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1. Moon JH, Yoon DY, Choi CS, Yun EJ, Park SJ, Seo YL, Kim BJ: Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Nov;35(11):1145-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas.
  • Choristoma is a benign tumour defined as normal tissue in an ectopic location.
  • Osseous choristoma, one subtype of this entity, occurring within the orbit has rarely been reported in the world literature.
  • We report a 6-year-old girl with bilateral ocular osseous choristomas who presented with palpable nodules protruding from both upper lids.

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Radiol. 2005 Dec;35(12):1295. Yoon, Eun Joo [corrected to Yun, Eun Joo]
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  • (PMID = 16001272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Patil SB, Kale SM, Jaiswal S, Khare N: Schwannoma of upper eyelid: A rare differential diagnosis of eyelid swellings. Indian J Plast Surg; 2010 Jul;43(2):213-5
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  • [Title] Schwannoma of upper eyelid: A rare differential diagnosis of eyelid swellings.
  • Schwannoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of peripheral nerve origin.
  • Ocular examination was suggestive of a firm, non-tender nodule of size 2 × 1.5 × 1 cm on the left upper lid.
  • Provisional clinical diagnosis was that of an eyelid malignancy.
  • The histopathology and immunohistochemistry established the diagnosis of Schwannoma.
  • We recommend that Schwannoma be considered in the differential diagnosis of well-circumscribed eyelid swellings.

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  • [Cites] Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2005 Aug;33(4):412-3 [16033357.001]
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  • (PMID = 21217985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-376X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of plastic surgery : official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010787
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Eyelid tumours / S-100 protein / Schwannoma / malignant eyelid tumours
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3. Farmer JP, Lamba M, McDonald H, Commons AS: Orbital giant cell angiofibroma: immuno-histochemistry and differential diagnosis. Can J Ophthalmol; 2006 Apr;41(2):216-20
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  • [Title] Orbital giant cell angiofibroma: immuno-histochemistry and differential diagnosis.
  • On radiologic examination, the mass was seen to extend into the anterior orbit.
  • COMMENTS: Giant cell angiofibroma is a benign spindle cell neoplasm characterized by multinucleated giant cells and pseudovascular spaces with a propensity to occur in the anterior soft tissues of the orbit of middle-aged adults.
  • It is part of a wide differential diagnosis of tumours that can be separated by various histologic and immunohistochemical features, which are discussed in the report.
  • It is important to consider it preoperatively because the vascular nature of this tumour may create problems with hemostasis during excision.

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  • (PMID = 16767212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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4. Kashyap S, Pushker N, Meel R, Sen S, Bajaj MS, Khuriajam N, Mehta M, Chawla B: Orbital schwannoma with cystic degeneration. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2009 Apr;37(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Orbital schwannoma with cystic degeneration.
  • BACKGROUND: Schwannoma is a benign, slowly growing, painless, peripheral nerve sheath tumour that is uncommon in orbit.
  • Extensive cystic change in orbital schwannoma is quite rare.
  • We conducted this study to analyse the cases of orbital schwannoma, which were predominantly cystic and describe their clinical, imaging and histopathological features.
  • METHOD: A retrospective analysis of histopathology records of all the orbital tumours operated between 1993 and 2008 was undertaken at a tertiary care referral centre in northern India.
  • RESULTS: A total of 600 specimens of orbital tumours were received during the study period.
  • We found 39 cases of orbital schwannoma.
  • The radiological picture was quite variable resulting in a primary diagnosis of combined venous-lymphatic vascular malformation in 2, lacrimal gland tumour in 2, dermoid cyst in 1, hydatid cyst in 2 and schwannoma in 5 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Orbital schwannoma is a great masquerader in the orbit.
  • Cystic schwannoma constituted 41% of all orbital schwannomas in our series.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case series of orbital cystic schwannomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Exophthalmos / etiology. Female. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Vision, Low

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  • (PMID = 19472538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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5. Paulus P, Crêvecoeur H, Piette E, Lejuste P, Hustin J: Huge teratoma of the face. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2009 Sep;37(6):352-5
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  • Facial teratoma is a very rare tumour, generally benign.
  • PATIENT: We describe the case of a female neonate with a very large facial mass, deforming the orbit, the zygomatic arch and the jaws, without any intracranial extension.
  • The tumour was removed at the age of 4 months because of rapid growth.
  • The diagnosis was mature teratoma.

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  • (PMID = 19243969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4119
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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6. Wilde F, Neid M, Schulz T, Sterker I, Hemprich A, Frerich B: [Hemangiopericytoma (extrapleural solitary fibrous tumour). Exemplified and discussed on the basis of two cases]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2005 Nov;9(6):404-8
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  • [Title] [Hemangiopericytoma (extrapleural solitary fibrous tumour). Exemplified and discussed on the basis of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Hämangioperizytom (extrapleuraler solitärer fibröser Tumor). Dargestellt und diskutiert anhand zweier Patientenbeispiele.
  • It is a very uncommon potentially malignant vascular tumour which can occur at every site of the body.
  • The diagnosis of "hemangiopericytoma" is now only determined if a constant histological picture of hemangiopericytoma is present.
  • The tumour can lead to lymphogenous or hematogenous metastasis.
  • CASE REPORTS: Patient 1: 60 years, female; diagnosis: malignant suboccipital hemangiopericytoma; size: 4.9 x 4.5 x 4.2 cm; pT1bNXMX L0 V0 Pn0; stage IA; grading G1; R0.Patient 2: 38 years, male; diagnosis: benign hemangiopericytoma infraorbital left; size 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm.
  • The slow and painless growth carries the danger of a clinically wrong diagnosis and thus delayed therapy.
  • The histological diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma is determined by biopsy.
  • The therapy of choice is the complete tumour-resection with a safety margin of 1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangiopericytoma / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Orbit / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16220316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Wiegand S, Zimmermann AP, Eivazi B, Sesterhenn AM, Sekundo W, Bien S, Werner JA, Barth PJ: Analysis of clinically suspected orbital cavernomas. Br J Ophthalmol; 2010 Dec;94(12):1653-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of clinically suspected orbital cavernomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Orbital cavernomas are low-flow vascular malformations that are the most common benign neoplasms of the orbit in adults, typically becoming symptomatic in the middle age.
  • METHODS: The medical records of six patients with clinically suspected orbital cavernomas receiving elective surgical excision were analysed concerning symptoms, physical findings, treatment results and visual outcome.
  • The pathologic slides were evaluated, and additional immunohistochemical stains were done if necessary to obtain diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Histologic evaluation revealed three of six cases not being cavernomas, although the clinical and macroscopic findings were consistent with orbital cavernomas.
  • Two of them were haemorrhagic lymphangiomas, and one was a solitary fibrous tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Haemorrhagic lymphangiomas and other vascular tumours may mimic orbital cavernomas regarding anamnesis, radiologic and intraoperative findings and gross examination.
  • Therefore, exact histologic evaluation is necessary to get the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Malformations / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Regional Blood Flow. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20494913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Składzień J, Oleś K, Moskała M, Strek P, Urbanik A, Stachura J, Zagólski O: [Own experience in treatment of patients with advanced tumours of the paranasal sinuses and the orbit, penetrating to the anterior and medial cranial fossa--preliminary report]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2007;61(4):416-22
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  • [Title] [Own experience in treatment of patients with advanced tumours of the paranasal sinuses and the orbit, penetrating to the anterior and medial cranial fossa--preliminary report].
  • An en bloc excision of the tumour can be accomplished.
  • RESULTS: Lesions were malignant in 7 patients and benign in the remaining 33.
  • Craniofacial resection is the only surgical approach with acceptable rate of complications in selected patients with tumour comprising the anterior and medial cranial base, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and orbits.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Anterior / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Middle / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18260224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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9. Ahmad Z, Khurshid A, Qureshi A: Primary orbital yolk sac tumour in a 14-year-old girl. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Primary orbital yolk sac tumour in a 14-year-old girl.
  • Yolk sac tumour is a common malignant germ cell tumour, which usually occurs in the testes or ovaries of infants.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumours of the head and neck region account for 5% of all benign and malignant germ cell tumours.
  • The orbit is an extremely unusual location for development of primary yolk sac tumour.
  • The present report concerns the case of a yolk sac tumour in a 14-year-old girl, arising as a primary tumour of the orbit with invasion of periorbital and intracranial spaces.

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  • (PMID = 22096462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027343
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10. Rizvi SA, Gupta Y, Gupta M: Surgical treatment and histopathological analysis of proptosis. Nepal J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan-Jun;2(1):31-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Inflammations and tumors of the orbit and para-orbital regions may present as proptosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, 25 cases of proptosis due to orbital and paraorbital tumours were analyzed in relation to their age, sex, and clinical and histopathological profiles.
  • According to location and type of tumour, different surgical options like anterior orbitotomy, lateral orbitotomy and medial orbitotomy were considered.
  • Primary orbital tumors were encountered in 15 cases (60%) and para-orbital in 10 (40%).
  • Of 15 primary orbital tumors, 7 (46.66%) were excised by lateral orbitotomy, another 7 (46.66%) were approached via anterior orbitotomy, whereas 1 (6.67%) was removed by medial orbitotomy.
  • Pediatric orbital tumors were quite common {7 (46.66%)}.
  • The most common benign adult tumor found in our study was pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland {3 (20%)}.
  • Proptosis due to primary orbital tumors is more common than para-orbital tumors.
  • Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention provide good functional and cosmetic results.
  • [MeSH-major] Exophthalmos / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21141324.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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11. Lopatin AS, Kapitanov DN: Endonasal removal of a large ethmoidal cementoblastoma. Rhinology; 2005 Jun;43(2):156-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cementoblastoma is a benign tumour, which pertains to the family of fibro osseous lesions of the jaws.
  • Ethmoidal cementomas often attain a large size; they can destroy surrounding bone, invade the orbit and the skull base and usually require radical surgery for complete excision.
  • In the 40-year old woman, endoscopic endonasal computer-assisted surgery allowed for complete tumour removal.
  • No intraoperative damage to the orbit and the optic nerve occurred.
  • No residual tumour was found at the follow-up visit three years after the surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16008075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Rhinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rhinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Cunniffe G, Fernández J, Alonso T, Balaguer O, Dinares C, Huguet P, Medel R: Thyroid orbitopathy obscuring the diagnosis of a rare neuromuscular hamartoma of the superior rectus muscle in an adult. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):168-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid orbitopathy obscuring the diagnosis of a rare neuromuscular hamartoma of the superior rectus muscle in an adult.
  • A neuromuscular hamartoma is a rare benign tumour that is most frequently associated with peripheral nerves.
  • An initial diagnosis of thyroid orbitopathy was made and he had a limited response to two courses of oral steroid administered in another centre.
  • Orbital CT scan showed a thickening of the recti muscles and particularly the left superior rectus and overlying soft tissue.
  • The orbital fat biopsy showed no pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Graves Ophthalmopathy / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Neuromuscular Diseases / diagnosis. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroidectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20497087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Merani R, Khannah G, Mann S, Ghabrial R: Orbital leiomyoma: a case report with clinical, radiological and pathological correlation. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;33(4):408-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital leiomyoma: a case report with clinical, radiological and pathological correlation.
  • Orbital leiomyoma is a benign tumour of smooth muscle origin that can be clinically, radiologically and histopathologically difficult to diagnose due to the rarity of leiomyomas in this location.
  • Microscopically the lesion was a well-circumscribed tumour composed of spindle cells.
  • There were no light microscopic features to suggest malignancy, and immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the diagnosis of leiomyoma.
  • Leiomyoma is a tumour that is rarely found in the orbit most likely due to the paucity of smooth muscle in this location.
  • The differential diagnosis is wide, and the role of radiology, histology and immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of leiomyoma is discussed.
  • Surgical excision in this case excluded malignancy, provided a definitive diagnosis of a rare entity and resulted in marked clinical improvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyoma / radiography. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16033356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin
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14. Dallaudiere B, Benayoun Y, Boncoeur-Martel M, Robert P, Adenis J, Maubon A: [Imaging features of cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit]. J Radiol; 2009 Sep;90(9 Pt 1):1039-45
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  • [Title] [Imaging features of cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit].
  • Cavernous hemangioma is the most frequent benign tumor of the orbit.
  • The clinical presentation is that of a slowly progressive intra-orbital mass with variable degree of exophthalmos.
  • CT typically demonstrates the presence of a well defined oval or rounded shaped mass but MRI provides superior evaluation of the orbit.
  • The tumor is intra-conal in 80% of cases and usually shows T1W hypo-isointensity, T2W hyperintensity and heterogeneous contrast enhancement that becomes more homogeneous on delayed imaging (5 minutes).
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19752807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Pedamallu SB, Murphy J, Boyd D, Martin-Hirsch D, Al-Zwae K: Direct intracranial extension of malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the face. J Clin Med Res; 2009 Aug;1(3):181-3
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  • They are aggressive tumours normally arising in long-standing benign eccrine spiradenomas.
  • A 48 years old woman presented with a large exophytic tumour on the right side of her face.
  • Radiological imaging of the head and neck region revealed extensive invasion of the facial tissues around right orbit, maxilla and extension into the middle cranial fossa involving the right temporal lobe.
  • She underwent craniotomy and debulking of the right temporal lobe and biopsy of the facial tumour.

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  • (PMID = 22493654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical medicine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3318883
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16. Lindegaard J, Heegaard S, Toft PB, Nysom K, Prause JU: Malignant transformation of a medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):161-4
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  • METHODS: A 3-year-old boy presented with right-sided proptosis, swollen eyelids, restricted ocular movements, pain and nausea.
  • A benign non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve was surgically removed.
  • Due to relapse in the orbit 10 months postoperatively enucleation and partial orbital exenteration were performed.
  • This is the first case described of a benign medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve, later transforming into a malignant tumour.
  • Furthermore; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis when observing a tumour of the optic nerve in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Exophthalmos / etiology. Eye Enucleation / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Orbit Evisceration / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Stem Cell Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20497085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Rong BG, Chen WL, Ding YP, Xie G, Chen Y, Wang TD: [Surgical approaches to the skull base neoplasms]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;40(4):291-4
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  • Eleven surgical approaches including midfacial degloving, frontal coronal discission, nasal eversion, maxillary swing, partial maxillary resection, total resection of orbit, mandibular swing, combination of front, temple, preauricular, post aureum, neck, and transoral approaches were used to resect the tumor which involved fossae pterygopalatine, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, antero, meso and posterobasilar region, lobi frontalis and lobi temporalis of cerebrum.
  • In 29 patients with benign tumor including 11 cases of meningioma, 3 cases of chondroma, 1 case of hemangio-meningioma, 1 case of cavernous hemangioma, 2 cases of osteodysplasia fibromas, 9 cases of neurofibroma, 1 case of glomus jugular tumor, 1 case of neurilemmoma, 19 have survived over 5 years and the longest one has survived over 8 years.
  • For 50 patients with malignant tumor including 3 cases of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, 17 cases of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, 11 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, 1 case of undifferentiated carcinoma, 2 cases of chondrosarcoma, 5 cases of canceration of papilloma, 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, 1 case of esthesioneuroblastoma, 2 cases of malignant fibrohistiocytoma, 1 case of fibrosarcoma, 2 cases of malignant mixed tumour, 3 cases of sarcoma survival rates of 3 and 5 years were 59.2% (29/49), 38.5% (10/26) respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: In order to resect the tumor completely and reduce the complication and malformation as far as possible, different surgical approaches must be designed according to the pathological changes characters and involved area,and the surgeon should select the shortest approach, avoid to damage the important neurovascular structure, and resect the tumor through the natural anatomy space by the shelter incision.

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  • (PMID = 16008265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. deSousa JL, Meligonis G, Malhotra R: Giant cell angiofibroma of the orbit with periosteal adherence. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Dec;34(9):886-8
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  • [Title] Giant cell angiofibroma of the orbit with periosteal adherence.
  • We report a case of orbital giant cell angiofibroma, an unusual, recently reported benign spindle cell neoplasm.
  • Preoperative clinical assessment and radiology suggested a benign mass and early operative findings were in concordance with this.
  • As with some lymphangiomas, this is another benign orbital tumour which may present difficulties in complete surgical excision that are not anticipated based on the preoperative findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiofibroma / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Periosteum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Tissue Adhesions. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17181622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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19. Leiser Y, Abu-El-Naaj I, Peled M: Odontogenic myxoma--a case series and review of the surgical management. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2009 Jun;37(4):206-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Odontogenic myxomas (OMs) are considered to be a benign odontogenic tumour with locally aggressive behaviour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Plates. Bone Screws. Curettage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maxillary Sinus / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Orbit / surgery. Osteotomy. Palatal Obturators. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19027311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4119
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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20. Bozza F, Marcelli VA, Pistilli R, Govoni FA, Marsico C: Maxillary ameloblastoma. Minerva Stomatol; 2006 Apr;55(4):215-22
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  • Maxillary ameloblastoma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm that is histologically benign and originates from epithelial cells present in bone tissue.
  • If excised through conservative surgery, this tumour has a high relapse rate and is locally aggressive.
  • The risk, in particularly extensive forms, that the ameloblastoma will invade extra-maxillary structures such as the orbit, the pterygomaxillary fossa, the infratemporal fossa and the base of the skull, means that surgical treatment is difficult if it is to be oncologically radical while respecting function and aesthetics.

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  • (PMID = 16618996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4970
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva stomatologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Stomatol
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Maheshwari R, Thool A: Orbital cavernous hemangioma of childhood. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2007 Jul-Aug;55(4):313-5
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  • [Title] Orbital cavernous hemangioma of childhood.
  • Ocular and orbital tumors, both benign and malignant, occur relatively frequently in infants and children.
  • Benign masses are much more common than malignant in the orbital region.
  • However, childhood tumors show great variability and it is difficult to differentiate benign from malignant lesions.
  • Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign neoplasm of the orbit in adults.
  • We report a case of orbital cavernous hemangioma in a four-year-old girl presenting as unilateral painless proptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17595488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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22. Meli GA, Meli L, Chiaramonte R, Riva G, Pero G: Osteoblastoma of the orbit. A case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiol J; 2008 Feb 18;21(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Osteoblastoma of the orbit. A case report and review of the literature.
  • We describe a case of benign orbital tumour involving the frontal sinus and ethmoidal cells.
  • CT findings were typical of "bone tumour of the orbit", histological analysis yielded a diagnosis of benign osteoblastoma.
  • The orbit is rarely involved by bone tumours, but all bone tumours may theoretically involve the orbit, often making it difficult to establish the right differential diagnosis by imaging.
  • Even though many literature reports suggest CT is the landmark in bone tumour diagnosis, we think it should always be accompanied by MRI.
  • MRI is known to overestimate local staging, but its contribution to differential diagnosis among various tumours may be decisive.

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  • (PMID = 24256752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Burduk PK, Seredyka-Burduk M, Olejarz E: [Giant tumor of the orbit--a case of hidradenoma]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2007;61(6):1017-20
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  • [Title] [Giant tumor of the orbit--a case of hidradenoma].
  • Orbital tumors are very differential group of lesions.
  • More often a benign lesions is found than malignant.
  • We present a case of 62 years old man with large expansion of benign tumor of the orbit with exophthalmus, eye movement disability and complete blindness.
  • The authors performed radical surgery with removing of the orbit content.
  • Histopathology described a very rare tumor of the orbit-hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18546956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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24. Nagulić M, Nikolić I, Manojlović-Gacić E, Skender-Gazibara M: Multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit: separate occurrence within a 24-year period. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2010 Jun;67(6):507-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit: separate occurrence within a 24-year period.
  • BACKGROUND: Cavernous hemangioma is a frequent and the most common, primary, benign tumor of the orbit in adults.
  • Multiple orbital cavernous hemangiomas without signs of hemangiomatosis are rare.
  • Tumor recurrence is supposed to develop from vasculature that is present already in response to a proliferate stimulus.
  • CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old female with painless proptosis of the right orbit was found to have four orbital tumors.
  • Six years later, another, the fifth one cavernous hemangioma was totally excised from the same orbit.
  • Nine years after the first operation, reorbitotomy was performed because of positive radiological and clinical signs of de novo tumor in the orbit.
  • CONCLUSION: This case show the possibility of cavernous hemangioma recurrence after a previously totally excised tumor, separated more than two decades.
  • A very long follow-up of the patients operated for these benign tumor lesions is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Orbital Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20629431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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25. Rajan KV, Santhi T: A case of solitary fibrous tumour of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Jul;58(3):316-8
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  • [Title] A case of solitary fibrous tumour of the nose and paranasal sinuses.
  • Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT), formerly known as benign fibrous mesothelioma, are rare mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasms, originally described in the pleura, but now found to arise in many other locations such as mediastinum, urogenital tract, face, nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit, meninges, ear, buccal mucosa, tongue, salivary gland etc.
  • It was first described as a distinct neoplasm in 1931 by Klemperer and Rabin.
  • A case of solitary fibrous tumour of the nose and paranasal sinuses is presented.

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  • [Cites] Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003 Jun;7(3):169-73 [12808569.001]
  • [Cites] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996 Oct;17(9):1767-72 [8896635.001]
  • (PMID = 23120332.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450392
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Solitary fibrous tumour / paranasal sinuses
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26. Arora R, Monga S, Mehta DK, Raina UK, Gogi A, Gupta SD: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the conjunctiva. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Apr;34(3):275-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • They can occur in any part of the body including the orbital tissues.
  • Eleven of these were classified as benign, and the rest were malignant fibrous histiocytomas.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytomas have been reported in the orbit, eyelid, episclera and conjunctiva.
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma has been well described in the orbit, but rarely as a primary conjunctival tumour.
  • The rarity of the tumour makes its diagnosis and management a challenge.
  • Herein, the clinicopathological features of a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma are presented and its management with wide excision and cryotherapy followed by ocular reconstruction with amniotic membrane transplant is discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16671910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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27. Tam ES, Chen EC, Nijhawan N, Harvey JT, Howarth D, Oestreicher JH: Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit: a case series. Orbit; 2008;27(6):426-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) occurs rarely in the orbit.
  • We present four such cases, representing one of the largest case series reported to date of this rare orbital tumor.
  • All four patients underwent CT scan to confirm the diagnosis of an orbital mass, which was then excised.
  • One of these cases demonstrated residual tumor on follow-up CT scan, which remained unchanged at one-year follow-up.
  • No evidence of residual tumor was found in the other three cases, despite one having malignant pathology.
  • CONCLUSION: SFT is a rare and generally benign tumor of the orbit.
  • Immunohistochemical testing with CD34 is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Although en bloc tumor resection is the definitive treatment, residual tumor may remain stable for some time.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19085297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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28. Saetti R, Silvestrini M, Narne S: Ethmoid osteoma with frontal and orbital extension: endoscopic removal and reconstruction. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Oct;125(10):1122-5
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  • [Title] Ethmoid osteoma with frontal and orbital extension: endoscopic removal and reconstruction.
  • Endoscopy provides a safe and effective way of treating craniofacial bony benign lesions.
  • This approach permits not only complete removal of the tumour, but also reconstruction of the bony boundaries as necessary.
  • Osteoma is a rare, osteogenic tumour that usually grows slowly and asymptomatically.
  • It is the most frequent benign neoplasm of the nose and paranasal sinuses.
  • Orbital extension is a rare event that can give rise to ocular signs and symptoms; in such a case treatment is mandatory, although debate persists regarding the optimal approach.
  • We report the case of a bulky fronto-ethmo-orbital osteoma that was treated using an endoscopic trans-nasal approach.
  • The medial wall of the orbit was repaired by means of an implant of porous polyethylene endoscopically positioned using an "underlay" technique.
  • A CT scan performed 6 months postoperatively showed good ventilation of the sinonasal cavity and effective reconstruction of the medial orbital wall.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Endoscopy. Female. Frontal Bone / pathology. Frontal Bone / surgery. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Orbit / pathology. Orbit / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16298798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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29. Bekibele CO, Fasola OA, Okojie VN, Komolafe OO, Oluwasola OA, Emejulu JK, Ajaiyeoba AI, Baiyeroju AM: Visual impairment from fibrous dysplasia in a middle-aged African man: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:14
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  • INTRODUCTION: Fibrous dysplasia is a benign tumour of the bones and is a disease of unknown aetiology.
  • This report discusses a case of proptosis and visual deterioration with associated bony mass involving the right orbit.
  • Proptosis was preceded by trauma but was non-pulsatile with no thrill or bruit but was associated with bony orbital mass.
  • Computed tomography showed an expansile bony mass involving all the walls of the orbit.
  • The bony orbital mass was diagnosed histologically as fibrous dysplasia.
  • Treatment included orbital exploration and orbital shaping to create room for the globe and relieve pressure on the optic nerve.
  • CONCLUSION: Fibrous dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slowly developing proptosis with associated visual loss in young adults.

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  • (PMID = 19144124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633003
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30. Chanfi M: [Tuberous angioma in an infant: a case study]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2005 Sep;28(7):774
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tuberous angioma of the orbit is the most frequent benign tumor of the orbit in children.
  • Angiomatous tumors in general, and more particularly tuberous angioma tumors, are classed among the primary tumors of the orbit.

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  • (PMID = 16208215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Sasindran V, Sriprakash, Ravikumar A, Somu L: Giant tumour of the pterygopalatine fossa. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Sep;60(3):248-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant tumour of the pterygopalatine fossa.
  • Neurilemmomas are benign and slow growing tumours.
  • In this paper we present a case of schwannoma arising in the pterygopalatine fossa with extension into infratemporal fossa and floor of the orbit.
  • A transantral approach was used for excision of the tumor following which the defect in the floor of the orbit was reconstructed with the help of a temporoparietal flap.

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  • [Cites] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 1990;91(6):452-6 [2291086.001]
  • [Cites] J Neurosurg. 1989 May;70(5):737-45 [2709114.001]
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  • (PMID = 23120554.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450653
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Infraorbital nerve / Neurilemmomma / Pterygo palatine fossa / Schwannoma
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32. Subramanian N, Rambhatia S, Mahesh L, Menon SV, Krishnakumar S, Biswas J, Noronha OV: Cystic schwannoma of the orbit-a case series. Orbit; 2005 Jun;24(2):125-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cystic schwannoma of the orbit-a case series.
  • A schwannoma is an uncommon benign orbital tumor that arises from Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
  • Clinical examination alone is inadequate for the diagnosis.
  • Radiological examination, like computed tomography (CT) scans, can help in the diagnosis; however, the diagnosis can only be confirmed by histopathological examination (HPE) after excision biopsy.
  • Here, the authors report four cases of orbital schwannoma with cystic degeneration that presented with proptosis and decreased vision.
  • The histopathological examination was diagnostic for orbital schwannoma with cystic degeneration.
  • Schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic orbital lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Blepharoptosis / etiology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16191802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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