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1. Sandgren J, Diaz de Ståhl T, Andersson R, Menzel U, Piotrowski A, Nord H, Bäckdahl M, Kiss NB, Brauckhoff M, Komorowski J, Dralle H, Hessman O, Larsson C, Akerström G, Bruder C, Dumanski JP, Westin G: Recurrent genomic alterations in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas revealed by whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):561-79
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  • [Title] Recurrent genomic alterations in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas revealed by whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization analysis.
  • The majority of cases are benign, but malignant tumours are observed.
  • We applied high-resolution whole-genome array CGH on 53 benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas to narrow down candidate regions as well as to identify chromosomal alterations more specific to malignant tumours.
  • Our study revealed novel and narrow recurrent chromosomal regions of loss and gain at several autosomes, a prerequisite for identifying candidate tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes involved in the development of adrenal and extra-adrenal catecholamine-producing tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20410162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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2. Soon PS, Yeh MW, Delbridge LW, Bambach CP, Sywak MS, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Laparoscopic surgery is safe for large adrenal lesions. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;34(1):67-70
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has surpassed open adrenalectomy as the gold standard for excision of benign adrenal lesions.
  • The size threshold for offering laparoscopic adrenalectomy is controversial as the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases with increasing tumour size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17532597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Bordi C, D'Adda T, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bottarelli L, Mormandi F, Antonetti T, Luong TV, Rindi G: Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):119-29
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  • [Title] Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.
  • In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols.
  • The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate.
  • (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior;.
  • (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade.
  • In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized.
  • Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / classification. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen. Mitotic Index. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17159244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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4. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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5. Lumachi F, Basso SM, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Favia G: Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4559-62
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  • Once an AI is detected, the two major questions are whether the patient has biochemical evidence of adrenal hyperfunction, and whether the mass is an adrenal metastasis or a malignant adrenal tumour.
  • In most cases (>90%) AI are non-functioning, with a low (<10%) risk of being malignant, and an estimated cumulative risk of malignant transformation of less than 1:1000.
  • However, all patients with non-functioning AI usually undergo several imaging studies, but the impact of imaging techniques and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) on the cost-effectiveness in the management of patients is not well established.
  • However, image-guided FNAC in conjunction with MRI as the exclusive imaging test has the major role and cost-effectiveness in the management of patients with AL, and should be considered the strategy of choice in distinguishing between benign and malignant non-functioning adrenal masses of more than 2 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):446. Fabia, Gennaro [corrected to Favia, Gennaro]
  • (PMID = 16334141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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6. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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9. Ramuz O, Lelong B, Giovannini M, Delpero JR, Rochaix P, Xerri L, Hassoun J, Flejou JF, Monges G: "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):555-9
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  • [Title] "Sugar" tumor of the pancreas: a rare entity that is diagnosable on preoperative fine-needle biopsies.
  • This study is the second to report a pancreatic "sugar" tumor (ST) case.
  • This ST was incidentally discovered in a 31-year-old woman using computed tomography scan (CT scan) for work-up of a hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.
  • Both CT scan and endoluminal ultrasonography (EUS) features evoked a 15-mm large benign endocrine tumor.
  • Pathological examination of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies could not confirm this diagnosis.
  • The tumor was intrapancreatic, well circumscribed, and organized in sheets of epithelioid cells.
  • The tumor cells expressed HMB-45 but did not express epithelial or endocrine immunohistochemical markers.
  • This observation highlights that STs should be considered in preoperative differential diagnosis of pancreas tumors, since they may be treated by limited surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiomyolipoma / chemistry. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / complications. Humans. Laparoscopy. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pancreatectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15821930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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10. Toulemonde A, Croue A, Rodien P, Verret JL: [Malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple nodular hidradenomas in a hypogonadic patient]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Dec;133(12):1005-8
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  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of multiple benign nodular hidradenomas associated with malignant nodular hidradenoma in a hypogonadic patient.
  • CASE-REPORT: A 49 year-old man presented 11 benign nodular hidradenomas in the pectoral region.
  • A malignant nodular hidradenoma had recently appeared in this region some distance from the pre-existing benign modular hidradenomas.
  • Large numbers of estrogen receptors were demonstrated in each of the benign nodular hidradenomas.
  • To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports to date of combined malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple benign nodular hidradenoma.
  • The coexistence of endocrine anomalies associated with this type of tumour has never been reported.
  • However, the presence of estrogen receptors has occasionally been demonstrated in benign nodular hidradenomas.
  • Our patient's endocrine disease may have played a role in the presentation of multiple hidradenomas, but this cannot be demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / complications. Hypogonadism / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17185934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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11. Kotzampassakis N, Maweja S, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Apr;105(2):156-60
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  • The lesions resected were preoperatively considered non-secreting in 47 cases (45%) and hormonally active in 58 cases (55%).
  • In 78 patients (80%), LA was performed and 84 adrenal glands were resected.
  • In 19 patients (20%), OA was considered the best modality of resection and 21 adrenal glands were resected.
  • The average tumour size was 37.2 mm (range 25-90) in LA group and 82.6 mm (30-260) in the OA group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, trans-peritoneal LA proved to be a safe and reliable procedure for benign adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Belgium. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15906906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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12. Blandamura S, Parenti A, Famengo B, Canesso A, Moschino P, Pasquali C, Pizzi S, Guzzardo V, Ninfo V: Three cases of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):278-82
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  • [Title] Three cases of pancreatic serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour.
  • AIMS: To report three cases of serous cystadenoma and endocrine tumour in the same pancreas, to review the literature and to evaluate the clinicopathological features of the tumours.
  • RESULTS: Histological examination of the pancreas showed one serous oligocystic adenoma associated with a benign, well-differentiated endocrine tumour, one serous oligocystic adenoma associated with an endocrine microadenoma, and a von Hippel-Lindau-related cystic neoplasm with a well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serous cystadenoma associated with endocrine tumour shows some clinicopathological differences with respect to the two tumours considered separately, and with respect to von Hippel-Lindau-related cases, although there is no convincing evidence at present to justify considering this association as a separate entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / metabolism. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16644876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860571
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13. Vanbeckevoort D: Solid pancreatic masses: benign or malignant. JBR-BTR; 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):487-9
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  • [Title] Solid pancreatic masses: benign or malignant.
  • Solid masses in the pancreas mostly occur in the pancreatic head and may be related to inflammation due to chronic pancreatitis or may be caused by malignancy.
  • Ductal pancreatic carcinoma is the most common malignant pancreatic neoplasm, accounting for more than 90% of malignant solid pancreatic tumours.
  • Endocrine tumours represent only a minority of those tumours.
  • While endocrine tumours tend to exhibit symptoms earlier in the course of the disease (due to tumour-related hormone production), adenocarcinomas present in nearly all cases in advanced stages when curative resection is not feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18376761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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14. Matyja E, Maksymowicz M, Grajkowska W, Olszewski W, Zieliński G, Bonicki W: Spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis - a clinicopathological and ultrastructural study of two cases. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):175-84
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  • Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the pituitary gland is a relatively recently established, very rare subtype of adenohypophysis tumours that was introduced as a distinct clinicopathological entity in the fourth edition of WHO classification of the central nervous system tumours (2007).
  • It is non-endocrine neoplasm of the anterior pituitary that occurs in adults and usually follows a benign clinical course, corresponding to WHO grade I.
  • The clinical and radiological features suggested non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas without evidence of invasive growth.
  • One patient presented with tumour recurrence 3 years after undergoing the previous surgical removal of tumour, which was initially misdiagnosed as schwannoma.
  • The first tumour was removed by transsphenoidal surgery and the second one by frontal craniotomy.
  • The tumour cells exhibited immunoreactivity for S-100 protein, galectin-3, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen but they were negative for GFAP, anterior pituitary neuroendocrine markers (prolactin, growth hormone, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH), chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin CK (AE1/AE3), smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD34 and CD68.
  • Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells were rich in mitochondria with lamellar cristae.
  • Moreover, in Case 2 some tumour cells showed a number of giant mitochondria with severely destructed internal matrix.
  • It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar-region lesions of oncocytic morphology.

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  • (PMID = 20925001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Uehara H, Tatsumi K, Masuda E, Kato M, Kizu T, Ishida T, Takakura R, Takano Y, Nakaizumi A, Ishikawa O, Takenaka A: Scraping cytology with a guidewire for pancreatic-ductal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Jul;70(1):52-9
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  • Conventional procedures for acquisition of a specimen for cytology during ERCP have been limited in their ability to discriminate pancreatic-ductal strictures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with pancreatic-ductal strictures composed of 71 malignant and 15 benign diseases were evaluated.
  • Malignant diseases included 70 pancreatic carcinomas and 1 endocrine tumor; benign diseases included the following: 7 chronic pancreatitis, 3 autoimmune pancreatitis, 3 idiopathic pancreatic-ductal strictures, and 2 pancreatic cysts.
  • Sensitivities for pancreatic carcinoma with a tumor of <20 mm, 21 to 40 mm, 41 to 60 mm, and >61 mm were 95%, 92%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign or malignant pancreatic-ductal strictures were accurately discriminated by scraping cytology with a guidewire during ERCP.
  • The technique yielded high diagnostic sensitivities in pancreatic carcinoma, regardless of the location or size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19249043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • RESULTS: In pathological examination benign pheochromo-cytoma was diagnosed in 39 presented patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Pacak K, Ilias I, Adams KT, Eisenhofer G: Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour. J Intern Med; 2005 Jan;257(1):60-8
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  • [Title] Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour.
  • Approximately 50% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A or 2B develop pheochromocytoma.
  • These tumours are almost exclusively benign and localized in the adrenal glands.
  • About one-third are bilateral at initial diagnosis.
  • Since pheochromocytomas in patients with MEN 2 often secrete catecholamines episodically (but metabolize them continuously to metanephrines), the first choice for biochemical diagnosis is the measurement of free metanephrines in plasma, with urinary fractionated metanephrines being the second choice.
  • In patients with biochemically proven MEN 2-related pheochromocytoma, anatomical imaging of the adrenals (with either computerized tomography or magnetic resonance) should be obtained next.
  • Functional imaging with specific ligands (e.g. scintigraphy with [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine or, if available, positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-fluorodopamine, [(18)F]-dihydroxyphenylalanine, [(11)C]-adrenaline or [(11)C]-hydroxyephedrine) may then be particularly useful in patients with distorted anatomy from previous surgery, in cases of equivocal biochemical data despite high clinical suspicion for a tumour, to rule out multifocal disease, or where there is suspicion of metastatic disease (e.g. tumours larger than 5 cm).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


18. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
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  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • This tumour is discovered during autopsy or USG, CT MRI of the abdomen usually by chance and because of that is included in the group of tumors called incidentaloma.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • Surgical treatment is called for when the diameter of tumor reaches more than 4 cm, tumour shows tendency to fast growth or causes clinical disorders.
  • In cases of small lesions, that show no progression, it is advised to observe the tumor using imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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19. Vezzosi D, Bouisson M, Escourrou G, Laurell H, Selves J, Seguin P, Pradayrol L, Caron P, Buscail L: Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The distinction between benign and malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours is hard to achieve.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether detection of telomerase or quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) differ between benign and malignant endocrine tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study investigated 31 well-differentiated primary endocrine tumours.
  • Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, tumours were categorized with the most recent WHO classification as 'benign' (n = 14), 'uncertain' (n = 5) or 'malignant' (n = 12) with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) metastasis after a mean follow-up of 40.4 +/- 25.8 months (4-122 months).
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 7 malignant and metastatic tumours, in 1 malignant tumour without metastases, in 1 uncertain tumour and in 1 benign tumour. hTERT mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant endocrine tumours with or without metastases (P = 0.001) when compared to benign tumours.
  • The negative predictive value of hTERT mRNA quantification for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.9%, whereas the positive predictive value was 68.7%.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of telomerase activity within the primary endocrine tumour might indicate a malignant tumour and might suggest the need for an attentive search for concomitant metastases.
  • Quantification of hTERT mRNA could be used in clinical practice to exclude malignancy in most endocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Enzyme Tests. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16402930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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20. Iacono C, Bortolasi L, Serio G: Indications and technique of central pancreatectomy-early and late results. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2005 Jun;390(3):266-71
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Central pancreatectomy (CP) is an operation that allows one to resect benign or low grade malignant tumours located in the pancreatic isthmus that are not suitable for enucleation.
  • Thereafter, the gland is dissected from the splenic artery and porto-mesenteric axis and divided with a 1 cm clear margin.
  • The cephalic stump is sutured, and the distal stump is anastomosed end-to-end or end-to-side with a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop.
  • The indications for CP were: serous cystadenoma in seven patients, mucinous in three, solid cystic papillary tumour in one, metastasis from renal cancer in one and endocrine tumour in eight patients.
  • Results of postoperative endocrine and exocrine function tests were normal in all controlled patients.
  • CONCLUSION: CP is a safe technique for benign or low-grade malignant tumours of the pancreatic neck that allows one to cure the tumour with evident functional results without increasing the risk to the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Muşat M, Morris DG, Korbonits M, Grossman AB: Cyclins and their related proteins in pituitary tumourigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Sep 15;326(1-2):25-9
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  • [Title] Cyclins and their related proteins in pituitary tumourigenesis.
  • Pituitary tumours are benign neoplasms that may cause major endocrine dysfunction.
  • It is probable that the primary initiating events lie beyond the cell cycle and may be related to co-activation of Akt, MAP-kinase and beta-catenin pathways.
  • Nevertheless, molecular CDK inhibitors may play a role in pituitary tumour treatment in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclins / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin E / metabolism. Cyclin E / physiology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Neoplasms. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20347931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclins; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
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22. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Szkróbka W: [Etiology, histopathological picture and clinical presentation of craniopharyngioma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2008 Aug;25(146):175-8
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  • Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign, suprasellar brain tumour accounting for about 1 to 3% of all intracranial neoplasms.
  • Because of the proximity of the tumour to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, many patients suffering from this tumour exhibit significant endocrine dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18942342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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23. Han SJ, Kim TS, Jeon SW, Jeong SJ, Yun M, Rhee Y, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee EJ, Lee HC, Lim SK: Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 May;61(5):802-9
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  • This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of adrenal masses visible in the computerised tomography (CT) scans which have been also evaluated by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), and to characterise the features of 18F-FDG PET scans associated with various adrenal endocrine tumours, especially benign functional tumours.
  • Positive uptakes in the 18F-FDG PET scans were seen in 60 malignant tumours (54 metastasic lesions, six primary adrenal cancers) and seven benign tumours.
  • The positive predictive value of 18F-FDG PET imaging to characterise an adrenal mass as a malignant tumour was 90%; the corresponding negative predictive value to rule out malignancy was also 90%.
  • Benign adrenal tumours were smaller than that of malignant lesions (p<0.05).
  • The mean standardised uptake value max (SUVmax) of the metastatic lesions [8.4+/-6.5 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg] was significantly higher than that of the benign adrenal tumours [2.4+/-1.2 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg, p<0.001].
  • In conclusion, for patients presenting adrenal masses with a high probability of malignancy, 18F-FDG PET can be used to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal lesions.
  • However, the 18F-FDG PET uptake did not show an always consistent pattern for endocrine tumours, which was probably due to the variability inherent in 18F-FDG uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17343665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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24. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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25. Unger N, Serdiuk I, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schulz S, Saeger W, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jun;68(6):850-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Somatostatin mediates its action through five receptor subtypes (sst1-5) that are widely distributed in various endocrine tissues and tumours.
  • DESIGN: Seven benign and eight malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), eight aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), nine cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), seven nonfunctioning adrenal tumours (NFAs) and 25 adrenal carcinomas (CAs) as well as eight normal adrenal glands were investigated.
  • All benign PHEOs were positive for sst3.
  • The majority presented with more than 60% of tumour cells stained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtypes are expressed in PHEOs as well as in tumours of the adrenal cortex with tumour-specific distribution patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / classification. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18031328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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26. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Several imaging modalities have been utilised for the diagnosis and staging of these tumours.
  • The main therapeutic target is tumour reduction and control of symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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27. Pozo J, Muñoz MT, Martos G, Argente J: Sporadic phaeochromocytoma in childhood: clinical and molecular variability. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;18(6):527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sporadic phaeochromocytoma is an infrequent tumour during paediatric age and may or may not be associated with specific autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) type 2 or neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1.
  • We report two cases of benign, adrenal, and unilateral phaeochromocytoma that clearly demonstrate the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of this disease during the paediatric period.
  • The second patient, an incidental finding, was practically asymptomatic and had a de novo germline point mutation in the VHL gene (Arg167Trp).
  • The frequency of de novo mutations in susceptible genes (especially the VHL gene) in paediatric patients with sporadic phaeochromocytoma and the elevated mortality of these cancer syndromes suggest that screening for mutations should be performed even in cases of non-familial sporadic phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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28. Musholt TJ: [Diagnosis of and surgical therapy for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):226-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis of and surgical therapy for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma].
  • Recent findings on the genetic background of hereditary tumours have challenged the rule of the 10 % -tumour and significantly changed the requirements for preoperative work-up and surgical strategy.
  • However, in the absence of metastasis, reliable differentiation between -benign and malignant growth is preoperatively and even histopathologically rarely possible.
  • Minimally invasive techniques using a transabdominal or retroperitoneal approach have become the gold standard for the resection of unifocal benign pheochromocytomas.
  • Open transabdominal resections are an approved therapy for large or potentially -malignant tumours and for settings with multi-focal tumour sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 20549585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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