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3. Blomquist E, Bjelkengren G, Glimelius B: The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in intracranial and ocular tumours. Acta Oncol; 2005;44(8):862-70
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  • [Title] The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in intracranial and ocular tumours.
  • The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues.
  • In intracranial benign and malignant tumours, it is estimated that between 130 and 180 patients each year are candidates for proton beam therapy.
  • In addition, 15 patients with ocular melanoma are candidates.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Chordoma / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Skull Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 16332593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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4. Arora R, Monga S, Mehta DK, Raina UK, Gogi A, Gupta SD: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the conjunctiva. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Apr;34(3):275-8
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  • They can occur in any part of the body including the orbital tissues.
  • Eleven of these were classified as benign, and the rest were malignant fibrous histiocytomas.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytomas have been reported in the orbit, eyelid, episclera and conjunctiva.
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma has been well described in the orbit, but rarely as a primary conjunctival tumour.
  • The rarity of the tumour makes its diagnosis and management a challenge.
  • Herein, the clinicopathological features of a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma are presented and its management with wide excision and cryotherapy followed by ocular reconstruction with amniotic membrane transplant is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16671910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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5. De Melo MR Jr, Araújo Filho JL, Patu VJ, Machado MC, Mello LA, Carvalho LB Jr: Langerhans cells in cutaneous tumours: immunohistochemistry study using a computer image analysis system. J Mol Histol; 2006 Nov;37(8-9):321-5
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  • Immunohistochemistry, based on antibody anti-S100 protein, was used to evaluate the Langerhans cells (LC) in benign and malign skin neoplasias.
  • No significant variations were observed in the number of LC among malignant tumour (BCC = 23.25 +/- 5.81 and EpC = 20.88 +/- 4.24).
  • Benign lesions (AK = 33.04 +/- 7.11; TE = 55.74 +/- 9.35; SK = 42.38 +/- 9.92, and KA = 47.62 +/- 10.4) presented a higher number of LC when they were compared among them and to malignant and normal tissues.
  • No significant differences were observed in LC area and volume between benign and malign neoplasias.
  • These results indicate possibly differences in the immunogenicity between benign and malign epidermic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Langerhans Cells / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17080294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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6. Ettl T, Kleinheinz J, Mehrotra R, Schwarz S, Reichert TE, Driemel O: Infraorbital cutaneous angiosarcoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Head Face Med; 2008;4:18
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  • BACKGROUND: A cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of vascular endothelial cells with aggressive clinical behaviour and poor prognosis.
  • Diagnosis is often delayed due to its variable and often benign clinical appearance.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This case presents a 64-year-old man with a six-month-history of a recurrent diffuse and erythematous painless swelling below the left eye.
  • Neither, finally achieved negative margins on permanent sections, nor a following chemotherapy could prevent the recurrence of the disease after five months and the patient's dead 21 months after the first diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18694495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & face medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Face Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2533304
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9. Glynn F, Keogh IJ, Ali TA, Timon CI, Donnelly M: Routine nasopharyngeal biopsy in adults presenting with isolated serous otitis media: is it justified? J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Jun;120(6):439-41
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  • The four patients with suspicious-looking masses were all found to have malignancies (two squamous cell carcinomas, one B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and one adenocarcinoma).
  • All other patients with masses were found to have benign lymphoid hyperplasia.
  • We would advocate a high index of suspicion of a nasopharyngeal tumour in adults presenting with SOM.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nasopharynx / pathology. Otitis Media with Effusion / pathology. Patient Selection

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  • (PMID = 16772052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Pe'er J: Long term ultrasonic follow up of choroidal naevi and their transformation to melanomas. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Aug;90(8):994-8
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  • 165 clinically suspicious naevi were followed clinically and ultrasonographically (thickness, base diameters, internal reflectivity and location in the eye) for 5.08 (SE 0.24) years.
  • The thickness of benign and premalignant naevi differed significant only after 1.5 years of follow up.
  • The mean initial thickness of benign and premalignant naevi was significantly different (p = 0.001), as was mean initial internal reflectivity (p = 0.002) and mean initial largest base diameter (LBD, p = 0.05).
  • Logistic regression found the only significant parameters to influence the risk of conversion to melanoma to be the KI value and the initial tumour thickness.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Nevus / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16672327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857217
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11. Lorber A, Wiltgen M, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Koller S, Weger W, Ahlgrimm-Siess V, Smolle J, Gerger A: Correlation of image analysis features and visual morphology in melanocytic skin tumours using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy. Skin Res Technol; 2009 May;15(2):237-41
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  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents a novel imaging tool that allows the non-invasive examination of skin cancer morphology at a quasi histological resolution without biopsy.
  • METHODS: Eight hundred and fifty-seven CLSM tumour images including 408 benign nevi and 449 melanoma images were evaluated.
  • Seven classification tree nodes seemed to indicate benign nevi, whereas six nodes were suggestive for melanoma morphology.
  • The visual examination of selected nodes demonstrated that monomorphic melanocytic cells and melanocytic cell nests are characteristic for benign nevi whereas polymorphic melanocytic cells, disarray of melanocytic architecture and poorly defined or absent keratinocyte cell borders are characteristic for melanoma.
  • Moreover, features not accessible to the human eye seem to contribute to classification success.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19622133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0846
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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12. Charbel Issa P, Meyer-ter-Vehn T, Guthoff R, Klink T, Holz FG, Löffler K: [Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2008 Jul;225(7):663-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva is a rare tumour.
  • Early disease stages may be difficult to distinguish from benign lesions such as pigmented nevi or primary acquired melanosis.
  • Two female patients (84 and 85 years old, respectively) presented with a pigmented tumor close to the limbus with surrounding conjunctival pigmentation and involvement of the cornea.
  • RESULTS: Following complete excision of the tumour, conjunctival malignant melanoma arising from primary acquired melanosis was diagnosed histologically.
  • Subsequent treatment with mitomycin C eye drops was initiated.
  • There was no recurrence of the tumor within the follow-up period (24 and 6 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / epidemiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence

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  • (PMID = 18642211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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13. Löffler KU, Holz FG: [Recurrent corneal tumour in a child]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 Sep;224(9):733-5
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  • [Title] [Recurrent corneal tumour in a child].
  • We present the clinical and histopathological findings in the unusual case of a recurrent corneal tumour in a child.
  • Light and ultrastructural observations as well as immunohistochemistry indicate a benign reactive process.
  • A possible diagnosis of nodular fasciitis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Diseases / congenital. Eye Neoplasms / congenital. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Astigmatism / diagnosis. Astigmatism / pathology. Child, Preschool. Collagen / ultrastructure. Cornea / pathology. Cornea / surgery. Corneal Stroma / pathology. Corneal Stroma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17846964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vimentin; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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14. Chen J, Lee L, Gass JD: Choroidal osteoma: evidence of progression and decalcification over 20 years. Clin Exp Optom; 2006 Mar;89(2):90-4
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  • Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign, ossifying tumour of the choroid of unknown aetiology.
  • In contrast to other types of intraocular ossification, choroidal osteoma is found typically in young healthy females in the second or third decades of life with no history of systemic or ocular disease.
  • Choroidal osteoma is a deep, pale yellow lesion with distinct geographic borders at the juxtapapillary or macular region, with branching 'spider' vessels on the surface of the tumour.
  • These features should help differentiate choroidal osteoma from other types of intraocular tumour and the diagnosis can be confirmed with ultrasonography and computerised tomography.
  • Here we report an initially unilateral case of choroidal osteoma, which decalcified over 20 years but during the same period the fellow eye also developed a choroidal osteoma to become a bilateral case.
  • Despite the benign nature of the tumour, vision may be compromised by gradual atrophy of the overlying retina, serous retinal detachment, accumulation of sub-retinal fluid and sub-retinal haemorrhage associated with choroidal neovascularisation.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Osteoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcinosis / pathology. Choroid / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Remission, Spontaneous. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16494612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0816-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Optom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Ho CM, Lai HC, Huang SH, Chien TY, Lin MC, Chang SF: Promoter methylation of sFRP5 in patients with ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma. Eur J Clin Invest; 2010 Apr;40(4):310-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Specific tumour suppressor genes with promoter methylation in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) can be one important epigenetic mark distinguishing OCCA from ovarian serous adenocarcinoma (OSA), benign endometriotic cysts and normal ovarian epitheliums.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five OCCA cell lines, 63 cancer tissues (48 OCCA and 15 OSA), 10 benign endometriotic cysts and five normal ovarian epitheliums were analysed by methylation-specific PCR using pooled DNAs to determine the methylation status of the promoter of the target genes, including genes for secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRP1 to 5), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), retinoblastoma protein 1 (Rb1), breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1), p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and survivin.
  • RESULTS: The sFRP5 promoter was significantly methylated in all OCCA cell lines, with 64.6% in OCCA tissues compared with 13.3% in OSA, and 0% in benign endometriotic cysts and normal ovarian epitheliums (P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation. Eye Proteins. Membrane Proteins. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Risk Factors. Survival Rate


16. Prey S, Robert PY, Drouet M, Sparsa A, Roux C, Bonnetblanc JM, Bédane C: Treatment of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid with the tumour necrosis factor alpha antagonist etanercept. Acta Derm Venereol; 2007;87(1):74-5
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  • [Title] Treatment of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid with the tumour necrosis factor alpha antagonist etanercept.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Etanercept. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17225020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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17. Bekibele CO, Fasola OA, Okojie VN, Komolafe OO, Oluwasola OA, Emejulu JK, Ajaiyeoba AI, Baiyeroju AM: Visual impairment from fibrous dysplasia in a middle-aged African man: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:14
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  • INTRODUCTION: Fibrous dysplasia is a benign tumour of the bones and is a disease of unknown aetiology.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Nigerian man of Yoruba ethnic origin presented to the eye clinic of our hospital with right-eye proptosis and visual deterioration of 7-year duration.
  • Proptosis was preceded by trauma but was non-pulsatile with no thrill or bruit but was associated with bony orbital mass.
  • Examination of his right eye showed visual acuity of 6/60 with relative afferent pupillary defect.
  • CONCLUSION: Fibrous dysplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slowly developing proptosis with associated visual loss in young adults.

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  • [Cites] Am J Pathol. 1997 Dec;151(6):1587-600 [9403710.001]
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  • (PMID = 19144124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633003
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18. Kroll J, Busse H: [Tumours of the lacrimal passages]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2008 Jan;225(1):91-5
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  • The aim of this study is to give a review of the appearance of tumours of the whole lacrimal drainage system seen during 10 years at the university eye clinic in Münster.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated retrospectively the files of all patients with tumours in the lacrimal drainage system of the university eye clinic in Münster between 1992 and 2002 considering the dignity and type of tumour, the localisation, the symptoms, operation and the anaesthetic procedure.
  • RESULTS: We could find 75 patients with tumours in the lacrimal drainage system, out of which 40 were benign, 25 semi-malignant and 10 malignant tumours.
  • Among the benign tumours were 15 nevus cell nevi, 7 granulation tissue tumours, 5 papillomas, 4 cysts, 1 fibroma, 1 sebborrhoic keratosis, 1 adenoma of secretory duct, 2 inflamed pseudotumours and 2 benign tumours without histopathologic findings.
  • With regard to the localisation, almost 85 % of all tumours were situated in the upper part of the lacrimal drainage system (upper and lower lacrimal point, upper and lower canaliculus), that means in a location immediately visible for every ophthalmologist.
  • In that site, most of the tumours were of benign or semi-malignant origin.
  • Almost 85 % are located in the upper part of the lacrimal drainage system (lower and upper lacrimal point, lower and upper canaliculus) and merely 15 % are located in the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct.
  • One should be aware of the fact that this symptom can always be masqueraded by a tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Lacrimal Apparatus / pathology. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18236378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Rumelt S, Pe'er J, Rubin PA: The clinicopathological spectrum of benign peripunctal tumours. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Feb;243(2):113-9
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  • [Title] The clinicopathological spectrum of benign peripunctal tumours.
  • The tumours were classified as epithelial and non-epithelial tumours.
  • Eleven out of 175 (6.3%) peripunctal disorders and out of approximately 4,000 (0.27%) surgical oculoplastics patients were seen at Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston.
  • The tumours included compound and junctional naevi, non-pigmented compound naevus, epithelial, subepithelial inclusion cysts, verrucous and squamous papilloma, pyogenic granuloma and oncocytoma.
  • All the tumours were benign.
  • Therefore, it is best to ascertain free margins when the tumour is excised.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Female. Granuloma, Pyogenic / pathology. Granuloma, Pyogenic / surgery. Humans. Male. Melanoma, Amelanotic / pathology. Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / surgery. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15558295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Rohrbach JM, Grüb M, Schlote T: [Neoplastic secondary glaucomas]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2005 Oct;222(10):788-96
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  • The frequency of IOP-elevation is mainly dependent on the biologic behaviour of the neoplasm (benign / malignant), its dimensions, localization, and its ability to provoke secondary changes like retinal detachment, hemorrhages, inflammation, and necroses.
  • The leading mechanisms are direct invasion of the chamber angle by tumour cells, rubeosis iridis, and forward displacement of the iris-lens-diaphragm with (lens induced) pupillary block.
  • As intraocular tumours may have pressure-lowering effects too, eyes bearing a tumour may also be hypotonic or normotonic inspite of a "glaucomatous chamber angle morphology".
  • The therapy of the tumour-induced glaucomas is hardly validated and generally follows the treatment of the other secondary glaucomas.
  • However, filtration procedures are contraindicated when a malignant tumour is diagnosed or suspected.
  • Because of the progress of tumour therapy with salvation of eyes which had to be enucleated in former times and prolongation of survival in some tumour entities (like Non Hodgkin's lymphoma and metastases) the significance of tumour-induced glaucomas will probably further increase in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Glaucoma / diagnosis. Glaucoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16240271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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21. Krstić V, Smoljanić Z, Djurović J, Marković V, Kosanović-Jaković N: [Gigantic ovarian and suprarenal cysts ten years after enucleation of unilateral retinoblastoma]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2008 Nov-Dec;136(11-12):658-61
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  • INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common eye tumour in children and is curable.
  • Average latent period, e.g. the period from the diagnosis of bilateral RB to the appearance of SPT is 10.4 years.
  • In the literature, the appearance of second benign tumours in patients suffering from unilateral and bilateral RB has not been analyzed separately.
  • However, the size and the location of benign tumours can cause serious complications.
  • At age 4 years, her left eye was enucleated owing to unilateral RB.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a patient who developed second non-ocular tumours (ovarian and suprarenal cysts) after successful treatment of unilateral RB.
  • Patients treated for RB (hereditary and non-hereditary) should be checked regularly and meticulously.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Cysts / complications. Eye Enucleation. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Retinal Neoplasms / complications. Retinoblastoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary


22. Rizvi SA, Gupta Y, Gupta M: Surgical treatment and histopathological analysis of proptosis. Nepal J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan-Jun;2(1):31-4
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  • According to location and type of tumour, different surgical options like anterior orbitotomy, lateral orbitotomy and medial orbitotomy were considered.
  • The most common benign adult tumor found in our study was pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland {3 (20%)}.
  • Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention provide good functional and cosmetic results.
  • [MeSH-major] Exophthalmos / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21141324.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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23. Lindegaard J, Heegaard S, Toft PB, Nysom K, Prause JU: Malignant transformation of a medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):161-4
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  • METHODS: A 3-year-old boy presented with right-sided proptosis, swollen eyelids, restricted ocular movements, pain and nausea.
  • A benign non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve was surgically removed.
  • This is the first case described of a benign medulloepithelioma of the optic nerve, later transforming into a malignant tumour.
  • Furthermore; it should be considered as a differential diagnosis when observing a tumour of the optic nerve in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Exophthalmos / etiology. Eye Enucleation / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Orbit Evisceration / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Stem Cell Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20497085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Farmer JP, Lamba M, McDonald H, Commons AS: Orbital giant cell angiofibroma: immuno-histochemistry and differential diagnosis. Can J Ophthalmol; 2006 Apr;41(2):216-20
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  • [Title] Orbital giant cell angiofibroma: immuno-histochemistry and differential diagnosis.
  • COMMENTS: Giant cell angiofibroma is a benign spindle cell neoplasm characterized by multinucleated giant cells and pseudovascular spaces with a propensity to occur in the anterior soft tissues of the orbit of middle-aged adults.
  • It is part of a wide differential diagnosis of tumours that can be separated by various histologic and immunohistochemical features, which are discussed in the report.
  • It is important to consider it preoperatively because the vascular nature of this tumour may create problems with hemostasis during excision.

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  • (PMID = 16767212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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25. Moon JH, Yoon DY, Choi CS, Yun EJ, Park SJ, Seo YL, Kim BJ: Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Nov;35(11):1145-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas.
  • Choristoma is a benign tumour defined as normal tissue in an ectopic location.
  • We report a 6-year-old girl with bilateral ocular osseous choristomas who presented with palpable nodules protruding from both upper lids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Choristoma / diagnostic imaging. Eye Diseases / diagnostic imaging

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Radiol. 2005 Dec;35(12):1295. Yoon, Eun Joo [corrected to Yun, Eun Joo]
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  • (PMID = 16001272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Cordero Coma M, Yilmaz T, Foster CS: Tumour necrosis factor-alpha in conjunctivae affected by ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Acta Ophthalmol Scand; 2007 Nov;85(7):753-5
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  • [Title] Tumour necrosis factor-alpha in conjunctivae affected by ocular cicatricial pemphigoid.
  • PURPOSE: The presence of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in conjunctivae affected by ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) was investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctiva / metabolism. Conjunctivitis, Allergic / metabolism. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


27. Piantanelli A, Maponi P, Scalise L, Serresi S, Cialabrini A, Basso A: Fractal characterisation of boundary irregularity in skin pigmented lesions. Med Biol Eng Comput; 2005 Jul;43(4):436-42
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  • A growing literature shows researcher's interest in fractal analysis, arising from its ability to describe and characterise quantitatively the complexity of several tumour profiles.
  • This result is important for screening, as it can inform the decision to excise precociously malignant lesions or to avoid unnecessary removal of benign ones.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractals. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16255424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-0118
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical & biological engineering & computing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Biol Eng Comput
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Karakas HM, Yakinci C, Firat AK, Kahraman B: Unilateral reverse ocular bobbing caused by tuberous sclerosis. Dev Med Child Neurol; 2006 Oct;48(10):851-4
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  • [Title] Unilateral reverse ocular bobbing caused by tuberous sclerosis.
  • A female aged 12 months with developmental delay and left-sided reverse ocular bobbing (rapid deviation of the eye upward and a slow return to the horizontal position) was observed.
  • At birth, an upper left gingival mass, pathologically diagnosed as a benign granular cell tumour, was removed.
  • Her abnormal eye movements were still present.
  • This case is the first tuberous sclerosis-related ocular bobbing case to our knowledge and is interesting as the causative lesion was relatively mild, and ocular horizontal movements were preserved.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


29. Guerin E, Hiscott P, Damato B: Choroidal neovascular membrane in a series of cases of malignant melanoma of the choroid. Acta Ophthalmol Scand; 2006 Jun;84(3):323-7
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  • PURPOSE: To examine a series of choroidal melanoma specimens to determine the frequency of overlying choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to ascertain whether CNV over choroidal malignant melanoma is associated with any particular histological tumour characteristics.
  • Choroidal neovascularization was not associated with any particular histological tumour characteristic.
  • The presence of a choroidal neovascular membrane over a pigmented fundal lesion should not be taken as reassurance that the lesion is benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Choroidal Neovascularization / diagnosis. Melanoma / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Choroid / blood supply. Choroid / pathology. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16704692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1395-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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30. Hajda M, Korányi K, Salomváry B, Bajcsay A: [Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment of lacrimal gland tumours]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):65-70
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  • [Title] [Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment of lacrimal gland tumours].
  • Epithelial lacrimal gland tumours, which may be benign or malignant (benign pleomorphic adenoma, malignant pleomorphic adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, other carcinomas).
  • 4. Other tumours (dermoid cyst, haemangioma, neurinoma, haemangiopericytoma, metastatic tumour).
  • Of the 59 primary epithelial tumours 62.7% was benign and 37.3% was malignant.
  • The differential diagnosis and management are based on the clinical presentations, imaging studies and histological examination.
  • The prognosis of pleomorphic adenomas depends on the early diagnosis and radical surgical excision of the lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Lacrimal Apparatus. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis. Orbital Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Granuloma / diagnosis. Granuloma / therapy. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Leukemia / diagnosis. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Orbital Pseudotumor / diagnosis. Orbital Pseudotumor / therapy. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15902337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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31. Süveges I: [Intraocular tumours]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):9-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intraocular tumours may be benign or malignant.
  • The tumour may also present intracranially, therefore CT of the skull should be performed in each case.
  • Histologically the tumour contains malignant neuroepithelial cells, which may form a rosette.
  • In the case of large tumours the treatment is enucleation; in bilateral processes the bulbus with the larger mass is removed and the other eye is treated with radiation therapy.
  • Metastases to the eye occur most frequently from carcinomas of the breast, lungs or gastrointestinal tract.
  • Some benign tumours are found by chance on routine eye examinations, others due to subjective and objective symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15902327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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32. Chami R, Aleynikova O, Abela A, Blais M, Oligny L, Bouron-Dal Soglio D, Patey N: [Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the nasal cavity]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Oct;30(5):374-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Xanthogranulome juvénile de la cavité nasale.
  • JXG is a benign lesion of unknown incidence.
  • It is the most frequent type of non-langerhans histiocytosis with a median age of 2 years.
  • Extra-cutaneous and visceral involvements have been observed, the most common site being the eye.
  • This case presented as a tumour in the inferior meatus of nasal cavity, clinically simulating a rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • This atypical clinical and histological presentation with benign evolution should be recognized since it requires only local treatment.


33. Madrid C, Aziza J, Hlali A, Bouferrache K, Abarca M: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: a case report and review of the aetiopathogenic hypotheses. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2010 Sep;15(5):e739-42
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  • [Title] Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: a case report and review of the aetiopathogenic hypotheses.
  • The tooth buds of 6.1 and 6.2 were closely related to the tumour and so were removed.
  • The pathology of the lesion confirmed a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy.
  • The melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) has been described as a rare benign pigmented painless swelling that usually occurs in the anterior region of the maxilla and in the incisor region.
  • According to Krompecher this tumour derives from epithelial nests evolved at the time of embryonic fusion of the facial processes.
  • It has also been suggested that the tumour arises from the retinal anlage by a pinching-off process of neuroepithelium during the formation of embryonic eye.
  • More recently, the presence of high levels of vanillylmandelic acid suggest a neural origin of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxillary Neoplasms. Neuroectodermal Tumor, Melanotic

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  • (PMID = 20173714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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34. Giannone N, Lo Muzio L, Politi M: Extracapsular lumpectomy and SMAS flap for benign parotid tumours: an early outcome in a small number of cases on Frey's syndrome and facial nerve dysfunction. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2008 Jun;36(4):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extracapsular lumpectomy and SMAS flap for benign parotid tumours: an early outcome in a small number of cases on Frey's syndrome and facial nerve dysfunction.
  • Parotidectomy is the most common approach for benign salivary neoplasms.
  • The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyse no. 34 extracapsular lumpectomies (ELs) performed with superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) flaps on 32 patients for benign parotid tumours.
  • None of the patients affected by pleomorphic adenoma or Warthin's tumour had a complete facial palsy.
  • Only 1 patient (2.9%) had a postoperative transient partial facial paralysis with incomplete eye closure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / surgery. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Oral Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 18313936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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35. Singh AD, McCloskey L, Parsons MA, Slater DN: Eccrine hidrocystoma of the eyelid. Eye (Lond); 2005 Jan;19(1):77-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Data on a series of consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis were reviewed.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 59 years (range 39-91 years).
  • The majority (71%) of patients had only a single tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The eccrine hidrocystoma is a benign small cystic tumour that characteristically occurs close to but does not involve the eyelid margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15205675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Cunniffe G, Fernández J, Alonso T, Balaguer O, Dinares C, Huguet P, Medel R: Thyroid orbitopathy obscuring the diagnosis of a rare neuromuscular hamartoma of the superior rectus muscle in an adult. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):168-70
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  • [Title] Thyroid orbitopathy obscuring the diagnosis of a rare neuromuscular hamartoma of the superior rectus muscle in an adult.
  • A neuromuscular hamartoma is a rare benign tumour that is most frequently associated with peripheral nerves.
  • The authors present a case of a 61 year-old man with bilateral exophthalmos and lid retraction who developed further proptosis and chemosis in the left eye over a five month period.
  • An initial diagnosis of thyroid orbitopathy was made and he had a limited response to two courses of oral steroid administered in another centre.
  • We wish to highlight the importance of a muscle biopsy when faced with a clinical picture and radiological pattern of extraocular muscle enlargement not typical of what we know to occur traditionally in thyroid eye disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Graves Ophthalmopathy / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Neuromuscular Diseases / diagnosis. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroidectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20497087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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