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16. Bektas N, Haaf At, Veeck J, Wild PJ, Lüscher-Firzlaff J, Hartmann A, Knüchel R, Dahl E: Tight correlation between expression of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXM1 and HER2 in human breast cancer. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:42
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  • [Title] Tight correlation between expression of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXM1 and HER2 in human breast cancer.
  • Consistent with its role in proliferation, elevated expression of FOXM1 has been reported in a variety of human tumour entities.
  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) we systematically analysed FOXM1 expression in human invasive breast carcinomas (n = 204) and normal breast tissues (n = 46) on a tissue microarray.
  • Additionally, using semiquantitative realtime PCR, a collection of paraffin embedded normal (n = 12) and cancerous (n = 25) breast tissue specimens as well as benign (n = 3) and malignant mammary cell lines (n = 8) were investigated for FOXM1 expression.
  • RESULTS: FOXM1 was found to be overexpressed in breast cancer in comparison to normal breast tissue both on the RNA and protein level (e.g.
  • CONCLUSION: FOXM1 may represent a novel breast tumour marker with prognostic significance that could be included into multi-marker panels for breast cancer.
  • Interestingly, we found a positive correlation between FOXM1 expression and HER2 status, pointing to a potential role of FOXM1 as a new drug target in HER2 resistant breast tumour, as FOXM1 inhibitors for cancer treatment were described recently.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, erbB-2
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Protein Array Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sampling Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Up-Regulation


17. Al Harthi B, Riaz MM, Al Khalaf AH, Al Zoum M, Al Shakweer W: Adrenal myelolipoma a rare benign tumour managed laparoscopically: Report of two cases. J Minim Access Surg; 2009 Oct;5(4):118-20
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma a rare benign tumour managed laparoscopically: Report of two cases.
  • Adrenal Myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of haemopoietic elements.
  • Two cases of myelolipoma are presented here, where the tumours were hormonally inactive, but presented with abdominal symptoms and were managed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

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  • (PMID = 20407573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3921
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843128
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Angiomyelolipoma / laparoscopic adrenalectomy / myelolipoma
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18. Scaranelo AM, Bukhanov K, Crystal P, Mulligan AM, O'Malley FP: Granular cell tumour of the breast: MRI findings and review of the literature. Br J Radiol; 2007 Dec;80(960):970-4
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumour of the breast: MRI findings and review of the literature.
  • Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are uncommon, usually benign neoplasms that can mimic malignancy on breast imaging.
  • When occurring in the breast, as occurs in 5-8% of all cases of GCT, the clinical presentation is similar to that of a primary breast carcinoma.
  • We report a case of granular cell tumour of the breast presenting as a suspicious lesion on breast imaging, and review the MRI features of GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17940129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Patani N, Cutuli B, Mokbel K: Current management of DCIS: a review. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Sep;111(1):1-10
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  • A significant proportion of DCIS lesions behave in a clinically benign fashion and do not progress to invasive disease.
  • Approaches such as biological profiling and molecular analysis represent an opportunity to improve our understanding of the tumour biology of this condition and rationalise its treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17902049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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20. Bogorad RL, Courtillot C, Mestayer C, Bernichtein S, Harutyunyan L, Jomain JB, Bachelot A, Kuttenn F, Kelly PA, Goffin V, Touraine P, Benign Breast Diseases Study Group: Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Sep 23;105(38):14533-8
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  • [Title] Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors.
  • Given the essential role of this hormonal system in breast physiology, we reasoned that genetic anomalies of Prl/PrlR genes may be related to the occurrence of breast diseases with high proliferative potential.
  • Multiple fibroadenomas (MFA) are benign breast tumors which appear most frequently in young women, including at puberty, when Prl has well-recognized proliferative actions on the breast.
  • Constitutive activity of PrlR(I146L) in the breast sample from a patient was supported by increased STAT5 signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Mutation, Missense. Receptors, Prolactin / genetics. Receptors, Prolactin / metabolism

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  • Guide to Pharmacology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Prolactin-releasing peptide receptor - overview and references .
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  • (PMID = 18779591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Prolactin; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; 0 / Tyrphostins; 0 / alpha-cyano-(3,4-dihydroxy)-N-benzylcinnamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2567233
  • [Investigator] Bachelot A; Belaroussi B; Bensimhon J; Berdah J; Blin MJ; Boudinet A; Brethon B; Bricaire C; Caby J; Caillaud G; Carel JC; Chabbert-Buffet N; Charitanski H; Chretien C; Clough K; Courtillot C; Delattre G; Denys I; Desthieux-Ngo K; Detoeuf M; Dhainault C; Duflos C; Fiori O; Genestie C; Gibaud G; Gompel A; Gracia C; Grimard A; Hofman C; Hofman H; Kuttenn F; Laki F; Lanty C; Lefranc JP; Le Frere-Belda MA; Leger D; Martinez F; May A; Meng L; Nos C; Pelletier D; Perrin A; Plu-Bureau G; Raccah-Tebbeca B; Saiovici JC; Salmon R; Sibout M; Sigal-Zafrani B; Thalabard JC; Thibaud E; Thoury A; Touraine P; Triana-Rabi KB; Uzan S; Viriot J; Yacoub S
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41. Yao C, Wang SM, Xie D, Wu HX, Chen DY, Lin Y: [The relationship between expression of interleukin-8 and prognosis of breast cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jul 1;44(13):900-3
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  • [Title] [The relationship between expression of interleukin-8 and prognosis of breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and its prognostic significance in breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Expression of IL-8 in 113 breast cancers, 19 breast benign tumors and 20 breast normal tissues was examined by tissue microarray using immunohistochemistry, and the association of IL-8 expression with patient's clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis was further analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of IL-8 expression in breast cancer was 27.4%, which was significantly higher than that in benign tumor and normal tissue of breast (P = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 might be a poor prognostic factor for human breast cancer, and also might be a novel molecular marker to predicate the occurrence and progression of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17067482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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42. Li YJ, Wen G, Wang Q: [Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor Flk-1/KDR in benign and malignant breast neoplasms]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Jan;29(1):70-1, 74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor Flk-1/KDR in benign and malignant breast neoplasms].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in the expression of angiogenesis-related molecules between benign and malignant breast neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Thirty breast cancer patients (33 foci) and 30 with benign breast neoplasms (34 foci) were examined for CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Flk-1/KDR expressions using immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: In patients with breast cancer, the microvessels densely distributed around the cancer nest.
  • The microvessel density (MVD) in the cancer patients was significantly higher than that in patients with benign tumors (34.48+/-8.34 vs 18.65+/-4.69, P<0.05).
  • In the breast cancer patients, strong VEGF expression was found in the epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells around the breast carcinoma, and Flk-1/KDR was also strongly expressed in the vascular endothelial cells.
  • The expressions of VEGF and Flk-1/KDR were hardly detectable in the benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: VEGF is an important regulatory factor in promoting breast tumor angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19218116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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43. Qureshi NA, Tahir M, Carmichael AR: Granular cell tumour of the soft tissues: a case report and literature review. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:21
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumour of the soft tissues: a case report and literature review.
  • Granular cell tumours (GCT) of the soft tissues are rare benign tumours but some time may be difficult to distinguish from malignant neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 16930486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1560141
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4
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4. Mahmoud A, Hill DH, O'Sullivan MJ, Bennett MW: Cylindroma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2009;4:30
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  • [Title] Cylindroma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Cylindroma of the breast is a very rare lesion which is morphological and immunophenotypically identical to benign dermal cylindroma.
  • We report a breast cylindroma in a previously healthy 62 year old female detected through a national breast screening program.
  • The patient had no significant family or past medical history, and specifically no history of breast or skin diseases.
  • The tumor consisted of well circumscribed islands of epithelial cells surrounded by a dense membrane material, and focally containing hyaline globules.
  • At low power the islands of tumour cells formed a "jig-saw" pattern, which is typical of cylindroma, but was present within normal breast parenchyma and no had direct connection with the overlying skin.
  • Immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, and Her2/neu was negative in tumour cells.
  • We discuss the nine previously reported cases and the distinction of breast cylindroma from adenoid cystic carcinoma, the main differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19725978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224926
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45. Liu F, Cui L, Zhang Y, Chen L, Wang Y, Fan Y, Lei T, Gu F, Lang R, Pringle GA, Zhang X, Chen Z, Fu L: Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Dec;124(3):677-88
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  • [Title] Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma.
  • HAb18G is a recently identified hepatoma-associated antigen and its association with tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis has been studied in a variety of tumors.
  • However, its role in the tumor progression of breast cancer has not been explored.
  • HAb18G expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in pathological sections of 1,637 breast tissue samples and by in situ hybridization in 41 cases of invasive breast carcinomas (BC).
  • While not detected in any cases of tumor-like conditions or benign tumors of breast, and only rarely in normal tissue (4.4%), HAb18G expression was gradually up-regulated from atypical ductal hyperplasia (27.3%), to ductal carcinoma-in situ (59.8%), and to BC (61.4%) (P < 0.01).
  • In an expanded group of 186 BC patients with proper follow up, our previous findings were confirmed: HAb18G expression was significantly associated with local recurrence, distant metastasis and tumor mortality (P < 0.01).
  • We also demonstrated that up-regulated tumor expression of HAb18G was a significant predictor of reduced disease progression-free survival rate and a shorter overall survival, independent of systemic therapies.
  • Further evaluation of this new marker in breast cancer is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma / immunology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. China. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20213083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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46. Millanta F, Calandrella M, Bari G, Niccolini M, Vannozzi I, Poli A: Comparison of steroid receptor expression in normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic canine and feline mammary tissues. Res Vet Sci; 2005 Dec;79(3):225-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In both species, ER expression was significantly higher in healthy tissues, hyperplastic/dysplastic lesions, and benign tumours than in carcinomas.
  • In queens, PR expression increased in dysplastic lesions and "in situ" carcinomas and decreased in invasive carcinomas, even if parts of these tumours were still PR-positive.
  • In bitches no significant variation in PR expression was observed between normal tissue, dysplasias, and benign neoplasms, but was significantly lower in carcinomas.
  • The percentage of PR-positive feline carcinomas suggests a possible role of progesterone in promoting early tumour cell growth in queens.
  • The low percentage of ER-positive invasive carcinomas further demonstrated the aggressive phenotype and behaviour of feline mammary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / metabolism. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16054892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-5288
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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47. Smith RE, Lespi P, Di Luca M, Bustos C, Marra FA, de Alaniz MJ, Marra CA: A reliable biomarker derived from plasmalogens to evaluate malignancy and metastatic capacity of human cancers. Lipids; 2008 Jan;43(1):79-89
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  • Antigen tumor markers employed in monitoring therapeutical approaches are limited by their specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Se).
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of a lipid tumor marker derived from ether-linked phospholipids and to compare it with others usually assayed in clinical practice.
  • Complex lipids from normal and pathological breast, lung, and prostate tissue were isolated and analyzed by TLC and c-GLC methods.
  • Major changes were observed in the plasmalogen sub-fraction where the ratio monoenoic/saturated fatty acids can distinguish with high Se normal tissues from either benign or neoplastic tissues from breast, lung, or prostate lesions.
  • Analyses of fatty acyl chains from ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens provided a reliable tumor marker that correlated with high Se and linearity with metastases spreading.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Plasmalogens / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ethanolamine / analysis. Female. Humans. Lipids / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18046593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-4201
  • [Journal-full-title] Lipids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lipids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Plasmalogens; 5KV86114PT / Ethanolamine
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48. Hungermann D, Buerger H, Oehlschlegel C, Herbst H, Boecker W: Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast--a spectrum of monophasic and biphasic tumours dominated by immature myoepithelial cells. BMC Cancer; 2005;5:92
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast--a spectrum of monophasic and biphasic tumours dominated by immature myoepithelial cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast are primarily defined by the presence of neoplastic cells with a myoepithelial immunophenotype.
  • METHODS: A series of 27 adenomyoepithelial tumours of the breast was analysed immunohistochemically with antibodies directed against various cytokeratins, p63, smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA) and vimentin.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemically, all the tumours showed a constant expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins (Ck) Ck5 and Ck14, p63, SMA and vimentin.
  • With exception of one case diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma, all tested tumours expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin Ck18 in variable proportions of cells.
  • Even in monophasic tumours lacking obvious glandular differentiation in conventional staining, a number of neoplastic cells still expressed those cytokeratins.
  • Double immunofluorescence revealed tumour cells exclusively staining for Ck5/Ck14 in the presence of other cell populations that co-expressed high molecular weight Ck5/Ck14 as well as either low molecular weight Ck8/18 or SMA.
  • Based on morphology, we assigned the series to three categories, benign, borderline and malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenomyoepithelial tumours comprise a spectrum of neoplasms consisting of an admixture of glandular and myoepithelial differentiation patterns.
  • Although categorisation of adenomyoepithelial tumours in benign, borderline and malignant was supported by results of CGH, any assessment of prognosis requires to be firmly based on morphological grounds.
  • At present it is not yet clear, if and to what extent proposed Ck5-positive progenitor cells contribute to the immunohistochemical and morphological heterogeneity of these neoplasms of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / biosynthesis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Keratins / biosynthesis. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16050957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1187882
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49. Papachristopoulou G, Avgeris M, Scorilas A: Expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours. Thromb Haemost; 2009 Feb;101(2):381-7
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  • [Title] Expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours.
  • Up to date, studies report that KLK4 is differentially expressed in many tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was the expression analysis and study of KLK4 in benign and malignant breast tumours.
  • Total RNA was isolated from 16 benign and 45 malignant breast tissue specimens.
  • Relative quantification analysis was performed using the comparative C(T) method 2(-DeltaDeltaC)(T) KLK4 expression was found to vary in both patients' cohorts; however, a statistically significant elevation of the KLK4 mRNA levels was observed in malignant compared to benign tumour patients.
  • Low KLK4 expression levels were found in well-differentiated tumours (p = 0.011) as well as in stage I (p = 0.024) patients.
  • ROC and logistic regression analysis recommended that KLK4 gene expression may be used as a new potential biomarker in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kallikreins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. ROC Curve. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19190825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6245
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis and haemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins; EC 3.4.21.- / kallikrein 4
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50. Nonn L, Ananthanarayanan V, Gann PH: Evidence for field cancerization of the prostate. Prostate; 2009 Sep 15;69(13):1470-9
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  • In addition to comparing cancer-adjacent benign tissue to more distant areas or to "supernormal" tissue from cancer-free organs, investigators can use a nested case-control design for negative biopsies that offers a number of unique advantages.
  • CONCLUSIONS: True carcinogenic field effects should be distinguished from secondary responses of the microenvironment to a developing tumor, although the latter may still lead to useful clinical prediction tools.

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  • (PMID = 19462462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090759; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA131595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA90759
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 59
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS482768; NLM/ PMC3690597
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51. Hosseini-Asl S, Atri M, Modarressi MH, Salhab M, Mokbel K, Mehdipour P: The expression of hTR and hTERT in human breast cancer: correlation with clinico-pathological parameters. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2006;3:20
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  • [Title] The expression of hTR and hTERT in human breast cancer: correlation with clinico-pathological parameters.
  • The present study aims to detect any association between telomerase sub-units: hTERT and hTR and the prognostic indicators including tumour's size and grade, nodal status and patient's age.
  • METHODS: Tumour samples from 46 patients with primary invasive breast cancer and 3 patients with benign tumours were collected.
  • We observed a significant association between hTR gene expression and younger age at diagnosis (p = 0.019) when comparing patients < or = 40 years with those who are older than 40 years.
  • None of the benign tumours expressed hTR gene.
  • No significant association between hTR and hTERT expression and tumour's grade, stage and nodal status was seen.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of hTR and hTERT seems to be independent of tumour's stage. hTR expression probably plays a greater role in mammary tumourogenesis in younger women (< or = 40 years) and this may have therapeutic implications in the context of hTR targeting strategies.

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  • (PMID = 16925810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1564405
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52. Tokés AM, Kulka J, Paku S, Szik A, Páska C, Novák PK, Szilák L, Kiss A, Bögi K, Schaff Z: Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(2):R296-305
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  • [Title] Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study.
  • INTRODUCTION: We compared levels of protein and mRNA expression of three members of the claudin (CLDN) family in malignant breast tumours and benign lesions.
  • METHODS: Altogether, 56 sections from 52 surgically resected breast specimens were analyzed for CLDN1, CLDN3 and CLDN4 expression by immunohistochemistry. mRNA was also analyzed using real-time PCR in 17 of the 52 cases.
  • CLDN1 was present in the membrane of normal duct cells and in some of the cell membranes from ductal carcinoma in situ, and was frequently observed in eight out of nine areas of apocrine metaplasia, whereas invasive tumours were negative for CLDN1 or it was present in a scattered distribution among such tumour cells (in 36/39 malignant tumours).
  • However, CLDN4 was highly positive in normal epithelial cells and was decreased or absent in 17 out of 21 ductal carcinoma grade 1, in special types of breast carcinoma (mucinous, papillary, tubular) and in areas of apocrine metaplasia.
  • CLDN1 mRNA was downregulated by 12-fold in the sample (tumour) group as compared with the control group using GAPDH as the reference gene.
  • CLDN3 and CLDN4 mRNA exhibited no difference in expression between invasive tumours and surrounding tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significant loss of CLDN1 protein in breast cancer cells suggests that CLDN1 may play a role in invasion and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Claudin-1. Claudin-3. Claudin-4. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Tight Junctions

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  • (PMID = 15743508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1064136
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53. Ding GP, Ye CS, Liu MF, Zhen LF, Liao JJ: [Relationship between D2-40-labeled lymphatic vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Oct;30(10):2301-3
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  • [Title] [Relationship between D2-40-labeled lymphatic vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of D2-40 labeling for detecting lymphatic vessels in breast cancer tissues and the clinicopathological implications of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI).
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of D2-40 and lymphatic invasion in 72 cases of breast cancer and 15 benign breast tumor tissues, and their correlations to the clinicopathological factors were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The positivity rate of LVI was 69.4% in breast cancer tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: D2-40 can specially and reliably mark the lymphatic vessels in breast cancer tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20965831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal
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54. Scaranelo AM, Crystal P, Bukhanov K, Helbich TH: Sensitivity of a direct computer-aided detection system in full-field digital mammography for detection of microcalcifications not associated with mass or architectural distortion. Can Assoc Radiol J; 2010 Jun;61(3):162-9
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search of 1063 consecutive stereotactic core biopsies performed between 2002 and 2005 identified 196 patients with Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 and 5 microcalcifications not associated with mass or distortion detected exclusively by bilateral FFDM.
  • Breast density, location and mammographic size of the lesion, distribution, and tumour histology were recorded and analysed by using chi(2), Fisher exact, or McNemar tests, when applicable.
  • RESULTS: When using d-CAD, 71 of 74 malignant microcalcification cases (96%) and 101 of 122 benign microcalcifications (83%) were identified.
  • The d-CAD sensitivity for dense breast tissue (American College of Radiology [ACR] density 3 and 4) was higher (97%) than d-CAD sensitivity (95%) for nondense tissue (ACR density 1 and 2), but the difference was not statically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: D-CAD had a high sensitivity in the depiction of asymptomatic breast cancers, which were seen as microcalcifications on FFDM screening, with a sensitivity of d-CAD on the craniocaudal view being significantly better.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / radiography. Calcinosis / radiography. Mammography / methods. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20137883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0846-5371
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l'Association canadienne des radiologistes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Assoc Radiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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56. Abbas H, Imran S, Waris NA, Khanam A, Khurshid R: Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2010 Apr-Jun;22(2):79-82
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  • [Title] Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups.
  • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection.
  • Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years.
  • Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C.
  • All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon.
  • The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle.
  • RESULTS: It was observed that early age at menarche (<15 year) plays an important role in developing both type of tumour, i.e., benign or malignant.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) with a range of 19-25 may be a risk factor in developing both type of tumours especially in pubescent and reproductive age, while BMI>25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women.
  • Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state.
  • Fibroadenoma is observed in almost all women with pubesenct age while both benign and malignant tumour observed in women with reproductive age.
  • Malignant tumour was observed mostly in women with peri/post menopausal status.
  • Further research is needed to fully understand the reasons for variations in breast disease outcomes i.e. malignant or benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Cohort Studies. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Physical Examination. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21702273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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57. Zhang GY, Ahmed N, Riley C, Oliva K, Barker G, Quinn MA, Rice GE: Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jan 17;92(1):113-9
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  • Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach.
  • This study demonstrates the relative expression of PPARgamma in normal ovaries and different pathological grades of ovarian tumours of serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and mixed subtypes.
  • A total of 56 ovarian specimens including 10 normal, eight benign, 10 borderline, seven grade 1, nine grade 2 and 12 grade 3 were analysed using immunohistochemistry.
  • Out of eight benign and 10 borderline tumours, only one tumour in each group showed weak cytoplasmic PPARgamma expression.
  • An altered staining pattern of PPARgamma was observed in high-grade ovarian tumours with PPARgamma being mostly localized in the nuclei with little cytoplasmic immunoreactivity.
  • On the other hand, predominant cytoplasmic staining was observed in lower-grade tumours.
  • Significantly increased PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in malignant ovarian tumours (grade 1, 2 and 3) compared to benign and borderline tumours (chi2 = 48.80, P < 0.001).
  • Western blot analyses showed significant elevation in the expression of immunoreactive PPARgamma in grade 3 ovarian tumours compared with that of normal ovaries and benign ovarian tumours (P < 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15583697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361744
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58. Feng R, Liu X, Guo Z, Li J: Purification and characterization of 66-kDa glycoprotein from human breast carcinoma. Cancer Sci; 2007 Sep;98(9):1344-9
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  • [Title] Purification and characterization of 66-kDa glycoprotein from human breast carcinoma.
  • We extracted a 66-kDa glycoprotein (GP-1D8) from breast invasive ductal carcinoma tissues.
  • Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong expression of GP-1D8 protein in the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells and different types of breast carcinoma tissues, but GP-1D8 is absent in normal breast and benign breast tumor tissues.
  • This is the first time human breast carcinoma tissues and MCF-7 cells have been shown to express a 66-kDa glycoprotein similar to human albumin precursor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / isolation & purification. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / chemistry. Glycoproteins / isolation & purification. Neoplasm Proteins / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Molecular Sequence Data. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Protein Precursors / chemistry. Serum Albumin / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17640306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Serum Albumin
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59. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • Both these tumors have tendencies to recur and have malignant potential.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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60. Roncella S, Ferro P, Bacigalupo B, Pronzato P, Tognoni A, Falco E, Gianquinto D, Ansaldo V, Dessanti P, Fais F, Rosai J, Fedeli F: Human mammaglobin mRNA is a reliable molecular marker for detecting occult breast cancer cells in peripheral blood. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jun;24(2):265-71
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  • [Title] Human mammaglobin mRNA is a reliable molecular marker for detecting occult breast cancer cells in peripheral blood.
  • Occult carcinoma cells in peripheral blood of breast cancer (BC) patients is generally associated with poor disease prognosis.
  • All samples from 66 healthy blood donors and 151 patients with benign breast disease were hMAM negative as assessed by nested RT-PCR.
  • Using nested RT-PCR, we were able to amplify hMAM transcript of one tumour cell/10(6) normal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Mammaglobin A. Occult Blood. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16110760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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61. Ricci P, Cantisani V, Ballesio L, Pagliara E, Sallusti E, Drudi FM, Trippa F, Calascibetta F, Erturk SM, Modesti M, Passariello R: Benign and malignant breast lesions: efficacy of real time contrast-enhanced ultrasound vs. magnetic resonance imaging. Ultraschall Med; 2007 Feb;28(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Benign and malignant breast lesions: efficacy of real time contrast-enhanced ultrasound vs. magnetic resonance imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of low mechanical index (MI) real time grey scale contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) in the differentiation of breast lesions in comparison to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: 24 invasive ductal carcinomas, 18 fibroadenomas, 4 fibro-cystic dysplasias, 1 mucinous carcinoma, 1 invasive ducto-lobular carcinoma, 1 intraductal florid papillomatosis and 1 phylloides tumour were diagnosed.
  • According to the different contrast enhancement patterns and the resulting perfusion maps, all the malignant lesions and 9 out of 12 benign lesions were correctly diagnosed, thus resulting in 87.5 % of specificity and 100 % of sensitivity.
  • The three lesions which were incorrectly classified as malignant were two hypervascularised fibroadenomas in young women and a phylloides tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: CEUS seems to be a reliable method to differentiate breast lesions, since it provides typical enhancement patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17304413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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62. Lopes N, Sousa B, Martins D, Gomes M, Vieira D, Veronese LA, Milanezi F, Paredes J, Costa JL, Schmitt F: Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:483
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  • [Title] Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with different patient prognosis and responses to therapy.
  • We aimed to study the expression of these three proteins by immunohistochemistry in a series of breast lesions.
  • METHODS: We have used a cohort comprising normal breast, benign mammary lesions, carcinomas in situ and invasive carcinomas and assessed the expression of the VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The results that we have obtained show that all proteins are expressed in the various breast tissues, although at different amounts.
  • The VDR was frequently expressed in benign lesions (93.5%) and its levels of expression were diminished in invasive tumours (56.2%).
  • Additionally, the VDR was strongly associated with the oestrogen receptor positivity in breast carcinomas.
  • CYP27B1 expression is slightly lower in invasive carcinomas (44.6%) than in benign lesions (55.8%).
  • In contrast, CYP24A1 expression was augmented in carcinomas (56.0% in in situ and 53.7% in invasive carcinomas) when compared with that in benign lesions (19.0%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: From this study, we conclude that there is a deregulation of the Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer, favouring tumour progression.
  • Thus, during mammary malignant transformation, tumour cells lose their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D and respond to VDR-mediated Vitamin D effects, while increasing their ability to degrade this hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism. Steroid Hydroxylases / metabolism. Vitamin D / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Metabolic Networks and Pathways. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase

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  • (PMID = 20831823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; EC 1.14.- / 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.- / Steroid Hydroxylases; EC 1.14.13.126 / CYP24A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.126 / Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2945944
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63. Kraemer B, Hoffmann J, Roehm C, Gall C, Wallwiener D, Krainick-Strobel U: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Dec;276(6):649-53
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CP), otherwise known as phyllodes tumour (PT) of the breast, is a very rare but locally aggressive fibroepithelial tumour in its malignant form, and accounts for 0.3-1% of all breast neoplasias.
  • Using 4 cases reports with different histological classifications as examples (benign-borderline-malignant), we describe the (differential) diagnosis and treatment options of this tumour entity and give an additional review of the available literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Extended Radical. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17549503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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64. Sheen-Chen SM, Liu YW, Eng HL, Chou FF: Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Mar;14(3):715-7
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  • [Title] Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with breast cancer.
  • Elevated hepatocyte growth factor content in tumor tissue was reported to predict a more aggressive biology in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
  • However, there is still limited knowledge about the role of HGF in breast cancer.
  • This study was designed with the aim to elucidate the possible relationship between the preoperative circulating soluble HGF and breast cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer undergoing surgery were prospectively included and evaluated.
  • The control group consisted of 35 patients with benign breast tumor (20 with fibrocystic disease and 15 with fibroadenoma).
  • The data on primary tumor staging, age, estrogen receptor status, lymph node status, distant metastases status, histologic grading, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging were reviewed and recorded.
  • RESULTS: The mean value of serum soluble HGF in patients with invasive breast cancer was 529.05 +/- 123.33 pg/mL and that of control group was 343.00+/- 31.03 pg/mL and the difference was significant (P < 0.001).
  • Furthermore, there were significantly higher serum levels of soluble HGF in patients with negative estrogen receptor (P = 0.035), in patients with poorer differentiated tumor (P < 0.001), in patients with more advanced primary tumor staging (P < 0.001), in patients with more advanced lymph node status (P < 0.001), in patients with distant metastases (P < 0.001), and in patients with more advanced TNM staging (P < 0.001).
  • Thus, preoperative serum soluble HGF levels might reflect the severity of invasive breast cancer and deserve further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / blood. Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15767355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
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65. Satish Rao BS, Krishnanand BR, Krishan A: Androgen & vitamin D nuclear receptor expression in archival breast tumour samples. Indian J Med Res; 2006 Jan;123(1):73-82
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  • [Title] Androgen & vitamin D nuclear receptor expression in archival breast tumour samples.
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Breast tumour cells have receptors for androgen and vitamin D and their clinical significance is not completely understood.
  • Therefore, the present study was undertaken to analyze androgen and vitamin D receptor levels in human primary infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) and benign breast tumour archival samples and to find out their correlation, if any, with the clinical findings.
  • METHODS: Paraffin blocks of benign and malignant breast tumours were sectioned, deparaffinized, and nuclei released by pepsin digestion.
  • RESULTS: Androgen receptor positive nuclei ranged from 16-66 per cent in the IDC tumours as compared to 36-67 per cent in the benign tumours.
  • Based on flow cytometric comparison of AR expression in AR positive and negative cell lines established earlier, 24 of 28 tumours from postmenopausal women were AR positive compared to all benign tumours and 32 of 33 tumours from pre-menopausal patients.
  • Vitamin D receptor positive nuclei ranged from 14-89 and 2-75 per cent in IDC and benign tumours, respectively.
  • All pre- or post-menopausal tumours were VDR positive as compared to 10 of 15 benign tumours that were VDR positive.
  • No correlation was seen between nuclear androgen and vitamin D receptor expression of the IDC or benign tumours.
  • No statistically significant correlation was found between nuclear receptor expression (per cent positive nuclei or antigen density) with that of tumour stage, lymph node status, tumour grade, patient age or menopausal status.
  • The expression of AR and VDR and the antigen density in the nuclei of the archival breast tumour samples were highly variable because of the tumour heterogeneity.
  • Future studies with fresh biopsy samples of tumour on AR and VDR levels and their up- or down-regulation may be useful while stratifying the patients for hormonal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Receptors, Calcitriol / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16567872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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66. Abbasi M, Tarafdari A, Esteghamati A, Vejdani K, Nakhjavani M: Insulin resistance and breast carcinogenesis: a cross-sectional study among Iranian women with breast mass. Metab Syndr Relat Disord; 2010 Oct;8(5):411-6
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  • [Title] Insulin resistance and breast carcinogenesis: a cross-sectional study among Iranian women with breast mass.
  • Despite existing epidemiologic data concerning the increased incidence of breast cancer in diabetes type 2, the association between insulin resistance and breast carcinogenesis is not yet well defined.
  • In this cross-sectional study, we examined the homeostatic model assessment values of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among 82 patients with malignant breast tumor, 48 subjects with benign breast mass, and 838 healthy Iranian women.
  • Age and central obesity-adjusted HOMA-IR values were 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8-4.4], 2.3 (1.7-2.9), and 1.7(1.6-1.8) correspondingly in subjects with malignant breast tumor, those with benign breast mass, and healthy subjects.
  • The interaction effect of age on the association between breast mass (malignant/ benign /no breast mass) with HOMA-IR values was significant [F(54) = 10, P < 0.001, partial eta squared = 0.03].
  • We conclude that the noted linkage between insulin resistance and breast cancer may indicate an underlying pathology of mammary carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Insulin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 20874423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8518
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab Syndr Relat Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Insulin
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67. Clevert D, Jung EM, Jungius KP, Ertan K, Kubale R: Value of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) in detection and characterisation of breast tumours. Eur Radiol; 2007 Jan;17(1):1-10
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  • [Title] Value of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) in detection and characterisation of breast tumours.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which tissue harmonic imaging (THI), speckle reduction imaging (SRI), spatial compounding (SC) and contrast can improve detection and differentiation of breast tumours.
  • We examined 38 patients (14 benign, 24 malignant tumours) with different combinations of THI, SRI and SC.
  • Additionally, 1oo not palpable tumours (diameters: 4-15 mm) were examined by contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) with power Doppler.
  • Within 5 min after contrast medium (CM) injection, marginal and penetrating vessels increased in benign and malignant tumours and central vessels mostly in carcinomas (p<0.05).
  • A diffuse CM accumulation was observed up to 20 min after injection in malignant tumours only (p<0.05).
  • Second-generation contrast agent allowed detection of tumour vascularisation with prolonged enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16823568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1766021
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68. Kanthan R, Gomez D, Senger JL, Kanthan SC: Endoscopic biopsies of duodenal polyp/mass lesions: a surgical pathology review. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Oct;63(10):921-5
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  • 33% of these lesions were malignant and 67% were benign/normal.
  • 16.3% of the carcinomas were reclassified as metastatic lesions arising from lung, breast, colon and pancreas.
  • 41% of the benign cases had no significant pathological abnormalities.
  • Nevertheless, accurate identification of the exact pathology, even in 'poorly differentiated' high-grade carcinomas is advocated, as metastatic lesions will require specific treatment plans in conjunction with treatment of their primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Polyps / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Duodenoscopy / methods. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20876326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Bluff JE, Menakuru SR, Cross SS, Higham SE, Balasubramanian SP, Brown NJ, Reed MW, Staton CA: Angiogenesis is associated with the onset of hyperplasia in human ductal breast disease. Br J Cancer; 2009 Aug 18;101(4):666-72
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis is associated with the onset of hyperplasia in human ductal breast disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The precise timing of the angiogenic switch and the role of angiogenesis in the development of breast malignancy is currently unknown.
  • METHODS: Therefore, the expression of CD31 (pan endothelial cells (ECs)), endoglin (actively proliferating ECs), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) and tissue factor (TF) were quantified in 140 surgical specimens comprising normal human breast, benign and pre-malignant hyperplastic tissue, in situ and invasive breast cancer specimens.
  • RESULTS: Significant increases in angiogenesis (microvessel density) were observed between normal and benign hyperplastic breast tissue (P<0.005), and between in situ and invasive carcinomas (P<0.0005).
  • In addition, significant increases in proliferating ECs were observed in benign hyperplastic breast compared with normal breast (P<0.05) cancers and in invasive compared with in situ cancers (P<0.005).
  • Moreover, HIF-1alpha was expressed by 60-75% of the hyperplastic lesions, and a significant association was observed between VEGF and TF in ECs (P<0.005) and invasive tumour cells (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis. Thromboplastin / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19623180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 9035-58-9 / Thromboplastin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2736809
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70. Veeck J, Bektas N, Hartmann A, Kristiansen G, Heindrichs U, Knüchel R, Dahl E: Wnt signalling in human breast cancer: expression of the putative Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is frequently suppressed by promoter hypermethylation in mammary tumours. Breast Cancer Res; 2008;10(5):R82
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  • [Title] Wnt signalling in human breast cancer: expression of the putative Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is frequently suppressed by promoter hypermethylation in mammary tumours.
  • Since other Wnt signalling inhibitors have been reported to be targets of epigenetic inactivation in human breast cancer, we questioned if DKK3 expression is also epigenetically silenced during breast carcinogenesis and therefore might contribute to oncogenic Wnt signalling commonly found in this disease.
  • METHODS: DKK3 mRNA expression and DKK3 promoter methylation were determined by RT-PCR, realtime PCR and methylation-specific PCR in breast cell lines (n = 9), normal breast tissues (n = 19) and primary breast carcinomas (n = 150), respectively.
  • In vitro DNA demethylation was performed by incubating breast cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A.
  • DKK3 protein expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in breast carcinomas (n = 16) and normal breast tissues (n = 8).
  • RESULTS: DKK3 mRNA was downregulated in 71% (five of seven) of breast cancer cell lines and in 68% of primary breast carcinomas (27 of 40) compared with benign cell lines and normal breast tissues, respectively.
  • A DNA demethylating treatment of breast cell lines resulted in strong induction of DKK3 mRNA expression.
  • In tumourous breast tissues, DKK3 mRNA downregulation was significantly associated with DKK3 promoter methylation (p < 0.001).
  • Of the breast carcinomas, 61% (92 of 150) revealed a methylated DKK3 promoter, whereas 39% (58 of 150) retained an unmethylated promoter.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DKK3 mRNA expression and consequently DKK3 protein expression become frequently downregulated during human breast cancer development due to aberrant methylation of the DKK3 promoter.
  • Since DKK3 is thought to negatively regulate oncogenic Wnt signalling, DKK3 may be a potential tumour suppressor gene in normal breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Wnt Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Cell Line / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Down-Regulation. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18826564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DKK3 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Wnt Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2614517
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71. Abed R, Grimer RJ, Carter SR, Tillman RM, Abudu A, Jeys L: Soft-tissue metastases: their presentation and origin. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2009 Aug;91(8):1083-5
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  • Our aim was to define the clinical features of such patients and to identify the site of their primary tumour.
  • Of 53 patients with a history of malignancy, 52 had metastases from the same primary (lung in 12, melanoma in ten, kidney in nine, gastrointestinal track in four, breast in five, bladder in four, and others in eight).
  • There was no correlation between the site of the metastases and the primary tumour.
  • Of these, only 10% had a soft-tissue metastasis, 29% had a benign diagnosis, 55% a soft-tissue sarcoma and 6% another malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology


72. Szubert Z, Sobala W: [Health reasons for work disability among municipal transport drivers]. Med Pr; 2005;56(4):285-93
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  • Diseases of the musculoskeletal system were major causes of sickness absence among female tram drivers (24%), whereas malignant and benign neoplasms of breast and uterine myoma in 24% of female transport service workers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis are in agreement with the literature findings and provide explicit evidence that employment in the municipal transport system is the risk factor responsible for the development of serious diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders and neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Disabled Persons / statistics & numerical data. Occupational Diseases / diagnosis. Occupational Diseases / epidemiology. Transportation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Disability Evaluation. Female. Health Status. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Movement Disorders / diagnosis. Movement Disorders / epidemiology. Poland / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Urban Population / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16457365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0465-5893
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna pracy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Pr
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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73. Singh SS, Velusami SD: Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple: report of a case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):808-11
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  • Syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a rarely encountered neoplasm of the breast with histological features similar to eccrine syringoma of the skin.
  • This tumour which is locally invasive with high potential for recurrence if incompletely excised is considered benign and a complete excision is sufficient.
  • We report a case of syringomatous adenoma of the nipple in a postmenopausal diabetic woman who was incidentally found to have a subareolar mass in her right breast.
  • A clinicopathological study and histological differential diagnosis of this unusual tumour is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Nipples / pathology. Syringoma / diagnosis. Syringoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18306564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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74. Ying MG, Chen Q, Ye YB, Chen HJ, Chen X, Zheng HY, Wu F: [Application of serum proteomic mass spectrum analysis in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;32(9):698-702
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  • [Title] [Application of serum proteomic mass spectrum analysis in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of serum proteins mass spectra in healthy controls, benign breast tumors, and CA15-3 negative or CA15-3 positive breast cancer patients by surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS).
  • METHODS: Tissue samples of 113 cases of breast cancer (93 case of CA15-3 negative, 20 case of CA15-3 positive), 103 cases of benign breast tumor and 92 cases of healthy controls were examined and analyzed by SELDI and protein chip (CM10) techniques.
  • RESULTS: Twelve significantly different protein peaks were found in serum samples between breast cancer patients and healthy controls.
  • Eleven significantly different peaks were found between benign breast tumor patients and healthy controls.
  • By combined analysis of those three different protein mass spectra, the peak 15 952 was found to be significantly different between breast cancer group and healthy controls, and the peak 7985 was significantly different among breast cancer group, benign breast tumor group and health controls.
  • The blind test with the differential proteins for the serum samples of 93 cases of CA15-3 negative breast cancer and 36 cases of benign breast tumors showed that the sensitivity was 80.6% and specificity was 91.7%.
  • The blind test in 20 cases of CA15-3 positive breast cancer and 36 cases of benign breast tumors showed that the sensitivity was 75.0% and specificity was 91.7%.
  • Four significantly different protein peaks were found between the benign breast tumor patients and CA15-3 negative breast cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Significantly different protein peaks can be screened out in breast cancer, benign breast tumor patients and healthy controls by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 21122387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Mucin-1
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75. Paltian V, Alldinger S, Baumgärtner W, Wohlsein P: Expression of CD44 in canine mammary tumours. J Comp Pathol; 2009 Nov;141(4):237-47
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  • [Title] Expression of CD44 in canine mammary tumours.
  • In human breast cancer, the interaction of tumour cells with the ECM via CD44 is favoured as a major candidate for tumour progression and metastasis.
  • In simple and complex adenomas and benign mixed tumours there was significant up-regulation of CD44 expression in alveolar epithelial cells compared with adjacent non-neoplastic mammary tissue.
  • Peripheral epithelial cells of simple and complex adenomas, benign mixed tumours and complex carcinomas expressed significantly more CD44 compared with adjacent non-neoplastic mammary tissue.
  • A statistical trend to greater CD44 expression was found in peripheral epithelial cells of complex adenomas, benign mixed tumours and complex carcinomas compared with simple carcinomas.
  • Up-regulation of CD44 therefore appears to be associated with benign or relatively benign biological behaviour of canine mammary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Dog Diseases. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Dogs. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19592009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44
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76. Zheng YF, Kong HW, Xiong JH, Lv S, Xu GW: Clinical significance and prognostic value of urinary nucleosides in breast cancer patients. Clin Biochem; 2005 Jan;38(1):24-30
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  • [Title] Clinical significance and prognostic value of urinary nucleosides in breast cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Thirteen urinary nucleosides, primarily degradation products of tRNA, were evaluated as potential tumor markers for breast cancer patients.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method has been used to analyze the urinary nucleosides in 41 healthy controls, 20 patients with benign breast tumors, and 26 breast cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: Urinary nucleoside concentrations of breast cancer patients were found to increase significantly compared to those of patients with benign breast tumors and healthy controls.
  • By using 13 nucleoside concentrations as data vectors for principal component analysis (PCA), 73% (19/26) of breast cancer patients were correctly identified from healthy controls, while only 20% (4/20) of patients with benign breast tumors were indistinguishable from breast cancer patients.
  • The mean level of all forms of urinary nucleosides in patients with metastatic breast cancer was higher than that in patients with primary breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The results indicate that urinary nucleosides may be useful as tumor markers for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nucleosides

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  • (PMID = 15607313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9120
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleosides
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77. Durai R, Ruhomauly SN, Wilson E, Hoque H: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a breast lump in a treated breast cancer patient. Singapore Med J; 2009 Aug;50(8):e277-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a breast lump in a treated breast cancer patient.
  • Metastatic malignancy in the breast is uncommon.
  • A 68-year-old woman with a past medical history of breast cancer presented with a lump in the opposite breast.
  • A mammogram suggested a possible benign lump.
  • The histology on the breast core biopsy showed it to be a metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • Subsequent computed tomography of the abdomen confirmed a renal primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Mammography / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods


78. Sigal-Zafrani B, Muller K, El Khoury C, Varoutas PC, Buron C, Vincent-Salomon A, Alran S, Livartowski A, Neuenschwander S, Salmon RJ, Institut Curie Breast Cancer Study Group: Vacuum-assisted large-core needle biopsy (VLNB) improves the management of patients with breast microcalcifications - analysis of 1009 cases. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Apr;34(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Vacuum-assisted large-core needle biopsy (VLNB) improves the management of patients with breast microcalcifications - analysis of 1009 cases.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the surgical management of patients who underwent VLNB for breast microcalcifications.
  • No surgery was performed for 95% of benign lesions.
  • This procedure avoids surgery for most benign lesions and reduces the number of surgical procedures in malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / surgery. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Humans. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17604937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Solberg OG, Blom GP, Stavem K: [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2956-7
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  • [Title] [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast].
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast.
  • Tumours range from the benign to the highly malignant.
  • Based on histological growth pattern, number of mitoses, pleomorphism and stroma characteristics, tumours are classified as malignant, borderline, or benign.
  • After surgical treatment of malignant phyllodes tumours, ten-year survival of 42% is reported.
  • Metastatic tumours have a poor prognosis with no long-term survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the case history of a 59-year-old woman with a pulmonary metastasis from a malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The patient presented with a rapidly growing tumour of the right lung.
  • Microscopic examination of the resected specimen showed a metastasis from a malignant sarcomatous tumour.
  • Review of the specimen from a mastectomy 14 months earlier, for what was then considered a benign phyllodes tumour, confirmed a diagnosis of a primary malignant phyllodes tumour with pulmonary metastases.
  • INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumours require close cooperation between the radiologist, the pathologist and the clinician.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2958 [16299883.001]
  • (PMID = 16299881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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80. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Her diabetes progressively regressed after the removal of tumour and glucose tolerance remained normal up to 1 year of follow-up after surgery and there was no recurrence of tumour.
  • She also had a lump in her breast which proved to be a fibroadenoma.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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81. Nabarra B, Pontoux C, Godard C, Osborne-Pellegrin M, Ezine S: Neoplastic transformation and angiogenesis in the thymus of transgenic mice expressing SV40 T and t antigen under an L-pyruvate kinase promoter (SV12 mice). Int J Exp Pathol; 2005 Dec;86(6):397-413
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  • Using several techniques, we have assessed morphological characteristics of a malignant thymic tumour in SV12 transgenic (Tg) mice expressing SV40 T and t antigens under control of an L-PK promoter.
  • We describe the development of a carcinoma originating from thymic hyperplasia and followed by the formation of a benign tumour composed chiefly of medullary epithelial cells expressing the transgene and of lymphocytes, a pathology very rarely reported in mice.
  • Our study of the SV12 Tg mice represents the first description of a model of a pure malignant thymic tumour associated with extensive angiogenesis maintained in numerous descendants.
  • The formation of a large tumoral neovascular network, observed here, has never been described in human and/or experimental thymic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Pyruvate Kinase / genetics. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16309545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.40 / Pyruvate Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517450
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82. Masannat Y, Sumrien H, Sharaiha Y: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the male breast: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:534102
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  • [Title] Primary leiomyosarcoma of the male breast: a case report.
  • Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast is a rare tumour with only around thirty cases reported in the literature.
  • We present a case of primary breast leiomyosarcoma in a 59-year-old man that presented with a subareolar lump which felt to be benign clinically and radiologically but proven to be a leiomyosarcoma on excision.

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  • (PMID = 21048931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965433
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83. Bílková A, Janík V, Svoboda B: [Computed tomography laser mammography]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2010;149(2):61-5
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  • Neovascularization can accompany growing malignant tumour.
  • CTLM offers new possibilities of breast disease diagnostic with demonstration of neovascularisation.
  • CTLM is able to recognize malignant tumour from benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Lasers. Mammography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20662467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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84. Huang W, Li X, Morris EA, Tudorica LA, Seshan VE, Rooney WD, Tagge I, Wang Y, Xu J, Springer CS: The magnetic resonance shutter speed discriminates vascular properties of malignant and benign breast tumors in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Nov 18;105(46):17943-8
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  • [Title] The magnetic resonance shutter speed discriminates vascular properties of malignant and benign breast tumors in vivo.
  • In analyses of routine DCE-MRI data from 22 patients with suspicious breast lesions initially ruled positive by institutional screening protocols, the SM K(trans) values for benign and malignant lesions exhibit considerable overlap.
  • A form of the shutter-speed model (SSM), which allows for finite exchange kinetics, agrees with the SM K(trans) value for each of the 15 benign lesions.
  • However, it reveals that the SM underestimates K(trans) for each of the seven malignant tumors in this population.
  • The fact that this phenomenon is unique to malignant tumors allows their complete discrimination from the benign lesions, as validated by comparison with gold-standard pathology analyses of subsequent biopsy tissue samples.
  • Likewise, the SM overestimates k(ep), particularly for the benign tumors.
  • Thus, incorporation of the SSM into the screening protocols would have precluded all 68% of the biopsy/pathology procedures that yielded benign findings.

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  • (PMID = 19004780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB-00422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120861; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB000422; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS-40801; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS040801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-120861
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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85. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • Because metastatic malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes are largely resistant to treatment, the most important objective is to provide optimal management of the primary tumour before dissemination occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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86. Preda A, Novikov V, Möglich M, Floyd E, Turetschek K, Shames DM, Roberts TP, Corot C, Carter WO, Brasch RC: Magnetic resonance characterization of tumor microvessels in experimental breast tumors using a slow clearance blood pool contrast agent (carboxymethyldextran-A2-Gd-DOTA) with histopathological correlation. Eur Radiol; 2005 Nov;15(11):2268-75
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance characterization of tumor microvessels in experimental breast tumors using a slow clearance blood pool contrast agent (carboxymethyldextran-A2-Gd-DOTA) with histopathological correlation.
  • Carboxymethyldextran (CMD)-A2-Gd-DOTA, a slow clearance blood pool contrast agent with a molecular weight of 52.1 kDa, designed to have intravascular residence for more than 1 h, was evaluated for its potential to characterize and differentiate the microvessels of malignant and benign breast tumors.
  • Precontrast single-slice inversion-recovery snapshot FLASH and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using an axial T1-weighted three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled sequence was performed in 30 Sprague-Dawley rats with chemically induced breast tumors.
  • Endothelial transfer coefficient and fractional plasma volume of the breast tumors were estimated from MRI data acquired with CMD-A2-Gd-DOTA enhancement injected at a dose of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg body weight using a two-compartment bidirectional model of the tumor tissue.
  • The correlation between MRI microvessel characteristics and histopathological tumor grade was determined using the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson method.
  • Using CMD-A2-Gd-DOTA, no significant correlations were found between the MR-estimated endothelial transfer coefficient or plasma volumes with histological tumor grade.
  • Analysis of CMD-A2-Gd-DOTA-enhanced MR kinetic data failed to demonstrate feasibility for the differentiation of benign from malignant tumors or for image-based tumor grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / blood supply. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Organometallic Compounds

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  • (PMID = 16012822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA82923
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / carboxymethyl-dextran-A2-gadolinium-DOTA
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87. Aranda C, Sotelo M, Torres A, Zárate M: [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Jul;73(7):387-92
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes y embarazo. Reporte de un caso.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast, predominant in females (0.3 to 0.5%).
  • Phyllodes tumor during pregnancy grows fast and its size is relatively big.
  • These tumors can be classified as benign, malignant or neighboring.
  • A 32-year-old patient at 23.4 week of gestation was admitted in the National Institute of Perinatology with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast; diagnosis confirmed by ultrasound study reporting echoic images on right breast, 10 x 10 cm the greatest and 3x3 cm the smallest.
  • A simple mastectomy was performed at the 26.6 week of gestation on the right breast.
  • A possible phyllodes tumour in the right breast was observed during surgery, weight 9.6 pounds, with partial infiltration to major pectoral muscle.
  • Pathology reported a benign phyllodes tumor in the right breast, with surgical borders free of tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor is rare and can occur during pregnancy.
  • It is unknown if the tumor is hormone-dependent.
  • The growth of a tumor on a subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrency or with a new disorder on the patient, who has had a complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic


88. Eom M, Han A, Yi SY, Shin JJ, Cui Y, Park KH: RHEB expression in fibroadenomas of the breast. Pathol Int; 2008 Apr;58(4):226-32
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  • [Title] RHEB expression in fibroadenomas of the breast.
  • Although fibroadenoma is one of the most common types of benign breast tumor, genes specific to the tumor have not been identified.
  • RT-PCR for RHEB indicated increased expression of RHEB in fibroadenoma compared to breast cancer.
  • When studied with real-time PCR, the average RHEB/beta-actin ratio in fibroadenoma samples was 1.99, 2.46-fold greater than the average RHEB/beta-actin ratio in breast carcinoma of 0.81 (P < 0.01).
  • Therefore, RHEB could be used cytopathologically to distinguish fibroadenoma from malignant breast carcinomas as a secondary diagnostic tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Neuropeptides / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mastectomy. Microdissection. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18324915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RHEB protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.5.2 / Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
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89. Conceição AL, Antoniassi M, Poletti ME: Analysis of breast cancer by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Analyst; 2009 Jun;134(6):1077-82
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  • [Title] Analysis of breast cancer by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).
  • Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) images of normal breast tissue and benign and malignant breast tumour tissues, fixed in formalin, were measured at the momentum transfer range of 0.063 nm(-1) < or = q (= 4pisin(theta/2)/lambda) < or = 2.720 nm(-1).
  • All parameters, intrinsic and derived, were subject to discriminant analysis, and it was verified that parameters such as the area of diffuse scatter at the momentum transfer range 0.50 < or = q < or = 0.56 nm(-1), the ratio between areas of fifth-order axial and third-order lateral peaks and third-order axial spacing provide the most significant information for diagnosis (p < 0.001).
  • Thus, in this work it was verified that by combining these three parameters it was possible to classify human breast tissues as normal, benign lesion or malignant lesion with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 100%.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Scattering, Small Angle. X-Ray Diffraction
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Discriminant Analysis. Formaldehyde / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19475132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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90. Hirshberg A, Shnaiderman-Shapiro A, Kaplan I, Berger R: Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity - pathogenesis and analysis of 673 cases. Oral Oncol; 2008 Aug;44(8):743-52
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity - pathogenesis and analysis of 673 cases.
  • The oral region is an uncommon site for metastatic tumour cell colonization and is usually evidence of a wide spread disease.
  • The major primary sites presenting oral metastases were the lung, kidney, liver, and prostate for men, breast, female genital organs (FGO), kidney, and colo-rectum for women.
  • In women, the breast was the most common primary tumour affecting the jawbones and soft tissues (41% and 24.3%, respectively), followed by the adrenal and female genital organs (FGO) in the jawbones (7.7%) and FGO in the soft tissues (14.8%).
  • Because of its rarity, the diagnosis of a metastatic lesion in the oral region is challenging, both to the clinician and to the pathologist, in recognizing that a lesion is metastatic and in determining the site of origin.
  • The clinical presentation of a metastatic lesion in the oral cavity can be deceiving leading to a misdiagnosis of a benign process, therefore, in any case where the clinical presentation is unusual especially in patients with a known malignant disease a biopsy is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Jaw Neoplasms / secondary. Mouth Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18061527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 150
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91. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):165-70
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution.
  • The aim of this study was to document the clinical and pathological features of a large single institutional series of ethnically diverse patients with phyllodes tumours (PTs), and to determine which characteristics were predictive of outcome.
  • Sixty five PTs were analysed; 34 were benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant (34 low grade and 31 high grade PTs on a two tiered grading system).
  • A greater percentage of higher grade tumours recurred and women of Asian origin had a higher recurrence rate compared to the non-Asian patients.
  • The mean age at diagnosis significantly increased with tumour grade.
  • The mean tumour volume also significantly increased with grade.
  • Tumour grade was the only parameter related significantly to outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data. New South Wales / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19329316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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92. Issa B: Improved discrimination of breast lesions using selective sampling of segmented MR images. MAGMA; 2006 Feb;19(1):34-40
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  • [Title] Improved discrimination of breast lesions using selective sampling of segmented MR images.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to examine if the specificity of differentiation between malignant and benign tumours can be improved by retrospectively examining lesion-extracted distributions.
  • A new histogram segmentation approach for sampling pharmacokinetic breast maps of transfer uptake is defined in order to assign classification variables for the lesion.
  • However, the former yield higher specificity values as applied to this subset of enhancing benign lesions.
  • Segmenting the exchange rate parameter histogram allows the identification of which part of the distribution correlates most with tumour type.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Intelligence. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods

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  • (PMID = 16465550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Magma (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MAGMA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Subramanian A, Sharma AK, Banerjee D, Jiang WG, Mokbel K: Evidence for a tumour suppressive function of IGF1-binding proteins in human breast cancer. Anticancer Res; 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5B):3513-8
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  • [Title] Evidence for a tumour suppressive function of IGF1-binding proteins in human breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the levels of mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3 and -7 genes in benign and malignant breast tissue and explore their relationship with various prognostic parameters.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissue (n=127) and normal background tissue (n-33) were prospectively collected and analysed for levels of IGFBP-1, -3 and -7 mRNA using real-time Q-PCR. mRNA levels were then analysed against tumour grade, nodal status, Nottingham prognostic index (NPI)/TNM stage and tumour type.
  • With respect to TNM analysis, there was less IGFBP-1 mRNA when comparing TNM 3 with normal (p=0.017), TNM 1 (p=0.047) and TNM 2 (p=0.019) tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: This study supports the role of IGFBP-1, -3 and -7 as potential tumour suppressor genes in human breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17972510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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94. Honig A, Weidler C, Häusler S, Krockenberger M, Buchholz S, Köster F, Segerer SE, Dietl J, Engel JB: Overexpression of polycomb protein BMI-1 in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1559-64
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  • [Title] Overexpression of polycomb protein BMI-1 in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • The PcG protein BMI-I is overexpressed by various tumours and thus may contribute to malignant transformation.
  • The current study investigated the expression of BMI-I in human specimens of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • BMI-I expression in human specimens of breast, endometrial and cervical cancer was evaluated by IHC and then compared with the respective benign tissues.
  • RESULTS: BMI-I was significantly (p<0.05) overexpressed in human breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer specimens as compared to benign controls.
  • In human breast cancer samples, BMI-I expression was most pronounced in the invasion front of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phenotype. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1


95. Kronenwett U, Huwendiek S, Castro J, Ried T, Auer G: Characterisation of breast fine-needle aspiration biopsies by centrosome aberrations and genomic instability. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jan 31;92(2):389-95
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  • [Title] Characterisation of breast fine-needle aspiration biopsies by centrosome aberrations and genomic instability.
  • Recent studies have suggested that aneuploidy in malignant tumours could be a consequence of centrosome aberrations.
  • Using immunofluorescence analysis with an antibody against gamma-tubulin and DNA image cytometry, we measured centrosome aberrations and DNA ploidy patterns in fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of 58 breast lesions.
  • Benign lesions did not show any centrosome aberrations.
  • Our results indicate the percentage of cells with centrosome aberrations as being sufficient to divide the investigated tumours into three significantly different groups: benign lesions with no centrosomal aberrations, and two malignant tumour types with mean values of 2.1 and 9.6% of centrosomal defects, respectively.
  • Furthermore, this study shows the feasibility of centrosomal analysis in FNAB of the breast and suggests centrosomal aberrations as possessing diagnostic and prognostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Centrosome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Genomic Instability

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  • (PMID = 15558069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361862
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96. Cejas P, García-Cabezas MA, Casado E, Barriuso J, Fresno JA, Díaz E, Belda-Iniesta C, Castro J, Espinosa E, Zamora P, Feliu J, Redondo A, Hardisson DA, González-Barón M: Localisation of COX-2 protein is different in breast ductal carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour ductal epithelium. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Jul;7(6):239-43
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  • [Title] Localisation of COX-2 protein is different in breast ductal carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour ductal epithelium.
  • INTRODUCTION: A number of findings suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in breast tumours.
  • However, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding the pattern of expression of this protein in invasive breast ductal carcinoma and in the adjacent non-tumour ductal epithelium.
  • This study compares the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in breast ductal carcinoma relative to non-tumour breast tissue.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed the expression of COX-2 mRNA by quantitative PCR, and COX-2 protein by immunohistochemistry in invasive ductal carcinoma as well as in non-tumour adjacent ductal epithelium from 34 breast biopsies diagnosed as being invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • As control, we analysed expression of COX-2 protein by immunohistochemistry in surgically-resected benign breast lesions.
  • RESULTS: Our results show that COX-2 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in non-tumour ductal epithelium compared with invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • However, the pattern of the protein expression is different in tumour and non-tumour tissue: COX-2 protein is expressed predominantly in the membrane of the non-tumour ductal epithelium (including in benign breast lesions) while, in invasive ductal carcinoma cells, it is localised in the cytoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The non-tumour ductal epithelium adjacent to invasive ductal carcinoma shows a higher COX-2 expression than does the invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16131446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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97. Solanas M, Moral R, Garcia G, Grau L, Vela E, Escrich R, Costa I, Escrich E: Differential expression of H19 and vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 as a mechanism of the modulatory effects of high virgin olive oil and high corn oil diets on experimental mammary tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2009 Apr;18(2):153-61
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  • [Title] Differential expression of H19 and vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 as a mechanism of the modulatory effects of high virgin olive oil and high corn oil diets on experimental mammary tumours.
  • Dietary lipids have a role in the aetiology of breast cancer.
  • We have reported earlier that a high corn oil diet downregulates H19 and vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rat dimethylbenz (alpha) anthracene-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in comparison with the control low-fat diet, this effect being associated with a higher degree of tumour malignancy.
  • We have shown earlier that this high-fat diet confers to the tumours a more benign phenotype in accordance with its potential protective effect on mammary cancer.
  • The results showed that the high olive oil diet does not change the tumour expression of H19 and VDUP1.
  • Moreover, tumours from the animals fed this diet displayed higher levels of the insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNAs, which are related to a higher rate of degradation or a lower traducibility.
  • Finally, tumour expression and activity levels of thioredoxin-1 protein did not change irrespective of the diet.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Corn Oil / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Plant Oils / pharmacology. RNA, Untranslated / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19337063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5709
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; 0 / H19 long non-coding RNA; 0 / Olive Oil; 0 / Plant Oils; 0 / RNA, Long Noncoding; 0 / RNA, Untranslated; 0 / TXNIP protein, rat; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 8001-30-7 / Corn Oil
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98. Skvortsova TE, Rykova EY, Tamkovich SN, Bryzgunova OE, Starikov AV, Kuznetsova NP, Vlassov VV, Laktionov PP: Cell-free and cell-bound circulating DNA in breast tumours: DNA quantification and analysis of tumour-related gene methylation. Br J Cancer; 2006 May 22;94(10):1492-5
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  • [Title] Cell-free and cell-bound circulating DNA in breast tumours: DNA quantification and analysis of tumour-related gene methylation.
  • Tumour development is characterised by the increased circulating DNA (cirDNA) concentration and by tumour-related changes in blood plasma DNA.
  • Concentration of cirDNA and methylation of RARbeta2, RASSF1A and HIC-1 gene promoters were investigated in cell-free and cell-surface-bound fractions from healthy donors, patients with breast cancer, and patients with breast fibroadenoma.
  • Tumour development was shown to lead to significant changes in the distribution of cirDNA between cell-free and cell-surface-bound fractions.
  • Analysis of RARbeta2 and RASSF1A methylation in the total cirDNA provides 95% diagnostic coverage in breast cancer patients, 60% in patients with benign lesions, and is without false-positive results in healthy women.
  • Results of the study indicate that methylation-specific PCR of RARbeta2 and RASSF1A genes based on the total cirDNA combined with the quantitative analysis of cirDNA distribution between cell-bound and cell-free fractions in blood provide the sensitive and accurate detection and discrimination of malignant and benign breast tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / blood. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Fibroadenoma / blood. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16641902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HIC1 protein, human; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361269
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99. Darling MR, Tsai S, Jackson-Boeters L, Daley TD, Diamandis EP: Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):169-74
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  • [Title] Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors.
  • The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum.
  • It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues.
  • Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas NOS of both minor and major salivary glands were examined.
  • The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of KLK8.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Kallikreins / metabolism. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Salivary Glands, Minor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 20614312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK8 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807567
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Human kallikrein 8 / Immunohistochemistry / Kallikreins / Prognostic markers / Salivary gland tumors
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100. Landers KA, Samaratunga H, Teng L, Buck M, Burger MJ, Scells B, Lavin MF, Gardiner RA: Identification of claudin-4 as a marker highly overexpressed in both primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Br J Cancer; 2008 Aug 5;99(3):491-501
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  • In the quest for markers of expression and progression for prostate cancer (PCa), the majority of studies have focussed on molecular data exclusively from primary tumours.
  • Although expression in metastases is inferred, a lack of correlation with secondary tumours potentially limits their applicability diagnostically and therapeutically.
  • Those genes identified were verified on PCa cell lines and tumour samples from both primary and secondary tumours using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
  • Claudin-4, coding for an integral membrane cell-junction protein, was the most significantly (P<0.00001) upregulated marker in both primary and metastatic tumour specimens compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia at both RNA and protein levels.
  • In primary tumours, claudin-4 was more highly expressed in lower grade (Gleason 6) lesions than in higher grade (Gleason >or=7) cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Claudin-4. DNA Primers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18648369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Membrane Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2527792
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