemble canonical T cell progenitors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow / immunology. Bone Marrow / physiology. Dendritic Cells / cytology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Dendritic Cells / physiology. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / physiology. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15766667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-7915
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI020069-21; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI020069-22; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI058162-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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74. Kinney DK, Hintz K, Shearer EM, Barch DH, Riffin C, Whitley K, Butler R: A unifying hypothesis of schizophrenia: abnormal immune system development may help explain roles of prenatal hazards, post-pubertal onset, stress, genes, climate, infections, and brain dysfunction. Med Hypotheses; 2010 Mar;74(3):555-63
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  • When this vulnerability is manifested, beginning around puberty with changes in immune function and involution of the thymus, individuals become more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia.


75. Zhang L, Huang H, Wu K, Wang M, Wu B: Impact of BTG2 expression on proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Mol Biol Rep; 2010 Jul;37(6):2579-86
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  • BTG2 (B cell translocation gene 2) is downregulated in several human tumors and has been known as a tumor suppressor in carcinogenesis of thymus, prostate, kidney, and liver.
  • It can reduce some malignant phenotype of these tumor cells.
  • In gastric cancer, BTG2 could be thought as a tumor-inhibiting gene in some distance, so the gene could be a potential target of gene therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement / genetics. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / genetics. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 19728149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4978
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 141490-22-4 / BTG2 protein, human
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76. Awad WA, Ghareeb K, Abdel-Raheem S, Böhm J: Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poult Sci; 2009 Jan;88(1):49-56
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  • The absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus tended to be greater (P < 0.1) for the probiotic-supplemented group compared with the synbiotic-supplemented group.

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  • (PMID = 19096056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5791
  • [Journal-full-title] Poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Kotani Y, Sato J, Wako Y, Tsuchitani M: Mixed Thymoma in a Young Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(3):141-5
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  • A mass with a diameter of 1.5 cm was found in the thymus of a 4-year and 3-month-old male cynomolgus monkey.
  • Microscopically, the mass consisted of two different patterns of proliferation, dense or fascicular proliferation of elongated spindle cells in a sporadic storiform pattern and dense proliferation of thymic cortex-like lymphoid cells in which the multifocal pale nests resembling the thymic medulla were distributed.
  • We concluded that the mass consisted of the neoplastic thymic epithelium with thymocytes proliferation containing medullary differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 22272025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-915X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234617
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; medullary differentiation / mixed thymoma / monkey / thymoma / thymus
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78. Wang Y, Zhang X, Zhang Q, Yang Z: Oxidative damage to DNA by 1,10-phenanthroline/L: -threonine copper (II) complexes with chlorogenic acid. Biometals; 2010 Apr;23(2):265-73
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  • A fluorescence quenching activity of calf thymus DNA-EB was observed more remarkably with chlorogenic acid than without chlorogenic acid.

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  • (PMID = 20012769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-8773
  • [Journal-full-title] Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biometals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phenanthrolines; 2ZD004190S / Threonine; 318ADP12RI / Chlorogenic Acid; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 91080-16-9 / calf thymus DNA; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine; W4X6ZO7939 / 1,10-phenanthroline
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79. Calvo-Pinilla E, Rodríguez-Calvo T, Anguita J, Sevilla N, Ortego J: Establishment of a bluetongue virus infection model in mice that are deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor. PLoS One; 2009;4(4):e5171
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  • Infectious virus was recovered from the spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes indicating a systemic infection.

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  • (PMID = 19357779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Piech J, Skoczylas A: [The role of urotensin II in human pathophysiology]. Wiad Lek; 2008;61(10-12):277-82
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  • It is expressed in the human central nervous system as well as other tissues, such as kidney, spleen, small intestine, thymus, prostate, pituitary and adrenal gland and circulates in human plasma.
  • Urotensin II is also a neuropeptide and may play a role in tumor development.

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  • (PMID = 19323069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Urotensins; 9047-55-6 / urotensin II
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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81. Lans C, Turner N, Khan T: Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada. Parasitol Res; 2008 Sep;103(4):889-98
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  • Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae).

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  • (PMID = 18563443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0113
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasitology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasitol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Plant Extracts
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82. Pfau R, Tzatsos A, Kampranis SC, Serebrennikova OB, Bear SE, Tsichlis PN: Members of a family of JmjC domain-containing oncoproteins immortalize embryonic fibroblasts via a JmjC domain-dependent process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Feb 12;105(6):1907-12
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  • A common integration site, cloned from MoMuLV-induced rat T cell lymphomas, was mapped immediately upstream of Not dead yet-1 (Ndy1)/KDM2B, a gene expressed primarily in testis, spleen, and thymus, that is also known as FBXL10 or JHDM1B.

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  • (PMID = 18250326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK034928; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109747; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK 34928; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA109747
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2538857
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83. Milner JD, Fasth A, Etzioni A: Autoimmunity in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID): lessons from patients and experimental models. J Clin Immunol; 2008 May;28 Suppl 1:S29-33
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  • Central tolerance, which is in charge of elimination of autoreactive T-cell clones, is defective in SCID because of markedly reduced expression of Aire, a transcriptional regulator for the expression of tissue-specific antigens in the thymus.

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  • (PMID = 18193342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-9142
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RAG2 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 128559-51-3 / RAG-1 protein
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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84. Sadakata T, Washida M, Morita N, Furuichi T: Tissue distribution of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion family members CAPS1 and CAPS2 in mice. J Histochem Cytochem; 2007 Mar;55(3):301-11
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  • In non-neural tissues, CAPS1 was observed in the islets of Langerhans, minor cell types of the spleen and stomach, and medullary cells of the adrenal gland, whereas CAPS2 was present in bronchial epithelial cells, thyroid parafollicular cells, chief cells of the stomach, ductal epithelium of the salivary gland, kidney proximal tubules, and minor cell types of the thymus, spleen, and colon.

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  • (PMID = 17164411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CAPS2 protein, mouse; 0 / Cadps protein, mouse; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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85. Sato S, Sanjo H, Tsujimura T, Ninomiya-Tsuji J, Yamamoto M, Kawai T, Takeuchi O, Akira S: TAK1 is indispensable for development of T cells and prevention of colitis by the generation of regulatory T cells. Int Immunol; 2006 Oct;18(10):1405-11
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  • Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-activating kinase 1 (TAK1) is critical for Toll-like receptor- and tumor necrosis factor-mediated cellular responses.
  • Development of regulatory T (Treg) cells in thymus was abrogated in Lck(Cre/(+))Tak1(flox/flox) mice, suggesting that the loss of Treg cells is the cause of the disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Humans. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / pathology


86. Karrow NA, McCay JA, Brown RD, Musgrove DL, Guo TL, Germolec DR, White KL Jr: Oral exposure to atrazine modulates cell-mediated immune function and decreases host resistance to the B16F10 tumor model in female B6C3F1 mice. Toxicology; 2005 Apr 1;209(1):15-28
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  • [Title] Oral exposure to atrazine modulates cell-mediated immune function and decreases host resistance to the B16F10 tumor model in female B6C3F1 mice.
  • Thymus and spleen weights, total spleen cell numbers and fixed macrophage function was also reduced in mice that were exposed to ATZ.

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  • (PMID = 15725510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES55387
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] QJA9M5H4IM / Atrazine
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87. Song Y, Wang H: [Analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. Se Pu; 2010 Dec;28(12):1123-7
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  • By using the developed method, the content of 8-OHdG in calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) was estimated about 12.9 +/- 2.35 (calculated as 8-OHdG/10(6) dG), which was consistent with the previous work.

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  • (PMID = 21438362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-8713
  • [Journal-full-title] Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Se Pu
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; 9007-49-2 / DNA; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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88. Xu XL, Wang CM, Geng D, Zhang L, Zhang L, Hu B: [Effects of centipede extracts on normal mouse and S180, H22 bearing mouse]. Zhong Yao Cai; 2010 Apr;33(4):499-503
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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of centipede extracts on H22 tumor-bearing mouse, sarcoma S180 mouse and normal mouse.
  • METHODS: Normal and tumor-bearing mouse were orally administrated by centipede extracts.
  • Rate of restraining tumor, index of thymus and spleen were calculated after 12 days treatment.
  • RESULTS: The restraining tumor rates of centipede ethanol extracts at low and medium doses were 22.2% and 17. 88%.
  • There was no tumor restraining effect by the high dose treatment.
  • The tumor growth of the H22 model mouse was not restrained by the centipede water extracts.
  • CONCLUSION: Centipede water extracts had no anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing mouse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight. Cell Line, Tumor. Ethanol. Female. Liver / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Neoplasm Transplantation. Random Allocation. Spleen / drug effects. Thymus Gland / drug effects. Water

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  • (PMID = 20845773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-4454
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Yao Cai
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Materia Medica; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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89. Esposito A, Leti W, Fantauzzi A, Pastori D, Isgro A, Aiuti F, Mezzaroma I: [Immunorecovery after prolonged HIV-related immunosuppression: opportunities of the new antiretroviral classes]. Infez Med; 2009 Sep;17(3):178-83
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  • Immune recovery during cART is linked both to the activity of antiviral drugs, as well as to the regenerative capability of thymus and bone marrow.
  • We report a patient with a 22-year-old HIV-1 disease and an AIDS diagnosis for 15 years, with extensive resistance to all antiretroviral drugs, who never had treatment interruption, except for short spells due to adverse effects.

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  • (PMID = 19838091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-9390
  • [Journal-full-title] Le infezioni in medicina : rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infez Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Cyclohexanes; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Triazoles; MD6P741W8A / maraviroc; YO603Y8113 / Darunavir
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90. Shim JH, Sung KJ, Cho MC, Choi WA, Yang Y, Lim JS, Yoon DY: Antitumor effect of soluble beta-1,3-glucan from Agrobacterium sp. R259 KCTC 1019. J Microbiol Biotechnol; 2007 Sep;17(9):1513-20
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  • IFN-gamma and each cytokines were induced in the spleens and thymus of mice treated with soluble beta-1,3-glucan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Rhizobium / chemistry. beta-Glucans / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Solubility. Water

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  • (PMID = 18062230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-7825
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microbiology and biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / beta-Glucans; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9051-97-2 / beta-1,3-glucan
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91. Jiang T, Huang BK, Zhang QY, Han T, Zheng HC, Qin LP: [Effect of Liriope platyphylla total saponin on learning, memory and metabolites in aging mice induced by D-galactose]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao; 2007 Nov;5(6):670-4
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  • RESULTS: LPTS could improve the memory of aging mice induced by D-galactose, promote its body weight, and increase the thymus and spleen indexes of the aging mice.

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  • (PMID = 17997944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Saponins; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.4.3.4 / Monoamine Oxidase; X2RN3Q8DNE / Galactose
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92. Geisberger R, Kiermayer C, Hömig C, Conrad M, Schmidt J, Zimber-Strobl U, Brielmeier M: B- and T-cell-specific inactivation of thioredoxin reductase 2 does not impair lymphocyte development and maintenance. Biol Chem; 2007 Oct;388(10):1083-90
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  • However, the development and differentiation of both cell types in thymus and bone marrow was not significantly impaired.

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  • (PMID = 17937622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1431-6730
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin Reductase 2; EC 1.8.1.9 / Txnrd2 protein, mouse
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93. Nakamichi Y, Udagawa N, Kobayashi Y, Nakamura M, Yamamoto Y, Yamashita T, Mizoguchi T, Sato M, Mogi M, Penninger JM, Takahashi N: Osteoprotegerin reduces the serum level of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand derived from osteoblasts. J Immunol; 2007 Jan 1;178(1):192-200
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  • Expression of RANKL mRNA in bone, but not thymus or spleen, was increased in wild-type and OPG(-/-) mice by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3).
  • [MeSH-minor] ADAM Proteins / metabolism. Animals. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Calcitriol / administration & dosage. Ligands. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Mutant Strains. NF-kappa B / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Spleen / metabolism. Thymus Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17182555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Osteoprotegerin; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tnfsf11 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated; EC 3.4.24.- / tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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94. Bie Petersen C, Nygård AB, Fredholm M, Aasted B, Salomonsen J: Various domains of the B-cell regulatory molecule CD72 has diverged at different rates in mammals: cloning, transcription and mapping of porcine CD72. Dev Comp Immunol; 2007;31(5):530-8
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  • [Title] Various domains of the B-cell regulatory molecule CD72 has diverged at different rates in mammals: cloning, transcription and mapping of porcine CD72.
  • The B-cell receptor (BCR) complex mediates signalling upon antigen recognition by the membrane bound BCR.
  • The porcine CD72 gene is highly transcribed in lymph node, thymus and lung tissues as well as in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Animals. Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Chromosomes, Mammalian / genetics. Cloning, Molecular. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lung / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Macrophages, Alveolar / metabolism. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Open Reading Frames / genetics. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Radiation Hybrid Mapping. Sequence Alignment. Synteny. Thymus Gland / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17023047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-305X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental and comparative immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Comp. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ439546/ DQ439547/ DQ439548
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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95. Matsumura Y, Kondo T: [Indication and procedure of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to thymic disease]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Jul;59(8 Suppl):742-8
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  • [Title] [Indication and procedure of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to thymic disease].
  • We retrospective reviewed minimally invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to thymic diseases.
  • Indications of this method are benign thymic lesions [mature teratoma, thymic cyst and myasthenia gravis (MG)] and small thymoma (non-invasive Masaoka stage I-II, less than 5 cm in diameter and nontouching to the left brachiocephalic vein).
  • Fifty patients underwent VATS for 13 hemithymectomies (7 thymomas, 5 mature teratomas and 1 thymic cyst) and 37 extended thymectomies (25 nonthymomatous MGs and 12 thymomatous MGs).
  • Conversion to sternotomy was required in 3 cases of nonthymomatous MG because of bleeding from thymic vein in 1 case and pleural adhesion in 2 cases.
  • New bipolar vessel sealing system (LigaSure V) is safer and more useful than metal clip and ultrasonic coagulator in VATS for thymic vein sealing, extraction of upper poles of thymus and incision of mediastinal pleura near phrenic nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Diseases / surgery. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted / methods. Thymectomy / methods. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Gland. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16910525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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96. Germain RN, Castellino F, Chieppa M, Egen JG, Huang AY, Koo LY, Qi H: An extended vision for dynamic high-resolution intravital immune imaging. Semin Immunol; 2005 Dec;17(6):431-41
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  • The past few years have seen the application of confocal and especially two-photon microscopy to the dynamic high-resolution imaging of lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells within organs such as lymph nodes and thymus.

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  • (PMID = 16216522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-5323
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / Z01 AI000758-08; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 87
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS9839; NLM/ PMC1462950
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97. Khoruts A, Fraser JM: A causal link between lymphopenia and autoimmunity. Immunol Lett; 2005 Apr 15;98(1):23-31
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  • The TCR repertoire and relative proportions of various T cell subsets are established in the thymus, and continue to be shaped and regulated in the periphery.
  • As the thymic function declines, peripheral homeostatic mechanisms assume increasing importance.
  • Indeed, loss of thymic function does not lead to progressive decline of T cell numbers because peripheral mechanisms ensure that the size of the T cell population is maintained due to proliferation of residual cells.

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  • (PMID = 15790505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-2478
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK061961
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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98. Okazuka K, Wakabayashi Y, Kashihara M, Inoue J, Sato T, Yokoyama M, Aizawa S, Aizawa Y, Mishima Y, Kominami R: p53 prevents maturation of T cell development to the immature CD4-CD8+ stage in Bcl11b-/- mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Mar 11;328(2):545-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Signaling pathways such as the pre-TCR and Wnt pathways regulate alpha/beta T cell differentiation in thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] T-Lymphocytes / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / physiology. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


99. García-Ceca J, Jiménez E, Alfaro D, Cejalvo T, Chumley MJ, Henkemeyer M, Muñoz JJ, Zapata AG: On the role of Eph signalling in thymus histogenesis; EphB2/B3 and the organizing of the thymic epithelial network. Int J Dev Biol; 2009;53(7):971-82
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  • [Title] On the role of Eph signalling in thymus histogenesis; EphB2/B3 and the organizing of the thymic epithelial network.
  • In the current study, we extend our own previous results on the thymocyte phenotype of EphB2 and/or EphB3 deficient mice by analyzing the phenotype and the histological organization of their thymic epithelial stroma.
  • All studied adult EphB-deficient thymi showed profound alterations with respect to the wild-type (WT) ones.
  • Each mutant exhibited a specific phenotype, but also showed common features including occurrence of K5+K8+MTS10+ immature medullary epithelial cells, numerous K5-K8-MTS20+ cells and K5+K8+ cells in the thymic cortex and cortical and medullary K5-K8- areas devoid of epithelial cell markers.
  • In addition, comparative analysis of WT and EphB-deficient embryonic and newborn thymi demonstrated that the observed adult phenotype was a consequence of the gradual accumulation of early phenotypic and morphological defects, becoming more severe at the end of embryonic life and in newborn animals.
  • Together, these results confirm a role for EphB2 and EphB3 in thymus morphogenesis.
  • The obtained data are discussed from the point of view of the recognized role played by these two Ephs in the homeostasis of other epithelia and their possible relationships with molecules known to be involved in thymic epithelial cell development.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptor, EphB2 / physiology. Receptor, EphB3 / physiology. Thymus Gland / embryology. Thymus Gland / growth & development


100. Nomura T, Sakaguchi S: Foxp3 and Aire in thymus-generated Treg cells: a link in self-tolerance. Nat Immunol; 2007 Apr;8(4):333-4
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  • [Title] Foxp3 and Aire in thymus-generated Treg cells: a link in self-tolerance.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / immunology. Self Tolerance / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology. Transcription Factors / immunology

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  • [CommentOn] Nat Immunol. 2007 Apr;8(4):351-8 [17322887.001]
  • [CommentOn] Nat Immunol. 2007 Apr;8(4):359-68 [17273171.001]
  • (PMID = 17375092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2908
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; News
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APECED protein; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxp3 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors
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