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1. Al-Maghrabi J, Kanaan H: Histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis (Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) in Saudi Arabia: clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry. Ann Saudi Med; 2005 Jul-Aug;25(4):319-23
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  • BACKGROUND: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a rare entity of uncertain cause that commonly presents as a benign self-limiting disease of unknown origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The results support earlier findings that KFD is a self-limiting disorder that requires no specific management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / metabolism. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Histiocytes / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Saudi Arabia / epidemiology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16212126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-4947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of Saudi medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Saudi Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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2. Risum S, Høgdall C, Loft A, Berthelsen AK, Høgdall E, Nedergaard L, Lundvall L, Engelholm SA: The diagnostic value of PET/CT for primary ovarian cancer--a prospective study. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):145-9
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  • OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of combined PET/CT in detecting a malignant tumor in patients with no previous cancer history, presenting with a pelvic mass.
  • METHODS: From September 2004 to March 2006, 101 patients (median age=60 years, range=24-85 years) with a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI)>150 based on serum CA-125, ultrasound examinations (US) and menopausal state, were referred to PET/CT within 2 weeks prior to standard surgery/debulking of a pelvic tumor.
  • Histological specimens from 97 patients were evaluated and the histological diagnoses were compared to the PET/CT results to calculate the diagnostic value of PET/CT in differentiating between malignant and borderline/benign tumors.
  • PET/CT demonstrated areas of abnormally increased metabolic activity considered highly suspicious for malignant tumor in 60 patients (62%).
  • In 37 patients (38%) the tumors were considered benign on PET/CT.
  • Histopathology showed benign tumors in 40 patients and malignant tumors in 57 patients.
  • The sensitivity and specificity for PET/CT in diagnosing a malignant pelvic tumor were 100% (57/57) and 92.5% (37/40), respectively (P<0.00005).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined PET/CT demonstrates high diagnostic value in identifying primary ovarian cancer in patients with a pelvic mass of unknown origin and RMI>150.
  • We suggest PET/CT as the image modality of choice when US shows a pelvic tumor and additional information prior to surgery is needed.

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  • (PMID = 17229460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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3. Hameed O, Humphrey PA: Immunohistochemistry in diagnostic surgical pathology of the prostate. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):88-104
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  • However, several benign mimickers of PC, including atrophy, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), nephrogenic adenoma, and mesonephric hyperplasia, can stain negatively with these markers, and thus, a negative basal cell marker immunostain alone does not exclude a diagnosis of benignancy.
  • Although there are examples in the literature of high grade PC that stain focally with some of the basal cell markers, these cases are usually readily diagnosed based on H&E appearances and are unlikely to be confused with these benign mimickers.
  • AMACR expression can also be identified in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), prostatic atrophy, AAH, and benign prostatic glands, and accordingly, a diagnosis of PC should not be based solely on a positive AMACR immunostain, especially when the luminal staining is weak and/or noncircumferential.
  • The use of AMACR/basal cell antibody cocktails has been found to greatly facilitate the distinction between PC and its benign mimickers, especially when only limited tissue is available for staining.
  • PSA and PSAP immunohistochemical stains are valuable in confirming metastatic carcinoma as being of prostatic origin and should always be utilized in the diagnostic evaluation of metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin in males.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Leukemia / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis


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4. Shih B, Brown JJ, Armstrong DJ, Lindau T, Bayat A: Differential gene expression analysis of subcutaneous fat, fascia, and skin overlying a Dupuytren's disease nodule in comparison to control tissue. Hand (N Y); 2009 Sep;4(3):294-301
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  • Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a benign fibroproliferative tumor with an unknown etiology and high recurrence postsurgery.
  • Skin, fat, and fascia were obtained from five DD patients of Caucasian origin (age = 66 +/- 14) and from five control subjects (age = 57 +/- 19) undergoing carpal tunnel release.

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  • (PMID = 19184239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-9447
  • [Journal-full-title] Hand (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hand (N Y)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2724615
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5. Levy AD, Arnáiz J, Shaw JC, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: primary peritoneal tumors: imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2):583-607; quiz 621-2
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  • Primary malignant mesothelioma, multicystic mesothelioma, primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor are the most prominent of these rare lesions.
  • Multicystic mesothelioma occurs most frequently in women and has benign or indolent biologic behavior in the majority of patients.
  • Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata is a rare, benign proliferative process that also occurs exclusively in women and is characterized by multiple smooth muscle nodules throughout the peritoneum.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a highly aggressive malignancy of unknown origin that occurs most often in the peritoneal cavity of young men.
  • This unusual group of tumors is linked together by a common site of origin and imaging manifestations that mimic those of peritoneal carcinomatosis.

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  • (PMID = 18349460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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6. Levy AD, Rimola J, Mehrotra AK, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):245-64
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis, sclerosing mesenteritis, inflammatory pseudotumor, and extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor constitute a loosely associated group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis is a locally aggressive, benign proliferative process that may occur sporadically or in association with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare idiopathic disorder that most commonly produces a stellate mass within the mesentery and should be differentiated from metastatic disease, specifically metastatic carcinoid, because it frequently responds to conservative or medical management.
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor) is a benign, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that manifests as a solid mesenteric mass, indistinguishable from malignancy.
  • Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor is a tumor of submesothelial origin that is identical to the solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.
  • When located in the mesentery or peritoneal cavity, extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor has an imaging pattern that must be differentiated from metastatic disease, soft-tissue sarcomas, and other benign and malignant neoplasms of the mesentery and peritoneum.
  • Knowledge of this group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery is important in the preoperative evaluation of a mesenteric mass.

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  • (PMID = 16418255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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7. Andrade ES, Filho JR, Rocha NS, Neto IC, Camargo IB: Isolated intra-oral granular cell tumor: report of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Odontol Latinoam; 2010;23(2):99-104
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  • [Title] Isolated intra-oral granular cell tumor: report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively uncommon lesion occurring in almost any part of the body, including the orofacial region.
  • Although aggressive and malignant variants of this neoplasm have been described, most GCTs are benign.
  • The histogenesis of the lesion still remains unknown.
  • However, histochemical and ultra-structural studies propose the origin of the lesion from Schwann cells, striated muscle, mesenchymal cells, histiocytes and epithelial cells.
  • The tumor generally occurs in middle-aged or older adults.
  • As most granular cell tumors are benign, surgical excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice.
  • Differential diagnoses include fibrous hyperplasia, minor salivary gland tumor condyloma acuminatum and neurilemmoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0326-4815
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Odontol Latinoam
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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8. van de Rijn M, Fletcher JA: Genetics of soft tissue tumors. Annu Rev Pathol; 2006;1:435-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • More than 100 different malignant and benign soft tissue neoplasms can be recognized by histologic examination.
  • Few diagnostic markers exist, and the cell of origin for many soft tissue tumors is unknown.
  • For example, the success of the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor with Imatinib has led to an increased effort to find targeted therapies for other malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 18039122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4006
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu Rev Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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9. Orlandi A, Ferlosio A, Angeloni C, Ciucci A, Giusto Spagnoli L: [Cardiac tumors]. Pathologica; 2005 Jun;97(3):115-23
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  • Primary cardiac tumors are rare and their subdivision often difficult because of their unknown origin.
  • In the most recent classification, cardiac tumors are divided into benign (about 75% and malignant neoplasms in relationship to their tissue differentiation (rhabdomyoma, haemangioma, etc.) or uncertain aetiology (myxoma, papillary fibroelastoma).
  • The most frequent tumor is cardiac myxoma, which by itself represents about 50% of all primary cardiac neoplasms.
  • This is due, besides the intrinsic rarity, to two main factors: first, the tumor is often asymptomatic (incidental autopic finding) or; alternatively, it may show aspecif symptoms mimicking heart failure or other pathologies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glomus Tumor / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myxoma / genetics. Myxoma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Papilloma / pathology. Pericytes / pathology. Rhabdomyoma / pathology. Sarcoma / chemistry. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16259277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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10. Plesinac-Karapandzic V, Perisic Z, Milovanovic Z, Vukicevic D, Mileusnic D, Stevanovic J, Rakocevic Z, Saric M: Invasive inflammatory pseudotumor of the pelvis: a case report with review of the literature. J BUON; 2009 Apr-Jun;14(2):301-6
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  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare benign lesion of unknown etiology, which mimics malignant neoplasm and may arise from various organs.
  • A 53-year-old woman was submitted to diagnostic evaluation because of bilateral, hydroureteronephrosis and oedema of the left leg after a 3-month history of fever of unknown origin.
  • The last follow-up CT, 20 months after laparotomy, revealed no evidence of tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19650182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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11. Søreide JA, Søreide K, Körner H, Søiland H, Greve OJ, Gudlaugsson E: Benign peritoneal cystic mesothelioma. World J Surg; 2006 Apr;30(4):560-6
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  • [Title] Benign peritoneal cystic mesothelioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign peritoneal cystic mesothelioma (BPCM) is a rare tumor of unknown origin, most frequently encountered in women of reproductive age.
  • Etiology is unknown; definitions and terminology are confusing, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult.

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  • (PMID = 16547615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Wu M, Yuan S, Szporn AH, Gan L, Shtilbans V, Burstein DE: Immunocytochemical detection of XIAP in body cavity effusions and washes. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1618-22
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  • We performed an immunocytochemical survey of XIAP expression in cell blocks from benign and malignant body cavity effusions and washes.
  • The prevalence of staining for specific malignancies varied with the tissue of origin as follows: ovarian (13/13, 100%); lung (9/11, 82%), breast (6/13, 46%); gastric (4/7, 57%), colon (0/4, 0%), pancreas (2/3, 67%), gallbladder (1/1, 100%), fallopian tube (1/3, 33%), endometrial (6/7, 86%), mesothelioma (4/5, 80%), carcinoma of unknown primary (5/5, 100%) and hematopoietic malignancies (3/9, 33%).
  • Benign effusions (n = 35) were virtually XIAP-negative except for two cases (6%) in which histiocytes showed moderate staining.
  • XIAP immunostaining, when strong, allows for ready distinction of malignant from benign and reactive cell populations.
  • The degree of XIAP staining of tumor cells may be a means of identifying the most therapy-resistant cases (ie, those with strong XIAP expression), and allow additional triaging to XIAP-blocking drugs presently being developed and clinically tested.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascitic Fluid / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Peritoneal Lavage. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / chemistry. X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
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13. Wen HH, Cheng KL, Hung YK, Chang PY: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor presenting as acute abdomen: report of one case. Acta Paediatr Taiwan; 2007 Nov-Dec;48(6):337-41
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  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor presenting as acute abdomen: report of one case.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a very rare benign tumor composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells of uncertain etiology, which can occur at any age and affect any organ system.
  • However, this tumor occurring intraabdominally in children has rarely been reported in Taiwan.
  • After imaging study, a huge tumor nearly 10 cm in diameter was incidentally found over the right abdomen with unknown origin and nature.
  • After surgical removal of the tumor, IMT was confirmed by the pathological findings.
  • It is very difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis on this tumor according to past experience, so the role of pathological diagnosis with immunohistochemical study becomes important.
  • This case illustrates that IMT should be considered as a possible cause of intra-abdominal mass in children who have fever of unknown origin.

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  • (PMID = 18437969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1608-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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14. Murthy R, Honavar SG: Secondary vasoproliferative retinal tumor associated with Usher syndrome type 1. J AAPOS; 2009 Feb;13(1):97-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary vasoproliferative retinal tumor associated with Usher syndrome type 1.
  • Vasoproliferative retinal tumors are benign tumors of unknown origin that generally affect healthy persons between their fourth and sixth decades and may lead to severe vision loss as a result of intraretinal hemorrhages and exudates.
  • We describe a case of unilateral vasoproliferative retinal tumor associated with retinitis pigmentosa in a patient with Usher syndrome type 1.


15. Presneau N, Shen Z, Provencher D, Mes-Masson AM, Tonin PN: Identification of novel variant, 1484delG in the 3'UTR of H3F3B, a member of the histone 3B replacement family, in ovarian tumors. Int J Oncol; 2005 Jun;26(6):1621-7
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  • Previous studies have implicated the chromosomal region at 17q25 as harboring tumor suppressor genes based on the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) observed in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC).
  • OV90 was derived from ascites fluid of an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of ovarian origin.
  • The variant allele was identified in 1 of 65 (2%) healthy women with no prior history of cancer and in 5 participants with ovarian tumors comprising of 4 of 79 (5%) malignant EOC, none of 10 low malignancy potential tumors, and 1 of 8 (13%) benign tumors.
  • All carriers of the variant alleles were heterozygous and tumor samples did not exhibit preferential LOH of the normal allele.
  • One of 3 mucinous benign tumors also harbored the variant allele.
  • The functional significance of the variant is unknown, however its presence in rare subtypes of ovarian epithelial tumors warrants further investigation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15870878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Histones
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16. Miyamoto J, Tatsuzawa K, Owada K, Kawabe T, Sasajima H, Mineura K: Usefulness and limitations of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the detection of malignancy of orbital tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2008;48(11):495-9; discussion 499
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  • Twelve patients with 13 orbital tumors underwent [18F]FDG PET followed by biopsy or tumor removal via a transcranial approach.
  • The accumulation ratio between the tumor and the contralateral normal tissue (T/N ratio) was calculated for 10 of the 13 lesions.
  • The T/N ratio in benign lesions was compared with that in malignant tumors.
  • Histological examination identified 7 lesions as malignant: anaplastic astrocytoma of the optic nerve in 1 patient, which recurred as glioblastoma of the optic nerve, malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type in 1 patient, malignant melanoma in 1 patient, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 2 patients, and adenocarcinoma (unknown origin) in 1 patient.
  • The T/N ratio was 1.06 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard deviation) in benign tumors, and significantly higher at 1.81 +/- 0.27 in malignant tumors (p = 0.0027).
  • [18F]FDG PET can determine the malignancy of orbital tumors, but cannot distinguish malignant tumor from inflammatory disease such as pseudotumor.

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  • (PMID = 19029776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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17. Carroll SL, Ratner N: How does the Schwann cell lineage form tumors in NF1? Glia; 2008 Nov 1;56(14):1590-605
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  • Neurofibromas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve that occur sporadically or in patients with the autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • Most NF1 patients carry a constitutional mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene.
  • Neurofibromas develop in these patients when an unknown cell type in the Schwann cell lineage loses its remaining functional NF1 gene and initiates a complex series of interactions with other cell types; these interactions may be influenced by aberrant expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors and the action of modifier genes.
  • Our improving understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurofibromas and MPNSTs raises intriguing new questions about the origin and pathogenesis of these neoplasms and establishes models for the development of new therapies targeting these neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 18803326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1136
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057098-019003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122804-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048353-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118032-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-17; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057098-019003; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048353-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048353-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057098; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-10S1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048353-01A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048353; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057098-039003; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-15; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-18; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-09; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048353-01A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-17S1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048353-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-16A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-13; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057098-029003; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048353-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118032-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-11; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118032-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-10S1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-12; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-14; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-16A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118032-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-17S1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-12; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048353-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057098-029003; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-18; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-11; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048353-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118032; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028840-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122804-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122804; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS028840-15; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057098-039003
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 135
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75034; NLM/ PMC2652636
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18. Fang SH, Meng L, Dong DJ, Zhang SZ, Jin M: [Angiographic diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;27(8):496-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the angiographic feature and its diagnostic value in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
  • The origin, size, morphology and angiographic appearance of the lesion were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Seven cases were benign but five malignant.
  • 2) ball-like neoplastic vessels with homogeneous stain in tumor were found in eight cases, seven of them were benign but one was malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Angiography may be helpful in localization and diagnosis as well as defining the size of GIST, and especially in patients with melena of unknown origin.


19. Ellert-Miklaszewska A, Grajkowska W, Gabrusiewicz K, Kaminska B, Konarska L: Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors. Brain Res; 2007 Mar 16;1137(1):161-9
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  • Although brain tumors constitute the second most common malignancy in children and the prevalence of histological types of brain tumors vary significantly between the adult and pediatric populations, cannabinoid receptor expression in pediatric tumors remains unknown.
  • Most glioblastomas expressed very high levels of CB2 receptors and the expression correlated with tumor grade.
  • Interestingly, some benign pediatric astrocytic tumors, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), which may occasionally cause mortality owing to progressive growth, also displayed high CB2 immunoreactivity.
  • Our results suggest that the CB2 receptor expression depends primarily on the histopathological origin of the brain tumor cells and differentiation state, reflecting the tumor grade.

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  • (PMID = 17239827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
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20. Lutterbach J, Pagenstecher A, Spreer J, Hetzel A, Velthoven Vv, Nikkhah G, Frommhold H, Volk B, Schumacher M, Lücking C, Zentner J, Ostertag C: The brain tumor board: lessons to be learned from an interdisciplinary conference. Onkologie; 2005 Jan;28(1):22-6
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  • [Title] The brain tumor board: lessons to be learned from an interdisciplinary conference.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to analyze the work of the interdisciplinary Brain Tumor Board (BTB) which was established at Freiburg University Hospital in 1998.
  • This group was composed of 4 subgroups: 28% benign skull base tumors (19% meningiomas, 4% pituitary adenomas, 3% acoustic schwannomas, 2% others), 24% primary brain tumors of glial origin (8% glioblastomas, 12% gliomas other than glioblastomas, 5% oligoastrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas), 19% brain metastases, and 8% other brain or skull base tumors.
  • In 13% of the cases, the exact diagnosis was still unknown when the patient was presented.
  • CONCLUSION: Interdisciplinary care seems to be particularly necessary in patients with benign skull base tumors, gliomas and brain metastases.

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  • (PMID = 15616378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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21. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S61-79
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  • Within the teratoma group, there is strong evidence that ovarian and prepubertal testicular teratomas are derived from benign germ cells, a pathogenesis that likely applies also to the rare dermoid cysts and uncommon epidermoid cysts of the testis.
  • As expected, given the foregoing, teratomas in boys are clinically benign, whereas in postpubertal males they are malignant, independent of their degree of immaturity.
  • When uncommon somatic-type malignancies (usually squamous cell carcinoma) occur in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary, this is a de novo form of malignant transformation; similar tumors in the testis, a very rare event, represent overgrowth of teratomatous elements that originated from malignant, nonteratomatous germ cell tumors and, therefore, had previously undergone malignant transformation.
  • Germinomas may have several unusual features in each gonad; these include microcystic arrangements that suggest yolk sac tumor, tubular patterns that mimic Sertoli cell tumor, apparent increased cytological atypia that causes concern for embryonal carcinoma, and prominent syncytiotrophoblast giant cells that suggest choriocarcinoma.
  • A newly recognized aspect of this tumor is the propensity for some to be relatively monomorphic, making them apt to be mistaken for usual seminoma or embryonal carcinoma, although the characteristic polymorphic appearance in some foci, absence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type, and immunohistochemical stains should prevent this error.
  • Yolk sac tumor continues to be confused occasionally with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
  • Choriocarcinoma is rare in both gonads, and those in the ovary must be distinguished from metastatic tumors of placental origin.
  • Syncytiotrophoblast cells alone, admixed with other forms of germ cell tumor, still are confused with choriocarcinoma, but this phenomenon, which is much more frequent than choriocarcinoma, lacks the plexiform arrangement of different trophoblast cell types that typifies the latter.
  • A separately categorized, rare form of mixed germ cell tumor seen in both gonads is the polyembryoma.
  • It is perhaps the most photogenic of all gonadal germ cell tumors and is also intriguing because of its distinctive, organized arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements and recapitulation of very early embryonic development, even to the extent of having in its fundamental unit, the embryoid body, a miniature yolk sac, and amniotic cavity.
  • Embryoid bodies are also common as a minor component of many mixed germ cell tumors, particularly in the testis, and the diffuse embryoma is another variant that has a particular arrangement of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma elements.
  • Regression of gonadal germ cell tumors is a phenomenon restricted to the testis, for unknown reasons.

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  • (PMID = 15761467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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22. Valtonen-André C, Bjartell A, Hellsten R, Lilja H, Härkönen P, Lundwall A: A highly conserved protein secreted by the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 is expressed in benign and malignant prostate tissue. Biol Chem; 2007 Mar;388(3):289-95
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  • [Title] A highly conserved protein secreted by the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 is expressed in benign and malignant prostate tissue.
  • The molecule is homologous to beta-microseminoprotein (MSP), a protein of unknown function, secreted at high concentration by the prostate gland.
  • These two proteins have only 23% sequence identity, but their common origin is revealed by a preserved pattern of Cys residues.
  • Studies on human prostate cancer specimens showed immunohistochemical staining of both tumor and benign glandular cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Line. Humans. Male. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Rats. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Tumor Cells, Cultured


23. Saito M, Yuasa T, Nanjo H, Tsuchiya N, Satoh S, Habuchi T: A case of testicular angiomyolipoma. Int J Urol; 2008 Feb;15(2):185-7
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  • A 22-year-old male underwent left orchiectomy under a diagnosis of testicular tumor.
  • The tumor demonstrated neither cytological atypia nor widespread mitotic activity.
  • In addition, the tumor cells showed intense expression of CD34 and smooth muscle actin, whereas HMB-45 was entirely negative.
  • Although the true cellular origin and its clinical implications remain unknown, pathological and immunohistochemical studies strongly indicated benign testicular AML with a non-germ cell origin.

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  • (PMID = 18269463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Liao YT, Wu MH, Wang MY, Lee PC, Yang CY, Lin MT, Lee PH: Gasless laparoscopy-assisted surgery for intraabdominal/retroperitoneal tumor of unknown origin: a bridge between total laparoscopic surgery and conventional open surgery. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 Dec;20(10):825-30
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  • [Title] Gasless laparoscopy-assisted surgery for intraabdominal/retroperitoneal tumor of unknown origin: a bridge between total laparoscopic surgery and conventional open surgery.
  • The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of gasless laparoscopy-assisted surgery in management of intraabdominal/retroperitoneal tumor of unknown origin.
  • METHODS: From June 2004 to April 2009, nine patients who underwent gasless laparoscopy-assisted surgery for intraabdominal/retroperitoneal tumor of unknown origin were recruited.
  • Intraabdominal/retroperitoneal tumor of unknown origin was defined as (1) diagnosis of enlarged retroperitoneal lymph node;.
  • (2) evaluation of peritoneal or mesenteric lesion, or tumor of nondigestive systems; and (3) staging of intraabdominal malignancy.
  • Sufficient tissue was obtained from all patients, and the diagnosis was as follows: three lymphomas, three peritoneal carcinomatoses, two chronic imflammations, and one benign tumor.
  • It is a safe and effective way to obtain tissue for pathology and feasible in case of necessary sequential tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Abdominal Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21029024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Windisch-Furrer R, Kurz-Levin MM, Sutter FK, Reineke T, Helbig H: [Vasoproliferative retinal tumors]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 Apr;224(4):364-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Vasoproliferative Tumors of the retina (VPTR) are benign tumors of unknown origin, occurring mostly in otherwise systemically healthy patients.
  • In one case the tumour was surgically excised and histology was performed.
  • These benign lesions represent reactive gliovascular proliferations, with varying degrees of both gliosis and of vascular proliferation.
  • The therapy is based on tumor size, localisation and complications.

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  • (PMID = 17458816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Sanchez-Mejia RO, Pham DN, Prados M, Tihan T, Cha S, El-Sayed I, McDermott MW: Management of a sporadic malignant subfrontal peripheral nerve sheath tumor. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(2):165-9
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  • [Title] Management of a sporadic malignant subfrontal peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
  • Subfrontal PNSTs are extremely rare and usually benign.
  • The specific cell and nerve of origin for these tumors remains unknown.
  • Our case shows that these rare lesions can present as a malignant variant and thus require aggressive surgical and postoperative management to provide long-term tumor control.

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  • [Cites] Eur Radiol. 2002 Apr;12(4):742-4 [11960220.001]
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  • (PMID = 16132491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Piekarski JH, Kusinska R, Nejc D, Pluta P, Sek P, Bilski A, Durczynski A, Kubiak R, Pasz-Walczak G, Jeziorski A: Recurrence of cholangiogenous carcinoma in port-sites two years after laparoscopic removal of noncancerous gallbladder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 May;20(5):474-7
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  • We present a unique case of carcinoma diagnosed in port-site, two years after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy for benign cholecystitis.
  • Analysis of morphology and cytokeratin profile (CK19+ and CK20+/-) of resected port-site tumor allows us to establish the diagnosis of tubular carcinoma with probable cholangiogenic origin.
  • No other primary tumor was identified during follow-up.
  • Patient history and histological/immunohistochemical picture of the recurrent tumor suggested that primary carcinoma was probably located in the gallbladder, but was not detected during initial and repeated histological examinations of postoperative specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Wall. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Cholecystitis / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 18403952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Mihaljević B, Nedeljkov-Jancić R, Cermerikic-Martinović V: [Significance of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of peripheral lymph nodes upon the initial presentation of patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 May-Jun;134(5-6):195-202
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  • [Title] [Significance of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of peripheral lymph nodes upon the initial presentation of patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown etiology].
  • Its findings are especially beneficial for verification of lymphoid origin of the enlarged growth, diagnostics and differentiation of metastatic, infectious, reactive and lymphomatous conditions; determination of the extent of tumor; detection of recurrence; monitoring of the course of disease; obtaining of material for special studies such as microbiological cultures, immunological or genetic studies as well as electron microscopy; in addition, for encouragement of patient in case of benign nature of the disease.

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  • (PMID = 16972405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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29. Scordi-Bello IA, Snyder A, Schwartz M, Fallon JT: Intravascular epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the inferior vena cava: case report of an unusual and unpredictable vascular tumor. Cardiovasc Pathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;18(4):243-6
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  • [Title] Intravascular epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the inferior vena cava: case report of an unusual and unpredictable vascular tumor.
  • Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin with an unknown etiology.
  • Its biologic behavior lies somewhere between that of a benign hemangioma and that of a malignant angiosarcoma; however, it is unpredictable at best.

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  • (PMID = 18417368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1336
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kupka S, Haack B, Zdichavsky M, Mlinar T, Kienzle C, Bock T, Kandolf R, Kroeber SM, Königsrainer A: Large proportion of low frequency microsatellite-instability and loss of heterozygosity in pheochromocytoma and endocrine tumors detected with an extended marker panel. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;134(4):463-71
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  • PURPOSE: Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a usually benign tumor originated in the majority of patients from the adrenal medulla.
  • Regarding sporadic forms of PCC, mechanisms of pathogenesis are largely unknown.
  • Moreover, 23 endocrine tumors with gastrointestinal origin were examined in order to test the applicability of this marker panel.
  • Among the 23 patients with endocrine tumors, only three (one pancreatic endocrine tumor, one duodenal neuro-endocrine tumor, one hepatic metastasis of a primary tumor with unknown origin) demonstrated MSI.

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  • (PMID = 17828419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Lim YW, Tan MH: Treatment of benign giant cell tumours of bone in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):235-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of benign giant cell tumours of bone in Singapore.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a distinct neoplasm of undifferentiated cells.
  • The exact cell of origin is unknown.
  • Giant cell tumour is more common in Southeast Asia than in the West.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with giant cell tumour were treated in the Singapore General Hospital from 1993 to 2001.
  • All the recurrences had a Campanacci grade II or III tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PHENOL .
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  • (PMID = 15902343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 339NCG44TV / Phenol; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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32. Menteş BB, Kurukahvecioğlu O, Ege B, Karamercan A, Leventoğlu S, Yazicioğlu O, Oğuz M: Retrorectal tumors: a case series. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar;19(1):40-4
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  • The majority of these masses are benign but many can be malignant, so they need to be treated with aggressive surgical management.
  • RESULTS: In our series, we noted one duplication cyst, one tailgut cyst, one epidermoid cyst, one teratoma, one gastrointestinal stromal tumor, one epithelial malignant tumor, one inflammatory mass, and one retrorectal mass of as yet unknown origin.

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  • [CommentIn] Turk J Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar;20(1):81; author reply 81 [19330746.001]
  • (PMID = 18386239.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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33. Grichnik JM: Melanoma, nevogenesis, and stem cell biology. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Oct;128(10):2365-80
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  • It is now well established that a subpopulation of tumor stem cells (TSCs) are present within cancer tissues.
  • This suggests that tumors evolve from stem cells; however, the exact cell of tumor origin, the potential role of dedifferentiation, and the role of plasticity in tumor development are largely unknown.
  • The developmental biology of melanocytes is relatively well understood, the cells pigment as they differentiate making them easy to identify, and benign and malignant tumors develop on the skin surface allowing direct observation of growth features, early detection, and removal.
  • The TSC model is still evolving, but the existence of TSCs has significant ramifications for tumor development, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of melanoma and other cancers.


34. Nagaraj PB, Ongole R, Bhujanga-Rao BR: Granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6-year-old girl--a case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Mar;11(2):E162-4
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6-year-old girl--a case report.
  • Granular cell tumor is a relatively uncommon benign hamartomatous lesion occurring in almost any part of the body.
  • The histogenesis of the lesion still remains unknown.
  • However, histochemical and ultra structural studies propose the origin of the lesion from schwann cells, striated muscle, mesenchymal cells, histiocytes and epithelial cells.
  • The tumor generally occurs in middle or older aged adults.
  • As most of the granular cell tumors are benign, surgical excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice.
  • We describe a case of granular cell tumor of the tongue in a 6 year old girl along with a brief review of literature on granular cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor. Tongue Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16505796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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35. Messing-Jünger AM, Riemenschneider MJ, Reifenberger G: A 21-year-old female with a third ventricular tumor. Brain Pathol; 2006 Jan;16(1):87-8, 93
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  • [Title] A 21-year-old female with a third ventricular tumor.
  • Intraoperatively, the tumor showed a close relationship to the choroid plexus of the third ventricle.
  • Histopathology revealed a benign schwannoma of World Health Organization grade I.
  • Most of these tumors were benign schwannomas, except for 2 cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
  • The tumor of our patient is the first reported schwannoma of the third ventricle.
  • The origin of intraventricular Schwann cell tumors is unknown.

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  • (PMID = 16612987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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36. Hałoń A, Błazejewska M, Sabri H, Rabczyński J: [Tumors and tumor-like lesions of eyelids collected at Department of Pathological Anatomy, Wroclaw Medical University, between 1946 and 1999]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(7-9):475-8
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  • [Title] [Tumors and tumor-like lesions of eyelids collected at Department of Pathological Anatomy, Wroclaw Medical University, between 1946 and 1999].
  • PURPOSE: To determine the histopathological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of benign, malignant and tumor-like lesions of the eyelid collected in Department of Pathological Anatomy, Wrocław Medical University.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Department of Pathological Anatomy, Wrocław Medical University, has been collecting data of all tumors and tumor-like lesions of the eye and ocular adnexa diagnosed at the department during the 54-year interval from 1946 through 1999.
  • In 10 cases sex was unknown.
  • Benign tumors were the most common lesions (n=1262; 62.2%).
  • Almost 2/3 of all tumor-like lesions in both genders were cysts including atheromas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign eyelid tumors compose the majority of all eyelid lesions.
  • Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant eyelid tumor.
  • The lower eyelid is the most frequent site of origin in cases of malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16417001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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37. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • As highlighted by the present report, performing fine-needle aspiration cytology should be always considered in the clinical context of a metastatic disease of unknown origin or when there are ultrasonography signs suggesting malignancy, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TECHNETIUM, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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38. Abdou AG, Aiad HA, Sultan SM: pS2 (TFF1) expression in prostate carcinoma: correlation with steroid receptor status. APMIS; 2008 Nov;116(11):961-71
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  • It is also considered to be one of the major estrogen-regulated proteins and an indicator of estrogen receptor (ER) functionality. pS2 has previously been investigated in benign and malignant prostate lesions with little information about its relationship to steroid receptor status.
  • 15 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 47 prostate carcinoma cases were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry for pS2, ER and PR expression.
  • The high sensitivity of pS2 expression in prostate carcinoma could make it a suitable marker for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, especially in metastatic cases of unknown origin.
  • The nuclear pattern of pS2 immunoreactivity either in benign or malignant prostatic lesions is similar to the published data on ER beta distribution and could also identify a subset of carcinoma patients with a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / pathology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Presenilin-2 / biosynthesis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19132993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / PSEN2 protein, human; 0 / Presenilin-2; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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39. Bello Báez A, López Pino MA, Azorín Cuadrillero D, Sirvent Cerdá S: [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion]. Radiologia; 2010 May-Jun;52(3):247-50
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  • Aneurysmatic bone cysts are benign lesions of unknown origin.
  • It has been postulated that they might occur in reaction to trauma or to a primary benign (giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, etc.) or malignant (osteosarcoma) bone tumor that results in local hemodynamic changes.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20304449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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40. Kakutani K, Doita M, Nishida K, Akisue T, Maeno K, Zhang Z, Yurube T, Kurosaka M: Intractable sciatica due to intraneural nodular fasciitis detected by positron emission tomography. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Oct 1;35(21):E1137-40
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  • These lesions are usually diagnosed by plain radiograph, myelography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.Nodular fasciitis is a benign connective tissue tumor usually presenting as a firm, rapidly-growing lesion, occasionally arising in the forearm.
  • RESULTS: PET detected an abnormal lesion in the sciatic nerve in the posterior compartment of the patient's left thigh, indicating an intraneural tumor in the sciatic nerve.
  • PET may be a useful tool for diagnosing sciatica of unknown origin that cannot be identified using conventional imaging tools.

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  • (PMID = 20622746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Martínez-Villaseñor D, Gerson-Cwilich R: [PET/CT tomography. Usefulness in oncology]. Cir Cir; 2006 Jul-Aug;74(4):295-304
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  • [Transliterated title] La tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET/CT). Utilidad en la oncología.
  • It diagnoses the benign or malignant state of a neoplasm that has been detected by other imaging methods and establishes an extensive diagnosis previous to therapeutic treatment of a known cancer.
  • It identifies residual tumor and changes produced after surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy and locates suspicious residual tumor clinically or by elevation of the tumor markers.
  • It allows for a new extension study or re-staging after diagnosis of recurrence and permits early evaluation of response to a therapeutic regime and permits the search for a primary tumor in patients with metastasis of unknown origin.

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  • (PMID = 17022904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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42. Ligato S, Mandich D, Cartun RW: Utility of glypican-3 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from other primary and metastatic lesions in FNA of the liver: an immunocytochemical study. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):626-31
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  • We evaluated the immunocytochemical expression of GPC3 in archival material obtained from fine needle aspiration of hepatic lesions to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this marker in cytological material and its potential diagnostic utility in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from other primary benign or malignant hepatic tumors and from metastatic lesions in the liver.
  • The only case expressing GPC3 was an anaplastic carcinoma with neuroendocrine features of unknown origin.
  • Immunocytochemical staining for GPC3 in alcohol-fixed FNA material is a highly sensitive and specific method capable of distinguishing HCC from other benign and malignant hepatic lesions and from the great majority of metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Glypicans / biosynthesis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18264086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans
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