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1. Klonisch T, Müller-Huesmann H, Riedel M, Kehlen A, Bialek J, Radestock Y, Holzhausen HJ, Steger K, Ludwig M, Weidner W, Hoang-Vu C, Hombach-Klonisch S: INSL3 in the benign hyperplastic and neoplastic human prostate gland. Int J Oncol; 2005 Aug;27(2):307-15
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  • [Title] INSL3 in the benign hyperplastic and neoplastic human prostate gland.
  • The human prostate gland is a well known source of H1 and H2 relaxin but information is lacking on the expression and potential role of the INSL3 peptide hormone within the prostate gland.
  • In the present study we have investigated the expression of human INSL3 in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate carcinoma tissues.
  • In addition to expressing INSL3 mRNA, the LGR8-negative DU-145 also expressed an INSL3 splice form formerly demonstrated in thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Instead, PC-3 responded to INSL3 with significantly enhanced tumor cell motility and a transcriptional down-regulation of ErbB receptors and EGF.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / analysis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Tretinoin / pharmacology


2. Gonçalves AJ, Carvalho LH, Serdeira K, Nakai MY, Malavasi TR: Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):289-91
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells.
  • In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion of these genes.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de São Paulo.
  • METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B).
  • RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18094897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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3. Abrosimov AIu, Dvinskikh NIu: [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Sep-Oct;72(5):39-42
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  • [Title] [Morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle nodule biopsy].
  • The paper considers morphological changes in thyroid tissue after preoperative fine-needle biopsy of benign and malignant tumors at the above site in 5 patients.
  • The found changes made the postoperative histological diagnosis of a tumor process difficult as;.
  • (a) there was total necrosis (2 cases of follicular tumor and papillary cancer from oxyphilic cells according to the data of a preoperative cytological study);.
  • (b) there were signs that mimicked those of invasive tumor growth in the proper fibrous capsules (2 cases of follicular adenomas);.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Preoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21313768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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4. Yüksel M, Eziddin S, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ: 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Sep;25(5):316-9
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  • [Title] 111In-Pentetreotide uptake in a follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland: a pitfall for 111In-Pentetreotide scintigraphy.
  • A patient with suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas underwent a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-Pentetreotide.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy showed discrete uptake of the radiotracer in the head of the pancreas and focal uptake in the right upper thyroid lobe.
  • Normal thyroid tissue and thyroid disorders, such as cancers, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and adenomas often show increased uptake of 111In-pentetreotide resulting in a possible false positive interpretation in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Adding a 48h planar image might contribute to the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant lesions, as in the present case where the uptake decreased in an adenoma after 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Serotonin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17173778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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5. Papotti M, Arrondini M, Tavaglione V, Veltri A, Volante M: Diagnostic controversies in vascular proliferations of the thyroid gland. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(3):175-83
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  • [Title] Diagnostic controversies in vascular proliferations of the thyroid gland.
  • Vascular lesions are one of the most controversial issues in thyroid pathology.
  • The differential diagnosis includes benign lesions on one side, i.e., endothelial reactive hyperplasia (Masson's "hemangioma") in goiter and hemangioma, and malignant tumors on the other, i.e., angiosarcomas and undifferentiated (angio)sarcomatoid carcinomas.
  • Benign reactive endothelial hyperplasia with atypias mimicking malignant tumors may occur in long-standing nodular goiter, as a result of spontaneous hemorrhage followed by granulation tissue and fibrous organization.
  • Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant thyroid tumor, mainly observed in endemic goiter areas displaying morphologic and phenotypical similar to those typical of angiosarcomas in other locations (including focal cytokeratin expression).
  • Other extremely rare vascular lesions or mimics in the thyroid include benign hemangioma and pseudo-angiosarcomatous variant of medullary carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant vascular conditions in FNAB material is extremely challenging, and the cytopathology report should be remarkably cautious, especially in poorly cellular and highly hemorrhagic cases: atypias in endothelial cells are not per se indicative of malignancy, being a common feature of reactive endothelial hyperplasia in infracted goiter nodules as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Vascular Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18766472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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6. Massaro F, Dolcino M, Degrandi R, Ferone D, Mussap M, Minuto F, Giusti M: Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Apr;32(4):308-12
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  • [Title] Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone.
  • Assaying calcitonin (CT) in the wash-out fluid from fine-needle aspiration biopsies (CT-FNAB) could be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • FNAB was performed in a thyroid nodule (no.
  • CT-FNAB values obtained in 37 subjects with normal serum CT (<10 ng/l) who underwent FNAB for thyroid nodules served as a negative control.
  • In patients with a thyroid nodule under evaluation for MTC, serum CT and CT-FNAB values were 14.5+/-3.9 ng/l (range 10-24 ng/l) and 16.4+/-29.8 ng/l (range 2-144 ng/l), respectively.
  • In 4 patients, CT-FNAB values were higher than the highest values found in our negative controls (30 ng/l), but cytology results were compatible with a benign thyroid lesion and pentagastrin testing was negative.
  • In conclusion, borderline CT values in patients with thyroid nodules are not rare.
  • Our experience suggests that CT-FNAB does not have the same importance as that reported in the literature for thyroglobulin and PTH assay in wash-out fluid after FNAB in malignant thyroid and hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biological Assay. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Body Fluids / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19636196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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7. Haas SN: Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. S D Med; 2006 Oct;59(10):425-7
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  • [Title] Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is usually an indolent tumor with a good survival prognosis especially when small and limited to the thyroid gland.
  • The prevalence of this tumor in younger patients with long life expectancies, however, magnifies the problem of late recurrences.
  • Current published guidelines recommend near total thyroidectomy for all differentiated thyroid cancers with the exception of small papillary carcinomas (< 1.0 cm) found coincidentally after surgery for benign disease, providing there are no other risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Expectancy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17124919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] South Dakota medicine : the journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S D Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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8. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Tajiri J, Kato R: Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody. Rinsho Byori; 2007 May;55(5):428-33
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  • [Title] Discrimination of thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma tissue and that from benign thyroid tissues with use of competitive assay between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody.
  • Thyroglobulin is produced only by thyroid follicular cells, and has a molecular weight of 660,000 and carbohydrate content of approximately 10%.
  • The composition of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin from thyroid carcinoma has been reported to differ from that in normal thyroid tissue.
  • In this study, heterogeneities of carbohydrate chains on thyroglobulin obtained from thyroid tissues were investigated by competitive reaction between lectin and anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibody.
  • The ratio of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin to thyroglobulin was significantly lower in thyroid carcinoma than in normal thyroid tissue, Graves' disease and benign thyroid tumor.
  • However, no differences between malignant and benign tissues were observed with the other lectins tested.
  • Differences in carbohydrate chain on thyroglobulin were observed between malignant and benign thyroid tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Humans. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17593687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Lectins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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9. Wilhelm T, Metzig A: Video. Endoscopic minimally invasive thyroidectomy: first clinical experience. Surg Endosc; 2010 Jul;24(7):1757-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Since Theodor Kocher reduced the mortality rate of thyroidectomy from the 40% reported by Billroth to 0.2% in 1895, a collar incision with open removal of the thyroid gland is the standard procedure.
  • A first attempt was replacement of the central "Kocher incision" with lateral neck incisions and endoscopic removal of a thyroid lobe by Hüscher on 8 July 1996.
  • This lateral access was limited to removing only one lobe of the gland.
  • These authors reduced the incision to a size of 20 to 25 mm and operated on the thyroid by the use of video-endoscopic assistance (MIVAT).
  • Therefore, we developed an exclusively endoscopic approach for thyroid resection with standard instruments used for minimally invasive surgery (diameter, 3.5 mm).
  • During routine diagnosis, the thyroid hormones T3, T4, and TSH were controlled and within normal levels.
  • Thyroid scintigraphy, B-mode ultrasound examination, and laryngoscopy were performed preoperatively.
  • Carbon dioxide then was insufflated at 6 mmHg to build a tent above the thyroid gland.
  • After a midline incision of the linea alba, the fibrous capsule of the thyroid gland could been seen.
  • The gland was loosened from the trachea and the adjacent lamella.
  • Finally, the lower pole was detached, allowing the thyroid to be freely movable.
  • Recovery of the tumor was performed through the median trocar incision after the optic device was moved through a lateral trocar.
  • The tumor volume was 5.5 ml.
  • CONCLUSION: With the development of an exclusively endoscopic approach for thyroid resection (eMIT) and its first clinical application, we could show the safety and feasibility of another natural orifice surgery procedure.
  • Investigating this infection risk, Hong and Yang evaluated the surgical results associated with the intraoral approach for submandibulectomy in a series of 77 cases of chronic sialadenitis and benign mixed tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20035350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
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10. Xu J, Capezzone M, Xu X, Hershman JM: Activation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase gene promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta in human papillary thyroid cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol; 2005 Feb;19(2):527-39
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  • [Title] Activation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase gene promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta in human papillary thyroid cancer cells.
  • We previously demonstrated that the human nicotinamide N-methytransferase (NNMT) gene was highly expressed in many papillary thyroid cancers and cell lines.
  • The expression in other papillary and follicular cancers or cell lines and normal thyroid cells was low or undetectable.
  • BHP 14-9) NNMT gene expression, and expressed weakly in follicular thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • HNF-1beta was not expressed or expressed very weakly in other papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cancer cell lines and primary cultures of normal thyroid cells and benign thyroid conditions.
  • Cotransfection of a HNF-1beta expression plasmid increased NNMT promoter activity significantly in both HNF-1beta-positive and -negative thyroid cancer cell lines and Hep G2 liver cancer cells.
  • In summary, HNF-1beta functions as a transcription activator for NNMT gene expression in some papillary thyroid cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Methyltransferases / genetics. Methyltransferases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Blotting, Western. Catalysis. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cloning, Molecular. Enzyme Activation. Gene Deletion. Genes, Reporter. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta. Humans. Luciferases / metabolism. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase. Plasmids / metabolism. Protein Binding. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15486044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HNF1B protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.1 / NNMT protein, human; EC 2.1.1.1 / Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase
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11. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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12. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • This had been performed to search for a primitive tumor in a patient with bone metastasis.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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13. Prasad ML, Pellegata NS, Huang Y, Nagaraja HN, de la Chapelle A, Kloos RT: Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):48-57
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  • [Title] Galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, HBME1 and cytokeratin-19 immunohistochemistry is useful for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid tumors is critical for clinical management; however, tumors with follicular architecture often present problems.
  • We evaluated the diagnostic use of the protein expression of four genes that were found to be upregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal thyroid (LGALS3, FN1, CITED1 and KRT19), and of the mesothelial cell surface protein recognized by monoclonal antibody HBME1 in thyroid tumors.
  • Coexpression of FN1 and GAL3 (FN1+ GAL3+, 70/85) or FN1 and HBME1 (FN1+ HBME1+, 53/85) was restricted to carcinomas, while their concurrent absence (FN1- GAL3- or FN1- HBME1-, 18/21 adenoma) was highly specific (96%) for benign lesions.
  • An immunohistochemical panel consisting of GAL3, FN1 and HBME1 may be useful in the diagnosis of follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibronectins / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins. Statistics as Topic. Trans-Activators / analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 15272279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00034
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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14. Shimizu K, Nakamura K, Kobatake S, Satomura S, Maruyama M, Kameko F, Tajiri J, Kato R: The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid. Clin Chim Acta; 2007 Apr;379(1-2):101-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical utility of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum for distinguishing benign from malignant conditions of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma consists of periodic withdrawal from L-T4-suppressive therapy to allow performance of a highly sensitive serum Tg measurement to detect recurrences.
  • We investigated Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive thyroglobulin ratios in serum to evaluate in usefulness for detection of thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 93 serum sample from 23 healthy volunteers, 32 patients with benign thyroid tumor, 28 patients with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis, and 10 patients with thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: The Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in patients with thyroid carcinoma was significantly lower than in patients with benign thyroid tumor with serum thyroglobulin concentration >200 ng/ml.
  • Among cases of thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratios were significantly lower than in patient with thyroid carcinoma without metastasis and those with benign tumor regardless of serum thyroglobulin concentration.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of Lens culinaris Agglutinin reactive thyroglobulin ratio in serum may be useful for distinguishing between thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Plant Lectins / immunology. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding, Competitive. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / lentil lectin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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15. Datta RV, Petrelli NJ, Ramzy J: Evaluation and management of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules. Surg Oncol; 2006 Jul;15(1):33-42
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  • [Title] Evaluation and management of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules.
  • Thyroid nodules are present in 4-10% of the adult population.
  • However, less than 1% of all cancers occur in the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid nodules are usually an incidental finding in a routine clinical or an ultrasound examination of the neck performed for some other reason.
  • Differentiating a benign nodule, which may require no specific treatment, from a malignant nodule presents a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Molecular markers and immunohistochemical studies done on thyroid nodule cytology may help in differentiating benign from malignant.
  • This article presents a review of the literature for the diagnosis and management of the thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / therapy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Iodine / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroxine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16935490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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16. Medvedec M: Thyroid stunning in vivo and in vitro. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Aug;26(8):731-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid stunning in vivo and in vitro.
  • AIM: To review published in-vivo and in-vitro quantitative dosimetric studies on thyroid stunning in order to derive novel data applicable in clinical practice.
  • METHODS: A non-linear regression analysis was applied to describe the extent of thyroid stunning in thyroid remnants, as a function of the radiation absorbed dose of diagnostic radioiodine-131 (I), in thyroid cancer patients investigated in four in-vivo studies.
  • Fitted curves were compared with two recent models, the first found in patients with benign thyroid disease and the second found in cultured thyroid cells after I irradiation.
  • RESULTS: The extrapolated absorbed doses for the onset of thyroid stunning were 0 Gy delivered to thyroid cells in vitro, and < or =4 Gy and 34 Gy delivered to thyroid cells in vivo (malignant and benign conditions, respectively).
  • Thyroid stunning amounted to roughly 50% in the case of 2 Gy delivered to thyroid cells in vitro, and in the case of < or =30 Gy and 472 Gy delivered to thyroid cells in vivo (malignant and benign conditions, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no scintigraphically sufficient diagnostic amount of I that can be given prior to I therapy for thyroid cancer that does not cause thyroid stunning, i.e. it is not recommended to deliver pre-therapeutically more than a few gray (<5 Gy) into thyroid remnants.
  • More investigations are required to confirm the proposed in-vitro and benign in-vivo models, but characteristic absorbed doses presented so far for in-vitro vs. in-vivo malignant vs. in-vivo benign thyroid environments differ roughly by an order of magnitude.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Burden. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / adverse effects. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Regression Analysis. Relative Biological Effectiveness. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16000993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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17. Kameyama K, Ito K, Takami H: [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1973-8
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  • [Title] [Pathology of benign thyroid tumor].
  • True benign neoplasm of the thyroid gland is only follicular adenoma, which is a tumor derived from follicular cells.
  • The architectural pattern of follicular adenoma varies from trabecular to macrofollicular, and in most instances more than one architectural pattern is observed in one tumor.
  • Adenomatous goiter, a hyperplastic lesion of follicles, is the most common tumorous lesion of thyroid gland.
  • The gland is distorted with a nodular surface.
  • Mature or immature teratoma is also observed in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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18. Lyshchik A, Higashi T, Asato R, Tanaka S, Ito J, Mai JJ, Pellot-Barakat C, Insana MF, Brill AB, Saga T, Hiraoka M, Togashi K: Thyroid gland tumor diagnosis at US elastography. Radiology; 2005 Oct;237(1):202-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid gland tumor diagnosis at US elastography.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the elastographic appearance of thyroid gland tumors and explore the potential sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic (US) elastography for differentiating benign and malignant tumors, with histopathologic analysis as the reference standard.
  • Fifty-two thyroid gland lesions (22 malignant, 30 benign) in 31 consecutive patients (six men, 25 women; mean age, 49.7 years +/- 14.7 [standard deviation]) were examined with real-time elastography in the elasticity imaging mode implemented on a clinical US scanner modified for research.
  • In addition, normal thyroid gland tissue and thyroid gland tumor strains were measured on off-line processed elastograms, and the thyroid gland-to-tumor strain ratio (ie, strain index) was calculated.
  • The potential of elastographic criteria for the diagnosis of thyroid gland cancer was evaluated with univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
  • RESULTS: A strain index value greater than 4 on off-line processed elastograms was the strongest independent predictor of thyroid gland malignancy (P < .001); this criterion had 96% specificity and 82% sensitivity.
  • Two other elastographic criteria, which were evaluated on real-time elastograms--a margin regularity score higher than 3 (88% specificity, 36% sensitivity) and a tumor area ratio higher than 1 (92% specificity, 46% sensitivity)--also were associated with malignancy (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSION: Elastography is a promising imaging technique that can assist in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomechanical Phenomena. Cysts / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Elasticity. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2005
  • (PMID = 16118150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Berger F, Unterholzner S, Diebold J, Knesewitsch P, Hahn K, Spitzweg C: Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Nov 3;349(4):1258-63
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  • [Title] Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma.
  • The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer.
  • In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy (131)I scan following radioiodine therapy.
  • Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts.
  • In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy (131)I scan.
  • These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Symporters / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Human / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Tissue Distribution. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16982034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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20. Cheema Y, Olson S, Elson D, Chen H: What is the biology and optimal treatment for papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid? J Surg Res; 2006 Aug;134(2):160-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What is the biology and optimal treatment for papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid?
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid, defined as tumors measuring < or =10 mm, are believed to be a less aggressive subset of papillary cancers that behave more like benign lesions and are often more conservatively treated.
  • METHODS: From May 1994 to October 2004, 184 patients underwent thyroid surgery at the University of Wisconsin and had papillary thyroid cancer present in the resected gland.
  • Of these patients, 10 were excluded because there was no record of tumor size.
  • The mean tumor size was 5.7 +/- 0.38 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid are quite common, comprising almost half of all papillary cancers.
  • Thus, papillary microcarcinomas appear to have a similar biology to other low risk papillary thyroid cancers and, in our opinion, may warrant similar treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16780882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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21. Chen HC, Jen YM, Wang CH, Lee JC, Lin YS: Etiology of vocal cord paralysis. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):167-71
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  • OBJECTIVE: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a sign of a certain underlying disease, a diagnosis which can be attributed to various causes.
  • In males, neoplasm was the most common cause occurring in 63 of 176 males, whereas surgery was most frequent in 59 of 115 females.
  • The possibility of a neoplasm must be ruled out before VCP is labeled idiopathic.
  • A benign thyroid tumor could also cause VCP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Laryngeal Neoplasms / complications. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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22. Park YJ, Kwak SH, Kim DC, Kim H, Choe G, Park DJ, Jang HC, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Aug;22(4):621-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • The distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors is critical for the management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • We applied immunohistochemical staining for galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in 295 thyroid lesions to determine their diagnostic accuracy.
  • The expression of all markers was significantly associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • The sensitivity for the diagnosis of DTC was 94.7% with galectin-3, 91.3% with HBME-1, and 90.3% with CK19.
  • Combining these markers, co-expression of galectin-3 and CK19 or galectin-3 and HBME-1 was seen in 93.2% of carcinomas but in none of the benign nodules.
  • These results suggest that 1) galectin-3 is a useful marker in the distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors, 2) the combined use of HBME-1 and CK19 can increase the diagnostic accuracy, and 3) the use of CK19 and HMWCK can aid in the differential diagnosis between PC and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17728499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693809
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23. Larsen SR, Godballe C, Krogdahl A: Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter. Thyroid; 2010 Apr;20(4):435-7
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter.
  • BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura.
  • Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported.
  • We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation.
  • The results of thyroid function tests were normal.
  • Complete surgical removal of tumor is the treatment of choice.
  • The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland.
  • All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Solitary Fibrous Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20373988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Vimentin
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24. Krohn K, Maier J, Paschke R: Mechanisms of disease: hydrogen peroxide, DNA damage and mutagenesis in the development of thyroid tumors. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Oct;3(10):713-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms of disease: hydrogen peroxide, DNA damage and mutagenesis in the development of thyroid tumors.
  • Somatic mutations can be identified in two-thirds of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas and 'hot' thyroid nodules, whereas equivalent mutations relevant for benign 'cold' thyroid nodules are unknown.
  • This Review summarizes current knowledge about early molecular conditions for nodular and tumor transformation in the thyroid gland.
  • We reconstruct a line of events that could explain the predominant neoplastic character (i.e. originating from a single mutated cell) of thyroid nodular lesions.
  • This process might be triggered by the oxidative nature of thyroid hormone synthesis or additional oxidative stress caused by iodine deficiency or smoking.
  • If the antioxidant defense is not effective, this oxidative stress can cause DNA damage followed by an increase in the spontaneous mutation rate, which is a platform for tumor genesis.
  • The hallmark of thyroid physiology--H2O2 production during hormone synthesis--is therefore very likely to be the ultimate cause of frequent mutagenesis in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Damage. Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism. Mutagenesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17893690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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25. Pujani M, Arora B, Pujani M, Singh SK, Tejwani N: Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):304-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt.
  • RESULTS: Ki-67 labeling index (LI) showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):378 [21921351.001]
  • (PMID = 20587907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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26. Banks ND, Kowalski J, Tsai HL, Somervell H, Tufano R, Dackiw AP, Marohn MR, Clark DP, Umbricht CB, Zeiger MA: A diagnostic predictor model for indeterminate or suspicious thyroid FNA samples. Thyroid; 2008 Sep;18(9):933-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A diagnostic predictor model for indeterminate or suspicious thyroid FNA samples.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of patients with thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens that are neither benign nor malignant still remains problematic.
  • This study seeks to identify clinical and tumor characteristics that predict thyroid malignancy among patients with indeterminate or suspicious FNA and to develop a diagnostic predictor model.
  • METHODS: The records of 639 patients with an indeterminate or suspicious thyroid FNA between January 1995 and April 2005 were reviewed.
  • Patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated for their potential to predict malignancy in the final surgical histopathology.
  • Patients with FNA cytology suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma had the greatest risk of malignancy (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A predictor model was created using the variables age, nodule size, and FNA cytology to predict thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Decision Support Techniques. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Mar;5(3):140-1 [19190587.001]
  • (PMID = 18788917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Papini E, Bizzarri G, Pacella CM: Percutaneous laser ablation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Oct;15(5):434-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous laser ablation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Percutaneous image-guided procedures, largely based on thermal ablation, are at present under investigation for achieving a nonsurgical targeted cytoreduction in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In several uncontrolled clinical trials and in two randomized clinical trials, laser ablation has demonstrated a good efficacy and safety for the shrinkage of benign cold thyroid nodules.
  • In hyperfunctioning nodules, laser ablation induced a nearly 50% volume reduction with a variable frequency of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.
  • Laser ablation has been tested for the palliative treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, local recurrences or distant metastases.
  • SUMMARY: Laser ablation therapy is indicated for the shrinkage of benign cold nodules in patients with local pressure symptoms who are at high surgical risk.
  • Laser ablation does not seem to be consistently effective in the long-term control of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and is not an alternative treatment to 131I therapy.
  • Laser ablation may be considered for the cytoreduction of tumor tissue prior to external radiation therapy or chemotherapy of local or distant recurrences of thyroid malignancy that are not amenable to surgical or radioiodine treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Laser Therapy / methods. Thyroid Nodule / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18769216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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28. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):353-61; discussion 361-3
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  • [Title] ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid neoplasms and improve the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genes that regulate cellular invasion and metastasis are differentially expressed and could serve as diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Patients whose thyroid nodules have indeterminate or suspicious cytologic features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy require thyroidectomy because of a 20% to 30% risk of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms were identified by extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule cDNA array analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • RESULTS: By cDNA array analysis, ADAMTS8, ECM1, MMP8, PLAU, SELP, and TMPRSS4 were upregulated, and by quantitative PCR, ECM1, SELP, and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression was higher in malignant (n = 57) than in benign (n = 38) thyroid neoplasms (P< 0.002).
  • ECM1 and TMPRSS4 mRNA expression levels were independent predictors of a malignant thyroid neoplasm (P < 0.003).
  • The level of ECM1 mRNA expression was higher in TNM stage I differentiated thyroid cancers than in stage II and III tumors (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ECM1 and TMPRSS4 are excellent diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and may be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • ECM1 is also a marker of the extent of disease in differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Gene Expression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16135921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / transmembrane serine protease 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357743
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29. Ide H, Terado Y, Nakagawa T, Saito K, Kamiyama Y, Muto S, Okada H, Imamura T, Horie S: Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;12(5):379-81
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  • Thyroid hormones have important effects on development, growth, and metabolism, as well as tumorigenesis.
  • We report a case of adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with hyperthyroidism; this benign tumor expressed both thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Incidental Findings. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha / metabolism. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17929121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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30. Rossi ED, Raffaelli M, Mule' A, Miraglia A, Lombardi CP, Vecchio FM, Fadda G: Simultaneous immunohistochemical expression of HBME-1 and galectin-3 differentiates papillary carcinomas from hyperfunctioning lesions of the thyroid. Histopathology; 2006 Jun;48(7):795-800
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  • [Title] Simultaneous immunohistochemical expression of HBME-1 and galectin-3 differentiates papillary carcinomas from hyperfunctioning lesions of the thyroid.
  • AIMS: The histological diagnosis is critical for the postsurgical management and follow-up of thyroid malignancies.
  • The differential diagnosis between papillary carcinoma and hyperfunctioning lesions, either with papillary hyperplasia or with a follicular architecture, can create real diagnostic difficulty.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of several antibodies considered to be markers of malignancy in malignant and hyperfunctioning thyroid neoplasms and to include the most effective of them in a diagnostic panel.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred resected thyroid nodules--58 hyperfunctioning benign lesions and 42 papillary carcinomas (14 follicular variant, 14 macrofollicular variant and 14 classic type)--were immunohistochemically studied for HBME-1, galectin-3, cytokeratin (CK) 19 and RET-proto-oncogene.
  • CONCLUSION: An immunohistochemical panel consisting of HBME-1 and galectin-3 can make a correct distinction between malignant and hyperfunctioning thyroid neoplasms with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / analysis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16722927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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31. Küçük NO, Tari P, Tokmak E, Aras G: Treatment for microcarcinoma of the thyroid--clinical experience. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Apr;32(4):279-81
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  • [Title] Treatment for microcarcinoma of the thyroid--clinical experience.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid is a specific subgroup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and account for up to 30% of all PTC.
  • According to the World Health Organization, papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid (PMC) is defined as a papillary thyroid carcinoma measuring <or=10 mm in the greatest dimension.
  • The relative rate of PMC is increasing in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) mainly due to more frequent use and improvement of ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and also more accurate histopathological examination of surgical specimens.
  • The high incidence of PMC found in autopsy studies (up to 35%) suggests that most of them have a benign behavior.
  • " The aim of this study was to investigate retrospectively the frequency and clinical behavior of PMC of the thyroid gland in our department and also to identify the optimal treatment of this group of patients.
  • The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 43 +/- 13 years (range 17-67 years).
  • The patients were informed about the different therapeutic strategies and the possible necessity for more frequent radioiodine treatment to eliminate thyroid remnants.
  • All of the patients in our retrospective study had radioiodine (RAI) ablation therapy for residual thyroid tissue.
  • In 112/120 patients (93.3%), the thyroid remnant was ablated with a single dose of I-131 75-150 mCi (2.7-5.5 GBq).
  • Locoregional reccurence occurred in 2 patients with unifocal tumor, without capsular invasion or lymph node metastases and in 6 patients with multifocal tumor and/or in patients with capsular invasion or lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 17413573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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32. Arnaldi LA, Borra RC, Maciel RM, Cerutti JM: Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):210-21
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • To investigate the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of thyroid tumors, we compared the gene expression profiles of three thyroid carcinoma cell lines, which represent major tumor subtypes of thyroid cancer and normal thyroid tissue.
  • Using cDNA array methodology, we investigated the expression of 1807 open reading frame expressed sequence tags (ORESTES), selected from head and neck tumor libraries generated through the Brazilian Human Cancer Project-LICR/FAPESP.
  • We found that 505 transcripts were differentially expressed in the thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Five candidate genes were further validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in an independent set of 52 thyroid tumors and 22 matched normal thyroid tissues.
  • DCN was found underexpressed in a high percentage of the follicular thyroid adenomas, follicular thyroid carcinomas, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • DIO1 and DIO2 were underexpressed in nearly all papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • These genes not only could help to better define a tumor signature for thyroid tumors, but may, in part, also become useful as potential targets for thyroid tumor treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Proteoglycans / genetics. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Decorin. Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Open Reading Frames. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15785240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DCN protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Decorin; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Proteoglycans; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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33. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


34. Oh JG, Yoon CH, Lee CW: Case of Cowden syndrome associated with eccrine angiomatous hamartoma. J Dermatol; 2007 Feb;34(2):135-7
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  • Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomatous tumors of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origin.
  • Thyroid adenoma was diagnosed at age 46.
  • Histological examination of the skin lesion on the left foot showed an increased numbers of eccrine sweat glands and blood vessels, which are characteristic histological findings of eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH), a rare benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17239153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Guarino V, Faviana P, Salvatore G, Castellone MD, Cirafici AM, De Falco V, Celetti A, Giannini R, Basolo F, Melillo RM, Santoro M: Osteopontin is overexpressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and enhances thyroid carcinoma cell invasiveness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5270-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin is overexpressed in human papillary thyroid carcinomas and enhances thyroid carcinoma cell invasiveness.
  • The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44v6 is overexpressed in most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • Furthermore, we wanted to establish the functional role of the CD44-OPN axis in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN: Thyroid samples from 117 patients who had undergone surgical resection of the thyroid gland for benign or malignant lesions were collected.
  • RESULTS: In this study we show that OPN is overexpressed in human PTCs with respect to normal thyroid tissue, follicular adenomas, and multinodular goiters (P < 0.05).
  • The prevalence and intensity of OPN staining were significantly correlated with the presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.0091) and tumor size (P = 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Sialoglycoproteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Membranes / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteopontin. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction


36. Leinung S, Möbius C, Udelnow A, Hauss J, Würl P: Histopathological outcome of 597 isolated soft tissue tumors suspected of soft tissue sarcoma: a single-center 12-year experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):508-11
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present report was to analyze the patients referred to us with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
  • Open biopsy revealed soft tissue sarcoma in 318 cases, benign mesenchymal tumor in 124 cases and isolated metastases (ISTM) from carcinomas in 98 patients; other pathologies were found in 57 patients.
  • The primary carcinomas were lung cancer in 26 patients, breast cancer in 19 patients, renal carcinoma in 16 patients, carcinoma of the esophagus in 12 patients, colonic carcinoma in 5 patients, thyroid gland cancer in 6 patients, and in 14 patients carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our collective with soft tissue tumor, 50% of the patients had the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 20% presented with a metastasis of carcinoma and 20% had a benign tumor.
  • Referring to our results, in patients with the presumptive diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas, soft tissue metastasis of a primary carcinoma was unexpectedly common, indicating that greater consideration should be given to this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17081724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Snarska J, Szajda SD, Knaś M, Mroczko B, Borzym-Kluczyk M, Kamiński F, Zwierz P, Zwierz K: [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(5-6):332-5
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity and thyrotropic hormone concentration in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid].
  • Epidemiological studies have shown the increased incidence of malignant cancer of the thyroid gland observed in the last decade.
  • This increase is connected with the elevated number of benign tumor-like/tuberous changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of detecting cancer procoagulant activity (CP) and thyrotropic hormone concentration (TSH) in the differentiation of tumor-like changes in the thyroid gland.
  • The results of our study indicate that the determination of CP activity can be used in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like changes of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cysteine Endopeptidases / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.26 / cancer procoagulant
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38. Liu Z, Liu D, Bojdani E, El-Naggar AK, Vasko V, Xing M: IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6009-18
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  • [Title] IQGAP1 plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the role of IQGAP1 in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and its potential as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in this cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined IQGAP1 copy gain and its relationship with clinicopathologic outcomes of thyroid cancer and investigated its role in cell invasion and molecules involved in the process.
  • RESULTS: We found IQGAP1 copy number (CN) gain ≥ 3 in 1 of 30 (3%), 24 of 74 (32%), 44 of 107 (41%), 8 of 16 (50%), and 27 of 41 (66%) of benign thyroid tumor, follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), tall cell papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, in the increasing order of invasiveness of these tumors.
  • A similar tumor distribution trend of CN ≥ 4 was also seen.
  • The siRNA knockdown of IQGAP1 dramatically inhibited thyroid cancer cell invasion and colony formation.
  • This provided a mechanism for the invasive role of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IQGAP1, through genetic copy gain, plays an important role in the invasiveness of thyroid cancer and may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113507-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA113507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113507-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ras GTPase-Activating Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242709; NLM/ PMC3005072
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39. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid nodules generally allows to make the diagnosis and to choose the proper clinical management.
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2002 in our Department of Pathology the cytopathologic diagnosis of FT and OT was made in 102 and 25 cases respectively.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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40. Pavelić K, Dedivitis RA, Kapitanović S, Cacev T, Guirado CR, Danić D, Radosević S, Brkić K, Pegan B, Krizanac S, Kusić Z, Spaventi S, Bura M: Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions. Mutat Res; 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):45-57
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions.
  • Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis.
  • We undertook this study to analyze FHIT and p53 gene status in different benignant and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis.
  • The majority of the malignant thyroid cancers displayed aberrant expression of FHIT gene, concominant with p53 gene inactivation.
  • This is followed by low rate of apoptosis, which may be important in the development and/or progression of thyroid cancer.
  • Concomitant aberration of FHIT gene and p53 could be responsible for development of highly malignant types of thyroid cancer and may be considered as a prognostic marker for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Apoptosis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Molecular Biology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16698048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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41. Fan SQ, Liang QC, Jiang Y: Thyroid teratoma in an 11-month-old infant. Int J Surg; 2008 Dec;6(6):462-4
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  • [Title] Thyroid teratoma in an 11-month-old infant.
  • We report a case of congenital benign thyroid teratoma in an 11-month-old male infant who was found to have right thyroid gland mass since birth.
  • The tumor was 25 x 20 x 15 mm with whole thin capsule and could be easily dissected from the surrounding normal thyroid tissue at surgery.
  • Histologically, tumor had mature derivatives of the three primordial germ layers with a variety of benign and well-differentiated elements.
  • It was the most conspicuous feature that the tumor was composed mainly of the neurological tissue resembling brain tissue with glial cells and ependymal epithelium components.
  • In summary, benign teratoma of thyroid gland in an 11-month-old infant was morphologically and immunophenotypically identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19059145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Gartner W, Mineva I, Daneva T, Baumgartner-Parzer S, Niederle B, Vierhapper H, Weissel M, Wagner L: A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients. Hum Genet; 2005 Jul;117(2-3):143-53
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  • [Title] A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients.
  • To investigate endocrine tumor tissue characteristic RET proto-oncogene expression, we performed quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and Southern blot analyses of benign and malignant endocrine-derived tissues.
  • In addition, the presence of a 3'-terminally truncated RET proto-oncogene mRNA variant in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias, as well as in a pheochromocytoma, an ovarian carcinoma and a medullary thyroid carcinoma, is demonstrated.
  • Heterozygous genotypes were found in a significantly higher percentage in samples derived from endocrine tumor patients when compared with those from healthy control subjects.
  • Analysis of DNA derived from varying regions within individual anaplastic thyroid carcinomas revealed an allele 1/allele 2 switch of the RFLP banding pattern, indicating loss of heterozygosity at the RET proto-oncogene locus.
  • A heterozygous genotype for this polymorphism is found in a considerable number of endocrine tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] 3' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15841388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6717
  • [Journal-full-title] Human genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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43. Monteros Alvi M, Gonorazky S, Virgili E, Soler G, Fernández M, van Cauwlaert L: [Non-incidental papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid]. Medicina (B Aires); 2008;68(2):139-43
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  • [Title] [Non-incidental papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Microcarcinomas papilares de tiroides no incidentales.
  • The clinical significance of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland keeps being controversial.
  • Its high prevalence in autopsies and as incidental findings in thyroidectomy specimens for benign pathology indicate an indolent clinical behavior.
  • To determine the clinical and pathological characteristics of non-incidental papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid (PTM -NI).
  • 18 patients with diagnosis of non-incidental papillary microcarcinoma (tumor < or = 1 cm) with nodular expression in the thyroid gland or with lymph node metastasis have been studied.
  • Initial diagnosis, prediction factors and evolution have been evaluated.
  • 6 patients had positive fine needle aspiration (FNA) of palpable thyroid nodules.
  • Histologically 83.3% of the nodules in the thyroid were non-encapsulated and showed papillary growth pattern.
  • 46% of the patients with thyroid nodules > or = 4 mm and lymph node involvement (N1) showed recurrence/persistence.
  • These results suggest two groups of non- incidental papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid (PMT-NI), one intraglandular without risk of evolution -N0- and other extraglandular at risk of recurrence -N1-.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Ganglia / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18499963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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44. Mathur A, Weng J, Moses W, Steinberg SM, Rahbari R, Kitano M, Khanafshar E, Ljung BM, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1170-6; discussion 1176-7
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  • [Title] A prospective study evaluating the accuracy of using combined clinical factors and candidate diagnostic markers to refine the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of fine needle aspiration biopsies of the thyroid have inconclusive results.
  • We conducted a prospective trial to determine whether clinical and molecular markers could be used in combination to improve the accuracy of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • METHODS: Clinical, tumor genotyping for common somatic mutations (BRAF V600E, NRAS, KRAS, RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, and NTRK1), and the gene expression levels of 6 candidate diagnostic markers were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods in 341 patients to determine whether they could distinguish reliably benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms, and a scoring model was derived.
  • The overall accuracy of the scoring model, including these 3 variables, to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors was 91%, including 67% for the indeterminate and 77% for the suspicious FNA subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Ethnic Groups. Female. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation. Prospective Studies. RNA / genetics. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroidectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Published by Mosby, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21134548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240002; NLM/ PMC3052943
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45. Fuhrer D, Eszlinger M, Karger S, Krause K, Engelhardt C, Hasenclever D, Dralle H, Paschke R: Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):785-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor II, cyclooxygenase-2, ets-1 and thyroid-specific thyroglobulin mRNA expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three markers (insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ets-1) of thyroid growth stimulation and cell transformation together with a thyroid-specific marker (thyroglobulin (Tg)) for their potential to differentiate benign and malignant follicular thyroid neoplasia (FN).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR in 100 snap-frozen thyroid samples: 36 benign thyroid nodules with different histology and function (19 cold (CTN) and 17 toxic thyroid nodules (TTN)), 36 corresponding normal thyroid tissues of the same patients, eight Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, 10 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and 10 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • RESULTS: Mean IGF-II and COX-2 levels were not significantly altered between benign and malignant thyroid nodules (IGF-II) or nodular (FTC, TTN, CTN) and normal thyroid tissues (COX-2).
  • In contrast, eight- to tenfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in PTC and three- to fourfold upregulation of ets-1 was observed in FTC (and GD) compared with benign thyroid nodules and normal thyroid tissues.
  • In addition, thyroglobulin mRNA expression was markedly downregulated (50- to 100-fold) in FTC, PTC and GD samples compared with benign nodular and normal thyroid tissues.
  • Hence an ets-1/Tg ratio >20 distinguished differentiated thyroid cancer from benign nodular or normal thyroid tissue.
  • However, in a consecutive series of 40 FNAC samples only equivocal results were obtained on 38 benign and two malignant (FTC) thyroid tumour samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of ets-1 and downregulation of Tg mRNA expression occur in differentiated thyroid cancer and may facilitate pre-operative identification of thyroid malignancy depending on further evaluation of these potentially promising markers in a larger series of benign and malignant thyroid tumours and their FNAC samples.

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  • (PMID = 15879365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ETS1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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46. Meyer EL, Wagner MS, Maia AL: [Iodothyronine deiodinases expression in thyroid neoplasias]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):690-700
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  • [Title] [Iodothyronine deiodinases expression in thyroid neoplasias].
  • [Transliterated title] Expressão das iodotironinas desiodases nas neoplasias tireoidianas.
  • The iodothyronine deiodinases constitute a family of selenoenzymes that catalyze the removal of iodine from the outer ring or inner ring of the thyroid hormones.
  • The activating enzymes, deiodinases type I (D1) and type II (D2), are highly expressed in normal thyroid gland.
  • Benign or malignant neoplastic transformation of the thyroid cells is associated with changes on the expression of these enzymes, suggesting that D1 or D2 can be markers of cellular differentiation.
  • Abnormalities on the expression of both enzymes and also of the deiodinase type III (D3), that inactivates thyroid hormones, have been found in other human neoplasias.
  • So far, the mechanism or implications of these findings on tumor pathogenesis are not well understood.
  • Nevertheless, its noteworthy that abnormal expression of D2 can cause thyrotoxicosis in patients with metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma and that increased D3 expression in large hemangiomas causes severe hypothyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Hemangioma / enzymology. Hemangioma / genetics. Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17891232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type II; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type III; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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47. Guerriero E, Ferraro A, Desiderio D, Pallante P, Berlingieri MT, Iaccarino A, Palmieri E, Palombini L, Fusco A, Troncone G: UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Jun 25;118(3):157-65
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  • [Title] UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples belonging to the follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy classes are controversial.
  • The authors identified UbcH10 as a marker useful in the diagnosis of several neoplasms, including thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A series of 84 follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy FNAs with histological follow-up (30 malignant) was prospectively collected.
  • RESULTS: UbcH10 and Ki-67 shared a similar pattern; although UbcH10 expression was higher in malignant than in benign lesions (P < .001), staining was sporadic, and the cutoff value derived by the ROC analysis was too low (1.25%) for routine application.
  • UbcH10 mRNA levels associated with malignant histology were significantly higher than those associated with benign histology (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: UbcH10 quantitative RT-PCR analysis, rather than immunohistochemistry, is useful to increase the detection of malignancy in thyroid FNAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / analysis. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20544706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 6.3.2.19 / UBE2C protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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48. Arora N, Scognamiglio T, Zhu B, Fahey TJ 3rd: Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review. World J Surg; 2008 Jul;32(7):1237-46
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  • [Title] Do benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential? An evidence-based review.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign thyroid tumors account for most nodular thyroid disease.
  • Determination of whether a thyroid nodule is benign or malignant is a major clinical dilemma and underlies the decision to proceed to surgery in many patients.
  • Although the accuracy of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has reduced the need for surgery over the years, questions regarding how to follow FNA-designated benign nodules remain unresolved.
  • This is true at least in part because of uncertainty over whether some benign nodules harbor malignant potential.
  • RESULTS: Review of our recent 10-year experience indicates that 2% of thyroid malignancies arise within a preexisting benign thyroid nodule.
  • In addition, both cytologic and molecular tumor markers, including Gal-3, CITED1, HBME-1, Ras, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR gamma, have been identified in some histopathologically classified benign nodules.
  • Gene expression profiling suggests that follicular adenomas and Hürthle cell adenomas have similarities to both benign and malignant tumors, suggesting that some of these tumors are premalignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Some benign thyroid nodules have malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Hyperplasia. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18327528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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49. Zhao Z, Wei Q, Zhao Y, Sun F, Jin X, Cui B, Ning G: Genetic copy number alterations and IL-13 expression differences in papillary thyroid cancers and benign nodules. Endocrine; 2009 Aug;36(1):155-60
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  • [Title] Genetic copy number alterations and IL-13 expression differences in papillary thyroid cancers and benign nodules.
  • Thyroid nodules were the extremely common endocrine tumors, in which papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) were the most prevalent endocrine malignancy, representing 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • It was still a dilemma to discriminate PTCs and benign thyroid nodules.
  • With a new molecular genetics technology of Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), we investigated 13 PTC and 14 benign nodule tissue samples.
  • The results showed that PTCs had more genetic copy number alteration than benign nodules (P < 0.001).
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis suggested that genomic aberrations would provide a moderate accuracy method to discriminate PTCs and benign nodules.
  • The gain of interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene obviously identified the great difference between PTCs and benign nodules.
  • The current study showed that MLPA should be an effective method to diagnose PTCs and benign thyroid nodules, and also provided a clue to another relationship between IL-13 and PTCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Interleukin-13 / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Dosage. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19507063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-13
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50. Torres-Cabala C, Bibbo M, Panizo-Santos A, Barazi H, Krutzsch H, Roberts DD, Merino MJ: Proteomic identification of new biomarkers and application in thyroid cytology. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):518-28
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  • [Title] Proteomic identification of new biomarkers and application in thyroid cytology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To validate proteins identified by proteomics as potentially usable markers in thyroid pathology.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Frozen sections of thyroid tumors were manually micro-dissected and proteins extracted.
  • Validation of candidates for tumor markers (galectin-1, galectin-3, S100C and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 [VDAC1]) was done by immunohistochemistry in 21 cell blocks from fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and corresponding histology specimens (13 cases).
  • RESULTS: Galectin-3 was negative in benign lesions and positive in FNAB from papillary carcinoma (5 of 5), follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (1 of 4) and follicular carcinoma (1 of 2).
  • S100C was positive in some benign lesions: hyperplasia (2 of 4), goiter (1 of 3) and follicular adenoma (1 of 3), with predominantly nuclear pattern of staining.
  • Galectin-1 was negative in benign lesions and positive in follicular carcinoma (1 of 2), papillary carcinoma (2 of 5) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (1 of 4).
  • VDAC1 was detected in benign and malignant lesions, showing a strong positivity in follicular carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical validation of potential markers is a crucial step before clinical application in diagnosis.
  • Galectin-3, galectin-1 and S100C can be used to help in discriminating benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Proteomics / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromatography, Liquid / methods. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Galectin 1 / analysis. Galectin 1 / metabolism. Galectin 3 / analysis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Mass Spectrometry / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. S100 Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 / analysis. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 1; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / LGALS1 protein, human; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / VDAC1 protein, human; 146909-89-9 / S100A11 protein, human; EC 1.6.- / Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1
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51. Ak I, Acikalin MF: Hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Sep;32(9):713-5
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  • A rare case of primary hyperparathyroidism with a functioning parathyroid cyst in whom Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy failed to detect a parathyroid tumor is presented.
  • Neck ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion measured 30 x 42 x 35 mm on the right inferior side of the thyroid gland.
  • Pathologic diagnosis revealed a benign parathyroid cyst.

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  • (PMID = 17710026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Strazisar B, Petric R, Sesek M, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M, Besic N: Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):582-6
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of carcinoma in 279 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Estimation of the risk of malignancy in a Hürthle cell (HC) neoplasm is important for optimum extent of thyroid surgical treatment.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with HC neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A total of 279 patients (241 females, 38 males; median age 55 years, range 15-86 years) with HC neoplasm in whom carcinoma was only suspected and who were surgically treated at our Institute in the period 1990-2007, were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: The histopatological diagnoses were carcinoma, benign goiter and adenoma in 71 (25%), 68 (25%) and 140 (50%) patients, respectively.
  • Predictive factors for carcinoma, shown by chi-square test, were: age of patients, tumor diameter, thyroid volume and T(g) concentration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The independent predictors of malignancy in HC neoplasm were age of patients and pre-operative T(g) concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20461764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Guimarães GS, Latini FR, Camacho CP, Maciel RM, Dias-Neto E, Cerutti JM: Identification of candidates for tumor-specific alternative splicing in the thyroid. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2006 Jun;45(6):540-53
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  • [Title] Identification of candidates for tumor-specific alternative splicing in the thyroid.
  • To gain knowledge about whether alternative splicing is linked to thyroid tumorigenesis, we used our prediction database to select targets for analysis.
  • Fifteen putatively new alternative splicing isoforms were selected on the basis of their expression in thyroid libraries and/or their origin in genes previously associated with carcinogenesis.
  • Using a set of 66 normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue samples, new splicing events were confirmed by RT-PCR for 13 of 15 genes (a validation rate of 87%).
  • Five genes (PTPN18, ABI3BP, PFDN5, SULF2, and ST5) presented new and/or additional unpredicted isoforms differentially expressed between malignant and benign or normal thyroid tissues, confirmed by sequencing.
  • In addition, real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression of an alternative PFDN5 variant was higher in malignant lesions than in benign lesions or normal tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Alternative Splicing. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16493598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms
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54. Park M, Shin JH, Han BK, Ko EY, Hwang HS, Kang SS, Kim JH, Oh YL: Sonography of thyroid nodules with peripheral calcifications. J Clin Ultrasound; 2009 Jul-Aug;37(6):324-8
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  • [Title] Sonography of thyroid nodules with peripheral calcifications.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the role of sonography (US) in the differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules with peripheral calcifications.
  • METHODS: Sixty-four thyroid nodules with peripheral calcifications that were detected on US were included in the study.
  • Nineteen nodules (30%) were benign, and 45 nodules (70%) were malignant.
  • We retrospectively compared the US findings of the benign and malignant nodules, including interruption, thickening (>or=0.5 mm and over more than 50% of the circumference) of calcifications, internal echogenicity, margin, and presence of cystic change, size, and shape.
  • RESULTS: Interruption of peripheral calcifications was more common in malignant nodules (84%) than in benign nodules (53%) (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 1.3-48.4; p < 0.05).
  • Thickening of the peripheral calcification was seen more frequently in malignant nodules (64%) than in benign nodules (11%) (OR, 14.7; 95% CI, 1.8-117.5; p < 0.05).
  • For internal echogenicity, malignant nodules (58%) were more often hypoechoic than benign nodules (OR, 23.6; 95% CI, 2.2-256.3; p < 0.01).
  • The mean tumor size was 1.1 cm for malignant nodules and 1.2 cm for benign nodules (p > 0.05).
  • There were no significant differences for the presence or absence of cystic change, size, shape, and margin between malignant and benign nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Interruption and thickening of peripheral calcifications and decreased internal echogenicity of a thyroid nodule with peripheral calcifications are in favor of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19441092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Papacharalampous GX, Korres S, Tzagaroulakis M, Segas I, Ferekidis E: Paraganglioma of the larynx: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Dec;13(12):CS145-8
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  • These tumors are generally considered benign.
  • The tumor was entirely removed along with the left aryepiglottic fold with respect to the surrounding tissues.
  • Histopathological examination showed a benign laryngeal paraganglioma.
  • The differential diagnosis of laryngeal paraganglioma includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Although these tumors are generally considered benign, their surgical removal with respect to the surrounding tissues and maximal possible preservation of laryngeal function is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18049441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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56. Erkiliç S, Koçer NE: The role of cytokeratin 19 in the differential diagnosis of true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papillary carcinoma-like changes in Graves' disease. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):63-6
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  • [Title] The role of cytokeratin 19 in the differential diagnosis of true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and papillary carcinoma-like changes in Graves' disease.
  • All types of thyroid cancers may co-exist with Graves' disease but papillary carcinoma is the most frequent.
  • The differential diagnosis between a true papillary carcinoma and foci mimicking papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease may be challenging by light microscopic features only.
  • This study is designed to determine whether CK19 is effective in the discrimination between the true papillary carcinoma of thyroid and foci resembling papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease.
  • It is known that CK19 may show faint staining in benign thyroid lesions such as adenomas.
  • Staining pattern with CK19 together with histopathological findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between foci mimicking papillary carcinoma and true papillary carcinoma in Graves' disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16000848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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57. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Fronio G, Malecka-Tendera E, Rojek M, Janowska J: Thyroid antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with benign thyroid nodules treated by percutaneous ethanol injections. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Jan;43(1):12-6
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  • [Title] Thyroid antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with benign thyroid nodules treated by percutaneous ethanol injections.
  • OBJECTIVE: Treatment of benign thyroid tumors with percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) is an alternative to radioiodine and surgery.
  • This procedure causes a release of large amounts of denaturated thyroglobulin within the gland which may become an autoantigen, triggering the mechanism of autoimmunization.
  • The aim of the study was to investigate whether ethanol injections can induce increased levels of thyroid autoantibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in patients with nonfunctioning or pre-toxic thyroid nodules.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients (31 F, 3 M) with single benign thyroid tumors were enrolled, 23 (20 F/3 M) with nonfunctioning nodule (group 1) and 11 (F) with pre-toxic nodule characterized by normal free thyroid hormones and low TSH (group 2).
  • Under sonographic guidance, sterile 96% ethanol solution was injected into thyroid nodules at 2-week intervals up to a dose of 0.7-1.0 ml of ethanol per 1.0 ml nodule volume.
  • RESULTS: PEI treatment decreased tumor volume by 75.8% in group 1 and by 80.4% in group 2, and normalized TSH level in 90.9% of patients with pre-toxic nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: PEI procedure is a safe method for treating nonfunctioning and pre-toxic thyroid nodules since this treatment reduces tumor size significantly without inducing long-lasting autoimmune reactions in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Ethanol / therapeutic use. Solvents / administration & dosage. Solvents / therapeutic use. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Nodule / drug therapy. Thyroid Nodule / immunology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15704609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-1965
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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59. Wang JD, Deng XC, Jin XJ, Zhou C, Zhang C, Xie M, Zhou JQ, Qian MF: [Clinical research on 2228 cases of thyroid gland tumors]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;40(4):295-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical research on 2228 cases of thyroid gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss outcome of thyroid tumor patients treated with surgery.
  • These patients of thyroid tumors from 1992-2004 (2072 cases of benign thyroid diseases and 156 cases of thyroid carcinoma) were recruited.
  • (1) Benign thyroid tumors with near-total thyroidectomy including 1761 thyroid adenoma, 207 nodular goiter and 104 Hashimoto thyroiditis, the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was 0.2%, 55 cases (2.6%) received secondary surgery.
  • All the patients have no hypocalcemia or hemorrhage after operation. (2) Eighty-one cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid ( > 1 cm) and 60 cases of microcarcinoma.
  • Unilateral thyroidectomy, contralateral near-total thyroidectomy and ipsilateral modified neck dissection were performed in unilateral papillary carcinoma of thyroid.
  • Among the 9 cases of follicular carcinoma of thyroid, 7 were performed of near-total thyroidectomy without neck dissection, others were the same as papillary carcinoma.
  • Bilateral total thyroidectomy and bilateral modified neck dissection were performed in 2 cases of the medullary thyroid cancer and 1 case of the undifferentiated thyroid cancer.
  • There is no relapse or metastases in 60 cases of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • The 5-year survival was 100.0%, 1 cases occurred recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis in thyroid cancer.
  • Eight case relapsed in 156 cases of thyroid carcinoma,3 cases died.
  • CONCLUSION: The correct surgical management for the patients with thyroid tumor should benefit for the prognosis and reduce the complications and the recurrence of the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16008266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. Lal G, Padmanabha L, Nicholson R, Smith BJ, Zhang L, Howe JR, Robinson RA, O'Dorisio MS: ECM1 expression in thyroid tumors--a comparison of real-time RT-PCR and IHC. J Surg Res; 2008 Sep;149(1):62-8
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  • [Title] ECM1 expression in thyroid tumors--a comparison of real-time RT-PCR and IHC.
  • BACKGROUND: Increased extracellular matrix 1 (ECM1) expression, as determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), has been recently proposed as a novel and independent diagnostic marker for malignant thyroid nodules.
  • However ECM1 protein expression has not been previously evaluated in thyroid tumors.
  • Real-time RT-PCR is not widely available and this has important implications for the widespread use of the expression of this gene for diagnosis.
  • The purpose of the current study is to evaluate and compare ECM1 expression by real-time RT-PCR with immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic aids in thyroid neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: ECM1 expression was studied in normal thyroid tissues (n = 14) and primary thyroid tumors (19 benign, 30 malignant) using both techniques.
  • RESULTS: ECM1 was highly expressed in thyroid carcinomas, compared with benign thyroid tissues, both at the mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein (P = 0.06) levels.
  • However, ECM1 mRNA expression appeared to be a more sensitive marker of thyroid malignancy than IHC (AUC = 0.77 and 0.65, respectively).
  • ECM1 expression by both methods was useful in identifying malignant follicular, but not Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that ECM1 expression has potential utility as an independent diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer, although, performance characteristics were lower than previously published.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression. Humans. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18374945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA91578; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA82691
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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61. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • The application of contrast-enhanced sonography could improve the vessels visualization and point out characteristic features of benign and malignant changes.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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62. Kawano Y, Tamura A, Goto Y, Shinozaki K, Zaizen H, Kadota J: Incidental detection of cancers and other non-cardiac abnormalities on coronary multislice computed tomography. Am J Cardiol; 2007 Jun 1;99(11):1608-9
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  • Cancers were found in 7 patients (1.13%) on the multislice computed tomographic images, including 4 lung cancers (0.65%), 2 thyroid cancers (0.32%), and 1 hepatic cancer (0.16%).
  • In addition, nonmalignant abnormalities (nodules, tumors, or lymphadenopathies) were also found in 142 patients (23.01%), consisting of 58 postinflammatory lung nodules (9.40%), 49 hepatic cysts or hemangiomas (7.94%), 18 benign thyroid tumors (2.92%), 12 mediastinal lymphadenopathies (1.94%), 4 benign mammary gland tumors (0.65%), and 1 esophageal submucosal tumor (0.16%).
  • [MeSH-major] Coronary Artery Disease / radiography. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


63. Giovanella L, Ceriani L, Ghelfo A, Maffioli M: Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Circulating cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with benign nodules and carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is an acidic protein of 40 kDa that is part of the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells and is highly expressed by differentiated thyroid carcinomas, mainly of the papillary subtype.
  • The present study was planned to assess the serum expression of Cyfra 21.1 in patients with benign thyroid nodules and thyroid malignancies.
  • We enrolled 135 patients with histologically proven benign thyroid nodules (n=79) and thyroid carcinomas (n=56).
  • No differences were found in serum Cyfra 21.1 levels between patients with benign nodules and patients with carcinomas.
  • When thyroid malignancies were subdivided according to tumor histology, serum Cyfra 21.1 increased significantly from classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas (papillary or follicular) to less differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas (poorly differentiated or anaplastic).
  • These pathways characterized anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma but not classical forms of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Consequently, Cyfra 21.1 may be regarded as a circulating marker of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Additionally, a role of Cyfra 21.1 as a dedifferentiation marker in patients with classical differentiated thyroid carcinomas may be postulated and should be explored by further focused studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Keratin-19 / blood. Keratins / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Nodule / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18409152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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64. Bomeli SR, LeBeau SO, Ferris RL: Evaluation of a thyroid nodule. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):229-38, vii
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  • [Title] Evaluation of a thyroid nodule.
  • The thyroid specialist frequently evaluates thyroid nodules because they may represent malignancy.
  • Yet, the majority of thyroid nodules are asymptomatic and benign, so the thyroid surgeon must rely on diagnostic studies to determine when surgery is indicated.
  • Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for thyroid nodules, and the ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the preferred method of tissue sampling.
  • Detecting malignancy preoperatively allows total thyroidectomy in a single operation without the need for frozen section or a second operation for completion of a thyroidectomy if malignancy is found during the initial thyroid lobectomy.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20510711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115902-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115902; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115902-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS177041; NLM/ PMC2879398
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65. Ulisse S, Baldini E, Toller M, Delcros JG, Guého A, Curcio F, De Antoni E, Giacomelli L, Ambesi-Impiombato FS, Bocchini S, D'Armiento M, Arlot-Bonnemains Y: Transforming acidic coiled-coil 3 and Aurora-A interact in human thyrocytes and their expression is deregulated in thyroid cancer tissues. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):827-37
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  • [Title] Transforming acidic coiled-coil 3 and Aurora-A interact in human thyrocytes and their expression is deregulated in thyroid cancer tissues.
  • Aurora-A kinase has recently been shown to be deregulated in thyroid cancer cells and tissues.
  • In this study, we demonstrated the expression of the TACC3 gene in normal human thyroid cells (HTU5), and its modulation at both mRNA and protein levels during cell cycle.
  • Its expression was found, with respect to HTU5 cells, unchanged in cells derived from a benign thyroid follicular tumor (HTU42), and significantly reduced in cell lines derived from follicular (FTC-133), papillary (B-CPAP), and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (CAL-62 and 8305C).
  • Moreover, in 16 differentiated thyroid cancer tissues, TACC3 mRNA levels were found, with respect to normal matched tissues, reduced by twofold in 56% of cases and increased by twofold in 44% of cases.
  • TACC3 and Aurora-A interact in vivo in thyroid cells and both proteins localized onto the mitotic structure of thyroid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17914111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / TACC3 protein, human; 639089-54-6 / VX680; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2216418
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66. Papi G, Corrado S, LiVolsi VA: Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jun;125 Suppl:S95-123
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  • [Title] Primary spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland; an overview.
  • Spindle cell lesions of the thyroid gland (T-SCL) are not encountered routinely in clinical practice or in the context of thyroid pathology.
  • Primary T-SCL can be derivedfromfollicular, C-cell (parafollicular), or mesenchymal components and may be the result of reactive or neoplastic processes, including post-fine-needle aspiration spindle cell nodules, Riedel thyroiditis, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation, follicular dendritic cell tumor, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation.
  • Because T-SCL may represent the expression of benign and highly malignant neoplasms, distinction among these processes is crucial because it dictates therapy and defines prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibrous Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16830961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 354
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67. Lee JH, Lee HK, Lee DH, Choi CG, Gong G, Shong YK, Kim SJ: Ultrasonographic findings of a newly detected nodule on the thyroid bed in postoperative patients for thyroid carcinoma: correlation with the results of ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Clin Imaging; 2007 Mar-Apr;31(2):109-13
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  • [Title] Ultrasonographic findings of a newly detected nodule on the thyroid bed in postoperative patients for thyroid carcinoma: correlation with the results of ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We evaluated the ultrasonographic findings and performed ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a newly detected nodule in the thyroid bed of 38 patients with postoperative thyroid carcinoma.
  • Detection of a marginal irregularity, microcalcification, or a shape not parallel to the surrounding tissue plane might allow the identification of recurrent thyroid carcinoma from other benign pathologies mimicking local tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17320777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Kalinichenko OV, Myshunina TM, Tron'ko MD: [B-, H- and L-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999); 2010 Mar-Apr;82(2):53-8
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  • [Title] [B-, H- and L-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands].
  • B-, H- and L-catepsine-like activity regarding Na-benzoyl-D,L-arginine-4-nitroanilide, L-leucine-4-nitroanilide and azocasein was studied in the blood plasma of patients with different diseases of thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands.
  • High B- catepsine-like activity in the blood plasma of patients with thyroid diseases was exceptionally fixed under the nodular forms of thyroid pathology, while the character of changes in L catepsine-like activity under these diseases was not so natural.
  • In diaseses of the adrenal glands the changes in the B- and L-catepsine-like activity were only shown in the blood plasma of patients with cerebral layer tumors but not the gland cortex: B-catepsine-like activity increased in the blood plasma of patients with benign or malignant tumors, and L-catepsine-like activity decreased under benign tumor from chromaffin tissue.
  • The established picture of changes in enzymatic activity in the blood plasma of patients does not allow to think that the determination of blood B- and L- catepsine-like activity can be recommended for obtaining additional information at diagnosis thyroid diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Cathepsin B / blood. Cathepsin H / blood. Cathepsin L / blood. Parathyroid Diseases / blood. Thyroid Diseases / blood

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  • (PMID = 20684245.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ukraïnsʹkyĭ biokhimichnyĭ z︠h︡urnal (1999 )
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999)
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / CTSB protein, human; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; EC 3.4.22.16 / CTSH protein, human; EC 3.4.22.16 / Cathepsin H
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69. Santeusanio G, Schiaroli S, Ortenzi A, Mulè A, Perrone G, Fadda G: Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):231-5
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review.
  • Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare tumour principally found in adults in the pleural cavity.
  • Two cases of SFT of the thyroid gland are described in this paper showing their distinctive microscopical architecture, namely "patternless growth pattern".
  • Tumour cells revealed a diffuse strong positivity for CD34, CD99, bcl-2 and Vimentin, but negativity for Desmin, EMA, AE1/AE3, SMA, S-100 and CD31 antibodies.
  • The differential diagnosis of thyroid SFT includes different types of spindle cell proliferation, benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, fasciitis-like papillary carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • However, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings of SFT are so characteristic that this diagnosis seldom represent a difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20614321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807559
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / Review / Solitary fibrous tumour / Thyroid
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70. Choi YJ, Yun JS, Kim DH: Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid.
  • Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas.
  • Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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71. Kaliszewski K, Łukieńczuk T, Dobosz T, Rzeszutko M, Sadakierska-Chudy A: [Analysis of expression of LGALS3BP gene in thyroid tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:38-44
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  • [Title] [Analysis of expression of LGALS3BP gene in thyroid tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer].
  • In the thyroid gland, the high expression of this protein has been described in differentiated carcinomas, especially in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gal-3 protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in benign (27 multinodular goiters) and malignant (30 papillary carcinomas) thyroid tissues and galectin-3 mRNA expression by real-time PCR in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 90 patients with multinodular goiter (n = 27), papillary carcinoma (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 33).
  • 23 of 27 benign thyroid nodular goiters were negative for Gal-3 expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in Gal-3 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer in relation to nodular goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glycoproteins / genetics. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17091455.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LGALS3BP protein, human; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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72. Singh A, Pandey KC, Pant NK: Cavitary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung with metastases in skeletal muscles as presenting features: a case report and review of the literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jul-Sep;6(3):350-2
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  • Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of lung are rare neoplasms originating in bronchial submucosal glands and comprising 0.1-0.2% of primary lung cancers.
  • MECs, the most common malignancy in salivary glands, were earlier thought to occur only in salivary glands.
  • Later studies showed that they can arise as a primary in bronchus, esophagus, lacrimal glands, pancreas, thymus and thyroid gland.
  • Initially described as a benign adenoma, it is now considered to be a malignant epithelial tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21119274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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73. Brown LM, Helmke SM, Hunsucker SW, Netea-Maier RT, Chiang SA, Heinz DE, Shroyer KR, Duncan MW, Haugen BR: Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue. Mol Carcinog; 2006 Aug;45(8):613-26
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  • [Title] Quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression between papillary thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid tissue.
  • In order to better understand basic mechanisms of tumor development and identify potential new biomarkers, we have performed difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and peptide mass fingerprinting on pooled protein extracts from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) compared with matched normal thyroid tissue.
  • Image analysis of DIGE gels comparing PTC and matched normal thyroid tissue protein indicated that 25% of the protein spots were differentially expressed at a 2.5-fold cutoff and 35% at two-fold.
  • Comparison between two different pools of protein from normal thyroid tissues revealed differential protein expression of only 4% at 2.5-fold and 6% at two-fold cutoff.
  • We confirmed S100A6 as a potentially useful biomarker using immunohistochemical analysis (85% sensitivity and 69% specificity for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms).

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  • (PMID = 16788983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-1987
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046934; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46934-15; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK054383; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK054383
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS20526; NLM/ PMC1899163
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74. Mete O, Rotstein L, Asa SL: Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb;17(2):386-91
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  • [Title] Controversies in thyroid pathology: thyroid capsule invasion and extrathyroidal extension.
  • INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN: Endocrine pathologists, surgeons, and oncologists who manage patients with thyroid carcinomas confront many critical dilemmas.
  • Controversies surrounding diagnostic criteria that distinguish benign from malignant thyroid follicular lesions have been brought to the attention of this community.
  • In this article, we confront another controversy, the definition of a thyroid "capsule" to clarify what constitutes extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and its clinical significance in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our review of the anatomy of the thyroid gland confirms that this structure has no defined anatomical fibrous capsule.
  • Moreover, the presence of adipose tissue within the thyroid gland and its pseudocapsule implies that thyroid tumor within fat tissue cannot be accepted as a criterion of ETE by that thyroid carcinoma.
  • While invasion of skeletal muscle is a more reliable feature of ETE, at the isthmus, these fibers can be normally present within the gland, and this criterion does not have value.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19949881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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75. Chen BB, Yeh CC, Chang TC, Hsiao CH, Chen KY, Liu KL: Computed tomography diagnosis of primary thyroid teratoma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2005 Jul;104(7):514-7
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  • [Title] Computed tomography diagnosis of primary thyroid teratoma.
  • Teratomas occur mainly in the gonads, and rarely in the thyroid.
  • Teratomas in the thyroid occur mainly in neonates and are often benign.
  • Here we report a case of primary benign teratoma of the thyroid gland in a 15-year-old female, which was accurately diagnosed by computed tomography before surgery.
  • The tumor was a well-defined cystic mass in the right thyroid region, with a fat-containing nodule in the cystic tumor causing displacement of the trachea.
  • Demonstration of the fat component within a well-defined cystic mass in the thyroid region allows accurate diagnosis of teratoma, localization of the tumor extent before operation, and adequate treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16091830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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76. Ranaldi R, Morichetti D, Goteri G, Martino A: Immature teratoma of the mediastinum arising in ectopic thyroid tissue: a case report. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Aug;31(4):233-8
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  • [Title] Immature teratoma of the mediastinum arising in ectopic thyroid tissue: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary carcinoma can arise from ectopic thyroid tissue, but teratoma have not been described.
  • Differentiation into thyroid follicles does not occur in mediastinal teratomas.
  • The histologic examination revealed the presence of a discontinuous rim of compressed thyroid follicles on the outer aspect of the tumor capsule.
  • This finding is consistent with the origin of the teratoma in ectopic thyroid tissue, and it has not been previously described in the literature.
  • The patient was free of disease after 22 months, in accordance with the benign behavior of immature teratoma in infancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Ectopic thyroid tissue can undergo the same pathologic changes as the thyroid gland, including the rare occurrence of teratoma.

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  • (PMID = 19736871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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77. Zagrodzki P, Nicol F, Arthur JR, Słowiaczek M, Walas S, Mrowiec H, Wietecha-Posłuszny R: Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2010 Apr;134(1):25-40
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  • [Title] Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor.
  • This study was performed to investigate selenoenzyme activities and trace element concentrations in thyroid tissues, with reference to other parameters routinely used to characterize thyroid function.
  • This was to reveal relevant parameters as possible additional markers of tumor grade, clinical course, and prognosis of thyroid disorders.
  • The tissue samples were obtained during surgical treatment (total or near total thyroidectomy) of 122 patients with different types of thyroid tumor.
  • In the majority of cases, thyroid benign or malignant tumors were not accompanied by significant derangement of the gland selenoenzymes and of either intrathyroidal or plasma concentration of selenium.
  • Nevertheless, types I and II iodothyronine deiodinases were the most promising (among selenoenzymes) targets for diagnoses and possibly therapy of thyroid tumors.
  • Higher activities of both enzymes in cases with Graves' disease, as compared with other thyroid lesions, suggest their involvement in the pathogenesis of this condition.
  • Patients with struna nodosa had higher levels of thyroid Zn, Cu, and Pb as compared with papillary carcinoma subjects and also a higher level of Cu than follicular carcinoma cases.
  • The above diagnostics may play a similar role to some of the general thyroid function indices, TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO, and calcitonin, which can partially distinguish between various thyroid tumors.
  • Multivariate statistical methods should be employed to tackle a broad array of thyroid tumor diagnostic data in a short time.
  • [MeSH-major] Selenium / metabolism. Selenoproteins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Trace Elements / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19597722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Selenoproteins; 0 / Trace Elements; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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78. Trojanowicz B, Brodauf L, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Finke R, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: The role of AUF1 in thyroid carcinoma progression. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):857-71
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  • [Title] The role of AUF1 in thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • We report here that AUF1 may be involved in thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • Investigations on thyroid tissues revealed that cytoplasmic expression of AUF1 in malignant tissues was increased when compared with benign thyroid tissues.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cell lines, AUF1 was mostly detectable in the nucleus; however, in dividing cells, its increased production was also observed in the cytoplasm.
  • We found AUF1 in complexes with ARE-bearing mRNAs, previously described to be crucial for proliferation and cell cycle of thyroid carcinoma.
  • AUF1 may control the balance between stabilizing and destabilizing effects, both of which are exerted on cell cycle machinery in thyroid carcinoma.
  • Although we cannot exclude participation of other factors, thyroid carcinoma may recruit cytoplasmic AUF1 to disturb the stability of mRNAs encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, leading to uncontrolled growth and progression of tumor cells.
  • Thus, AUF1 may be considered as a new, additional marker for thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / antagonists & inhibitors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Knockdown Techniques. Genes, cdc. Humans. Protein Binding. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19574297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / hnRNP D0
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79. Kim TY, Kim WB, Ryu JS, Gong G, Hong SJ, Shong YK: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jun;115(6):1074-8
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  • [Title] 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid from positron emission tomogram (PET) for evaluation in cancer patients: high prevalence of malignancy in thyroid PET incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of incidental thyroid F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomogram (PET) scan for evaluation in cancer patients and the role of standard uptake value (SUV) measurement in differentiation of thyroid malignancy from benign disease.
  • METHODS: Four thousand one hundred thirty-six subjects had been given FDG-PET scan for evaluation of known malignancies not associated with thyroid.
  • The maximum SUVs of the thyroid lesions were recorded and reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-four (2.2%) were identified to have focal (n = 45, 1.1%) or diffuse (n = 45, 1.1%) thyroid FDG uptake.
  • The incidence of focal or diffuse thyroid FDG uptake was higher in women (2.7% or 1.9%) than in men (0.4% or 0.7%).
  • Cytologic diagnosis was available in 32 of 45 focal thyroid FDG uptakes.
  • In 16 (50%) patients, the tumor was found to be malignant; 14 were papillary thyroid carcinoma (surgically confirmed in 7 cases), 2 were metastatic tumor from breast and esophagus.
  • Sixteen were cytologically diagnosed as follicular cell lesions: follicular neoplasm (n = 2), nodular hyperplasia (n = 7), indeterminate follicular lesion (n = 7).
  • There was no significant difference in maximum SUV between benign and malignant nodules.
  • From 45 patients with diffuse thyroid FDG uptake, presumptive diagnosis of chronic thyroiditis was possible in 34 patients by clinical and laboratory findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that a cytologic diagnosis of focal thyroid FDG-PET incidentaloma regardless of SUV is mandatory considering the very high prevalence of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroiditis

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  • (PMID = 15933524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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80. Larumbe A, Iglesias ME, Illarramendi JJ, Córdoba A, Gállego M: [Acral keratoses and inverted follicular keratosis presenting Cowden disease]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jul-Aug;98(6):425-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Queratosis acras y queratosis folicular invertida como manifestación de la enfermedad de Cowden.
  • Cowden disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple hamartomas in the skin, thyroid, breast, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Breast and thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant) develop in up to two thirds of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Keratosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Humans. Lymphangioma / etiology. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17663933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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81. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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82. Chiang FY, Lin JC, Lee KW, Wang LF, Tsai KB, Wu CW, Lu SP, Kuo WR: Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome. Surgery; 2006 Sep;140(3):413-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumors with preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this present study is to define the significance of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) detected before surgery for thyroid diseases with regard to the incidence of malignancy, histopathologic distribution, extrathyroidal invasion, management, and prognosis.
  • METHODS: Six hundred and twenty-two patients underwent operation for various thyroid disease and were treated by the same surgeon.
  • The study was confined to 16 (3%) patients who suffered from a thyroid tumor with preoperative RLNP.
  • RESULTS: Of these 16 patients, 1 had benign thyroid disease, while the other 15 had malignancy (94%).
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be dissected from the thyroid neoplasm in 3 patients, 2 of whom experienced recovery of this nerve's function postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid tumor associated with RLNP is strongly suggestive of malignancy.
  • The RLN should be preserved if it has not been invaded by the tumor, because it offers a good chance of functional recovery postoperatively.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for only half of these patients who tend to present at an older age and feature a much higher incidence of upper aerodigestive tract invasion.
  • Radical excision of a resectable anaplastic or squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland offers the chance, albeit small, of long-term survival in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Nerves / pathology. Laryngeal Nerves / physiology. Laryngeal Nerves / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16934603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Cai Q, Huang XM, Sun W, Zheng YQ, Lu X, Guo MM, Chen B, Liang FY, Han P: [Comparison of endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach and conventional approach on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease.]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;44(11):926-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach and conventional approach on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease.].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study on thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease with endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients experienced thyroid bilateral gland lobe surgery with endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach; 24 experienced conventional surgery simultaneously and were enrolled in control group.
  • Criteria of patients selected for thyroid bilateral gland lobe surgery with endoscopic monolateralanterior chest approach:with no surgical history of thyroid or other neck-related diseases and no chemotherapy; diagnosed with benign tumor according to presurgery CT result and thyroid functional examination.
  • Diameter of tumor on both sides should be smaller than 4 cm, one side smaller than 2 cm, located at lower middle part of gland lobe and near to gland surface.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gasless endoscopic monolateral anterior chest approach can well treat selected thyroid bilateral gland lobe disease and with a better cosmetic result than conventional surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20079075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. de Souza Meyer EL, Dora JM, Wagner MS, Maia AL: Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jun;62(6):672-8
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  • [Title] Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentation towards papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (D1) catalyses the 5' monodeiodination of T4 and is highly expressed in normal human thyroid gland.
  • We have investigated D1 expression in a series of benign and malignant differentiated thyroid neoplasias.
  • DESIGN: Surgically isolated thyroid tumour fragments were used.
  • RESULTS: In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), D1 mRNA and activity levels were decreased compared with the surrounding tissue (0.25 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.09 +/- 0.54 arbitrary units (AU), P < 0.001 and 0.08 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.15 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.045, respectively).
  • By contrast, significantly higher D1 mRNA levels and enzyme activity were present in follicular adenoma (1.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.58 AU, P = 0.028 and 2.67 +/- 1.42 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.06 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P = 0.044, respectively) and in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) than in surrounding normal tissue (1.2 +/- 0.46 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.18 AU, P = 0.038 and 1.20 +/- 0.58 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.10 pmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001, respectively).
  • Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) activity was also significantly higher in metastatic FTC samples than in normal thyroid tissues (5.20 +/- 0.81 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.27 fmol T4/min/mg protein, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that thyroid cell dedifferentiation promotes changes in D1 gene expression by pretranscriptional mechanisms and indicate that decreased D1 expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell dedifferentiation towards papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15943828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.- / iodothyronine deiodinase type I; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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85. Letsas KP, Frangou-Lazaridis M, Skyrlas A, Tsatsoulis A, Malamou-Mitsi V: Transcription factor-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Pathol Int; 2005 Nov;55(11):694-702
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  • [Title] Transcription factor-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Proliferation and apoptosis-related transcription factor immunoexpression patterns were concomitantly investigated in tissue sections of normal thyroid, goiters, follicular adenomas and well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas using antibodies against prothymosin alpha, E2F-1, p53, Bcl2, and Bax proteins.
  • Positive Bcl2 immunostaining was detected in all thyroid histotypes.
  • These data demonstrate that prothymosin alpha and E2F-1 are strongly involved in the proliferation processes of thyroid neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / physiopathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. E2F1 Transcription Factor / analysis. E2F1 Transcription Factor / immunology. E2F1 Transcription Factor / physiology. Female. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Precursors / analysis. Protein Precursors / immunology. Protein Precursors / physiology. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Repressor Proteins / immunology. Repressor Proteins / physiology. Thymosin / analogs & derivatives. Thymosin / analysis. Thymosin / immunology. Thymosin / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / analysis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / immunology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16271081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCLAF1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / prothymosin alpha; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin
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86. Musso-Lassalle S, Butori C, Bailleux S, Santini J, Franc B, Hofman P: A diagnostic pitfall: nodular tumor-like squamous metaplasia with Hashimoto's thyroiditis mimicking a sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(5):379-83
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  • [Title] A diagnostic pitfall: nodular tumor-like squamous metaplasia with Hashimoto's thyroiditis mimicking a sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia.
  • Nodular tumor-like squamous metaplasia with Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an exceptional, benign condition presenting diagnostic difficulties for the pathologist.
  • The main differential diagnosis is a sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMC) with eosinophilia.
  • We present the different histological criteria, allowing us to eliminate an SMC and other neoplastic tumors of the thyroid.
  • The etiology of this tumor-like lesion, which is still under debate, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Eosinophilia / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged


87. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):70-4
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  • [Title] The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • AIM: Expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the thyroid gland tissue is well known as a sensitive marker of the thyroid malignancy.
  • We have evaluated immunohistochemical assay of TPO for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed tissues obtained from 92 patients with thyroid tumors (52 follicular carcinomas and 40 follicular adenomas including the Hurthle cell type) were analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (TPO mAb 47) and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique.
  • Lesions with staining of more than 80% of the follicular cells/specimen were considered benign, while less than 80% were considered malignant.
  • RESULTS: TPO immunostaining correlated with the histopathological diagnosis in 24/40 cases of follicular adenomas and 41/52 cases of follicular carcinomas, giving a specificity of 60% and a sensitivity of 79%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that immunohistochemical assay of TPO expression has limited value for the differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma from thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16614712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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88. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Ultrasonographic features (eg, a solid echo structure, microcalcifications, and a hypoechoic pattern) were predictive for malignant neoplasms.
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Mambo E, Chatterjee A, Xing M, Tallini G, Haugen BR, Yeung SC, Sukumar S, Sidransky D: Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 10;116(6):920-4
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  • [Title] Tumor-specific changes in mtDNA content in human cancer.
  • We examined mtDNA content in 25 pairs of normal and tumor breast tissue samples, 37 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 21 benign thyroid neoplasms and in 20 paired normal and PTC samples.
  • Our results showed that mtDNA content was reduced in 80% of the breast tumors relative to their corresponding normal. mtDNA was increased in papillary thyroid carcinomas, however, when compared to the corresponding normal DNA taken from the same individual.
  • Our findings indicate that changes in mtDNA content during carcinogenesis may be regulated in a tumor specific manner.
  • Additionally, changes in mtDNA levels did not correlate with tumor grade and metastasis, suggesting that these alterations may occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reference Values. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15856456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U01CA084986-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA077664-07
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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90. Evenson A, Mowschenson P, Wang H, Connolly J, Mendrinos S, Parangi S, Hasselgren PO: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jun;193(6):707-12
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma--an uncommon thyroid tumor frequently misdiagnosed as papillary or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is an uncommon benign thyroid tumor that can present as a solitary thyroid nodule, a prominent nodule in a multinodular goiter, or as an incidental finding in a thyroidectomy specimen.
  • METHODS: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 7 patients presenting with a solitary thyroid nodule (n = 4) or a multinodular goiter (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although HTA is a rare condition of the thyroid, the surgeon needs to be aware of this entity to be able to better discuss the pathological findings with the patient, particularly since some pathologists and endocrinologists believe that HTA may represent a malignant neoplasm of low metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17512281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Zhou C, Wang Y, Aguirre AD, Tsai TH, Cohen DW, Connolly JL, Fujimoto JG: Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy. J Biomed Opt; 2010 Jan-Feb;15(1):016001
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  • [Title] Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy.
  • We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast.
  • 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma).
  • Characteristic features that suggest malignant lesions, such as complex papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues.
  • With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 20210448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-2281
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075289-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075289; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075289-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA75289-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2844129
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92. Xu L, Zhong F, Guo FF, Zhao WJ, Sun XR, Wei XF: [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;37(4):243-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid.
  • To compare the expression differences of motilin and it precursor mRNA between normal thyroid and intestines.
  • To study the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in human thyroid tumors and their clinical implications.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR, Southern blot and molecular cloning were used to detect motilin transcript expression in human thyroid and mucous membrane of small intestine.
  • Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify motilin precursor mRNA and motilin peptide in thyroid tissue samples including adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid was primarily in the thyroid C cells. (2) RT-PCR and Southern blot showed that motilin mRNA expressed in human thyroid was identical to that expressed in duodenum with identical sequence deposited in NCBI Genbank of America. (3) Immunohistochemistry, Western blot research and real-time PCR studies showed that motilin and its precursor mRNA were expressed in normal and tumor tissues of human thyroid.
  • Thyroid tumors (acidophilic adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter) showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for motilin peptide.
  • Moreover, the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullar carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • The expression in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas were significantly lower than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference of the expression between nodular goiter and normal thyroid tissue (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motilin peptide and its precursor mRNA are expressed in C cells of human thyroid.
  • The expressions of both motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma are significantly increased.
  • In contrast, their expressions in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas are significantly decreased.
  • Motilin may regulate physiological functions of the thyroid through parafollicular cells.
  • Motilin may be involved in the pathogenesis of medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Motilin / metabolism. RNA Precursors / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18844033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 52906-92-0 / Motilin
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93. Shams TM, Samaka RM, Shams ME: Maspin protein expression: a special feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Sep;18(3):274-80
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  • [Title] Maspin protein expression: a special feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) is down regulated in breast and prostate cancers and is considered as a tumor suppressor gene.
  • On the contrary, it is over expressed in pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas and is reported to be an oncogene rather than a tumor suppressor gene.
  • The studies of maspin expression in thyroid neoplasia, the focus of this study, are limited.
  • We, therefore, carried out this work in order to detect the frequency and pattern of maspin expression in thyroid neoplasia.
  • MATERIAL & METHODS: An immunohistochemical approach was performed on 63 thyroid specimens showing different benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Also, five specimens of the surrounding normal thyroid tissue were included as control.
  • RESULTS: Maspin was only detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and it was negative in all other studied thyroid tissues.
  • There was no statistically significant relation between maspin positive cases and the studied clinicopathological parameters including patient's age, sex and tumor stage.
  • On the other hand, it was statistically significant as regards tumor multicentricity, vascular and lymphatic invasion, as well as lymph node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Maspin expression is a special feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) which can be used as a therapeutic target.
  • It may be suggested that the genesis of PTC may be different from other types of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Serpins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17671538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SERPIN-B5; 0 / Serpins
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94. Costanzo M, Caruso LA, Messina DC, Cavallaro A, Palumbo A, Marziani A, Cannizzaro MA: [Thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid diseases]. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 Mar-Apr;76(2):119-21; discussion 121-2
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  • [Title] [Thyroid microcarcinoma in benign thyroid diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma tiroideo nelle tireopatie benigne.
  • INTRODUCTION: Thyroid microcarcinoma is a malignant thyroid tumor with potential multifocality and a maximum of 1 cm of diameter.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To appraise the incidence of MCT in the benign thyroid diseases and the advantages offered from the total thyroidectomy, performed for benign diffused thyroid diseases, which surgical treatment "therapeutic" performed for these malignant tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 600 patients operated with total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease, admitted from 1999 to 2003.
  • Therefore his discovery, almost always accidental on a thyroid removed for other pathology, it has signaled by histologic study CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid microcarcinoma is a slow growing tumor, with a good prognosis and with a good disease-free survival.
  • Therefore total thyroidectomy can be considered best treatment and also be surgical treatment oncologically correct for this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16302649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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95. Kusinski M, Wdzieczak-Bakala J, Liu JM, Bignon J, Kuzdak K: AcSDKP: a new potential marker of malignancy of the thyroid gland. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2006 Feb;391(1):9-12
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  • [Title] AcSDKP: a new potential marker of malignancy of the thyroid gland.
  • However, no data on the concentration of AcSDKP present in solid tumor tissue are available.
  • The aim of our study was to measure tissue concentration of AcSDKP in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed AcSDKP level in thyroid tissue specimens using enzyme immunoassay kit.
  • The specimens were taken intraoperatively from 20 patients (17 women and 3 men aged 21-68 years): 10 patients with benign nodular goiter and 10 patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • RESULTS: The obtained results show that tissue concentration of AcSDKP in malignant thyroid tumors is five times higher when compared to benign lessions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that AcSDKP may play a role in the development of the thyroid gland lesions.
  • However, the further investigations concerning the tetrapeptide concentration in other thyroid malignancies, toxic nodular, and Grave's goiter are required to conclude on the eventual use of AcSDKP as a marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Oligopeptides / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16418871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oligopeptides; H041538E9P / goralatide
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96. Kanaya H, Tanigaito Y, Shyono N, Hirabayashi H, Baba K: [A rare case of ectopic, normally functioning thyroid tissue presenting as a left submandibular mass]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2005 Sep;108(9):850-3
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  • [Title] [A rare case of ectopic, normally functioning thyroid tissue presenting as a left submandibular mass].
  • Thirty years ago, this patient underwent subtotal thyroidectomy at another hospital and her thyroid function subsequently appeared normal.
  • A clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor arising from the submandibular gland was made with enhanced CT scan, MRI and technesium scintigraphy.
  • Histological examination confirmed ectopic thyroid tissue with partial adenomatous goiter including vacuolated rich colloid in the thyroid follicles which suggested compensatory hyperplasia.
  • Because this patient presented with post-operative hypothyroidism, we concluded that this ectopic lesion had continued to secrete thyroid hormone.
  • Ectopic thyroid tissue should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swellings involving the submandibular area, especially if the ectopic tissue would be the only functioning thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16218443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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97. Chang T, Husain AN, Colby T, Taxy JB, Welch WR, Cheung OY, Early A, Travis W, Krausz T: Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):562-8
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  • [Title] Pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma: a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation.
  • Pulmonary tumors with epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation are rare, thought to be of bronchial minor salivary gland origin and classified similarly to salivary gland neoplasms.
  • Some glands were filled with colloidlike secretion and had an inner, cuboidal epithelial cell layer (pankeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and thyroid transcription factor-1 positive), surrounded by an outer layer of myoepithelial cells merging with foci of spindled myoepithelial cells (high molecular weight keratin, S100, smooth muscle actin, calponin, caldesmon, and p63 positive).
  • There were also some glands lined by a single layer of plump cells that were positive for surfactant protein-A in addition to the other epithelial cell markers.
  • The biologic behavior to date has been benign.
  • This is the first reported series of a distinctive lung tumor with epithelial, myoepithelial, and pneumocytic differentiation that differs histologically from all previously recognized pulmonary salivary gland-type and pneumocytic tumors.
  • It is a unique benign appearing neoplasm for which the designation pneumocytic adenomyoepithelioma is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17414103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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98. Kim HS, Yun KJ: Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case with diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):253-6
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  • [Title] Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: report of a case with diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Adenolipomas are rare benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid follicles.
  • A 65-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of a thyroid nodule.
  • A FNA cytology specimen showed a few benign follicular cells with adipose tissue.
  • Microscopic findings showed a solid tumor predominantly composed of mature adipose tissue intermixed with thyroid follicles.
  • The pathological diagnosis was adenolipoma of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Lipoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335547.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Lo CY, Lam KY, Leung PP, Luk JM: High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):545-50
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  • [Title] High prevalence of cyclooxygenase 2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to play a role in the development and carcinogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Its incidence of expression and potential application as a tumor marker remain to be elucidated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expression was performed for 30 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 40 benign thyroid specimens.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 27 of 30 (90%) PTC but was absent in 40 benign thyroid specimens, including 27 nodular hyperplasia, 7 follicular adenoma and 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that the level of COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PTC than in both the adjacent non-cancerous tissues and the benign thyroid specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: COX-2 is frequently expressed in PTC but not in benign thyroid specimens.

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  • (PMID = 15817909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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100. Tamiolakis D, Tsamis I, Thomaidis V, Lambropoulou M, Alexiadis G, Venizelos I, Jivanakis T, Papadopoulos N: Oral complaints caused from metastases to the mandible and maxilla. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2007 Jul-Aug;102(4):439-42
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  • Most of these conditions are of a chronic and benign nature.
  • The most common malignant bone tumor is metastatic carcinoma, and tumors arising in the breast, prostate, thyroid, lung and kidney have a special propensity to spread to bone.
  • Yet metastases to the bones are rare; less than one per cent of all neoplasms metastases to the maxillofacial area.
  • Two cases originated from the thyroid gland while the rest were from the oesophagus and the liver respectively.
  • Patients presented with oral discomforts disregarding the primary tumor.
  • Physicians who frequently advise patients with oral complaints should keep in mind that whereas these symptoms are mostly of a chronic and benign nature, metastases from a malignant tumor must be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Facial Pain / etiology. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Maxillary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17966942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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