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1. Maresca A, Gagliano C, Marcuzzi A: Leiomyoma of the hand: a case report. Chir Main; 2005 Jun-Aug;24(3-4):193-5
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  • This is a benign tumor originating from non-striated muscle that is very uncommon in the hand.
  • The uterus is considered the most common location for leiomyoma and when it occurs in the extremities, it is more common in the leg, ankle and foot.
  • It usually occurs in the third and fourth decades of life and it is rarely diagnosed before surgery as the diagnosis can only be confirmed histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16121629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-3203
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgie de la main
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Main
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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2. Soslow RA, Ali A, Oliva E: Mullerian adenosarcomas: an immunophenotypic analysis of 35 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;32(7):1013-21
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  • Mullerian adenosarcomas (MAs) are rare mixed mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms that occur most commonly in the uterus.
  • Although the epithelial component is typically benign, the mesenchymal component of most adenosarcomas morphologically resembles that observed in endometrial stromal tumors and is responsible for their clinical behavior.
  • Thus, the differential diagnosis usually includes not only low-grade endometrial stromal tumors, but also adenofibroma, carcinosarcoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma especially in small samples.
  • Thirty tumors arose in the uterus, 4 were pelvic, and 1 originated in the colon.
  • Adequate blocks were selected and immunostained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), CD10, WT1, smooth muscle actin, desmin, AE1/3 cytokeratin, CD34, calretinin, inhibin, c-kit, and Ki-67.
  • PR was expressed in 21/26 MA-NSOs and 4/7 MA-SOs (76% overall), whereas AR was positive in 10/27 MA-NSOs and 5/7 MA-SOs (35% overall).
  • CD34 expression was found in 35% of the tumors, but it was almost always patchy in distribution and weak in intensity, as was calretinin expression, seen only in 12% of the cases.
  • Expression of c-kit and inhibin in greater than 5% of the tumor cells was not encountered.
  • The epithelial compartment demonstrated expression for ER (24/32), PR (23/31), and AE1/3 cytokeratin (33/33); rare cases expressed CD10 (4 cases) and AR (1 case).
  • In summary, the immunophenotype of most MAs resembled that of endometrial stromal tumors (positive for ER, PR, WT1, and CD10, with variable expression of muscle markers, AR and cytokeratin).
  • ER, PR, and CD10 expression was lost in MA-SOs relative to conventional low-grade stromal areas of mullerian/mesodermal adenosarcomas, reflecting the "dedifferentiation" of this component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenofibroma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / diagnosis. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18469708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. García Rinaldi R, Pérez Hernández J, Corbalá AR, Aponte HR, Dayán V, Plaza M: Surgical treatment of multiple intracardiac and pulmonary artery tumor implants embolic from uterine intravascular leiomyomatosis. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2007 Jan-Mar;99(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of multiple intracardiac and pulmonary artery tumor implants embolic from uterine intravascular leiomyomatosis.
  • Intravenous uterine leiomyomatosis is the invasion of the para-uterine veins by bundles of benign uterine muscle.
  • The tricuspid valve that was rendered insufficient, was repaired by the creation of PTFE neo chordae.
  • Two weeks later a massively enlarged uterus, ovaries, a paracolic and three intraluminal masses in the inferior vena cava were removed.
  • Patients presenting with cardiac tumors from intravenous uterine leiomyomatosis must undergo aggressive surgical management to achieve a cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Leiomyomatosis / surgery. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Pulmonary Artery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17616048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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4. Yasmeen F, Hafeez M, Hameed S, Saeed A, Ibnerasa SN: Symplastic leiomyoma of uterus: a rare histological variant. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 May;18(5):308-9
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  • [Title] Symplastic leiomyoma of uterus: a rare histological variant.
  • The patient was managed as for a benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 18541089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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5. Duval H, Rioux-Leclercq N, Bauville E, Al Jaradi M, Burtin F: [Multinodular-adenomatoid tumor of the uterus in a patient with a renal allograft]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Sep;28(4):308-10
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  • [Title] [Multinodular-adenomatoid tumor of the uterus in a patient with a renal allograft].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur adénomatoïde multinodulaire de l'utérus chez une patiente avec allogreffe rénale.
  • A case of diffuse-adenomatoid tumor of the uterus occurring in a 43-year-old patient with a renal-allograft transplant is reported.
  • The diagnosis was supported by the adenomatoid and angiomatoid histologic patterns and the mesothelial immunophenotype.
  • Diffuse-adenomatoid tumor of the uterus is a rare and benign lesion, usually reported in patients with immunodeficiency and renal transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Kidney Transplantation / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18928872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
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6. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Thirty-seven tumors were of the uterine corpus, 11 of the cervix, 4 of the ovary, and 1 each of the fallopian tube, vagina, and Douglas peritoneum.
  • Of 30 tumors of the uterine corpus, 17 were stage IA, 11 stage IB, 1 stage IC, and 1 stage IIIC.
  • Four cervical tumors were stage IB.
  • Three of the 4 ovarian tumors were stage IA and the other was stage IIIC.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Most uterine tumors were polypoid masses ranging from 1 to 20 cm (mean: 6.5 cm).
  • Fourteen of 30 uterine tumors (47%) had myometrial invasion that was minimal in 5, involved one-third of the myometrial thickness in 7, and more than 50% in 2.
  • Of 4 cervical tumors, 2 were endocervical polyps, 1 invaded one-third of the cervical wall, and the other invaded its full thickness.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • Four had adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth; however, the other 2 patients had typical low-grade adenosarcomas of the uterine corpus and cervix, respectively, exhibiting only mild nuclear atypia of the stromal component and </=2 mitotic figures/10 high power fields.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • These findings suggest that some of the tumors currently classified as adenofibromas, on the basis of their low mitotic count and lack of significant nuclear atypia, are, in fact, well-differentiated adenosarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Garteiz-Martínez D, Romero-Lagarza P, Maya-Goldsmit D, Weber-Sánchez A, Bravo-Torreblanca C, Carbo-Romano R, Vega-Rivera F: [Pelvic solitary fibrous nodule, incidental finding and laparoscopic resection. Case report]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2010 Sep;78(9):504-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Nódulo fibroso solitario pélvico, hallazgo incidental y resección laparoscópica. Reporte de un caso.
  • This type of tumors can have malignant components and therefore it is important to differentiate them from other retroperitoneal masses.
  • A peritoneal pelvic tumor with smooth surface, 20,2 g, firm was detected.
  • The mass was independent of colon, uterus, ovaries or salpinx and was very near to the iliac vessels on the right side.
  • The histopathologic report described that the tumor contained sclerosed cells with collagenous bands and sings of hemorrhage and calcification, compatible with a benign pelvic solitary fibrous tumor.
  • The solitary fibrous nodule is a rare, benign disease, but with malignant potential.
  • These tumors must be resected when they are incidentally found during other surgical procedures or if diagnosed preoperatively.
  • The laparoscopic approach has advantages in the identification and resection these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / complications. Peritoneal Neoplasms / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy, Ectopic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Laparoscopy. Pregnancy. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21961368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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8. Uchida K, Kobayashi S, Yayama T, Muramatsu J, Kurokawa T, Imamura Y, Baba H: Metastatic involvement of sacral nerve roots from uterine carcinoma: a case report. Spine J; 2008 Sep-Oct;8(5):849-52
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  • [Title] Metastatic involvement of sacral nerve roots from uterine carcinoma: a case report.
  • PURPOSE: We describe the clinical presentation and diagnosis of metastatic involvement of sacral nerve roots retrogradely from uterine carcinoma, and its implication for spine surgeons, along with a brief review of literature.
  • STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A case report of a patient with metastatic lesions in S1 and S2 nerve roots originating from uterine adenocarcinoma is presented.
  • METHODS: A 39-year-old woman with history of uterine cancer presented with persistent severe low back pain, intractable radicular pain, and neurological deficit in the right lower extremity.
  • She had undergone radical hysterectomy for uterine adenocarcinoma 4 years ago followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent surgical rhizotomy and histology of the roots revealed metastatic tumor in the dorsal root ganglion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite being uncommon, sacral nerve root metastasis should be considered in some patients with history of cancer of pelvic organs including the uterus.
  • MR images were of little value in differentiating a carcinomatous lesion from a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Nerve Roots / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17981096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Senay S, Kaya U, Cagil H, Demirkiran F, Alhan C: Surgical management of intravenous leiomyoma with cardiac extension. Do we need total circulatory arrest? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Aug;55(5):322-3
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  • Intravenous leiomyoma of the uterus is a histologically benign, smooth-muscle tumor and may extend through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium.
  • Surgical treatment is mandatory and single-stage resection of the tumor has gained wide acceptance as a safe and easy procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / pathology. Angiomyoma / surgery. Heart Arrest, Induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterus / blood supply. Uterus / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17629864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Carranza Lira S: [Relation between hormonal therapy and tibolone with SERMs in postmenopausal women's myomes growth]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2008 Oct;76(10):610-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Relación de la terapia hormonal, la tibolona y los SERMs con el crecimiento de miomas en la mujer posmenopáusica.
  • Myomas (both leiomyomas and fibromas) are the most frequent benign uterine tumors in women, they can be found in 77% of hysterectomy specimens.
  • A study in patients without myomas demonstrated this type tumors production (5%) after receiving transdermical-oral hormonal combination during 24 months, and they were absent in patients with only oral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Leiomyoma / pathology. Norpregnenes / adverse effects. Postmenopause. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19062511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Norpregnenes; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; FF9X0205V2 / tibolone
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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11. Canis M, Jardon K, Niro J, Rabischong B, Bourdel N, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Endoscopic management of gynecological malignancies: an update. 2007]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2007 Oct;191(7):1357-65; discussion 1365-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Coelioscopie et cancer en gynécologie: le point en 2007.
  • Animal studies suggest that the risk of tumor dissemination in the non traumatized peritoneum may be higher after pneumoperitoneum than after laparotomy, and they also show the importance of the surgeon's experience and technique.
  • By controlling these parameters we may, in future, be able to create a peritoneal environment suitable for oncologic indications and thereby prevent or minimize the risk of peritoneal dissemination and postoperative tumor growth.
  • In endometrial cancer, the laparoscopic approach should be reserved for clinical stage I disease, if the volume of the uterus and local conditions are appropriate for vaginal extraction.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses, but puncture should be avoided whenever possible.
  • In contrast, restaging of early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass is a good indication for the laparoscopic approach.
  • Laparoscopic management of tumors with low malignant potential should include complete staging of the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Seeding. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / adverse effects. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / methods. Swine. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18447057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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12. Ma F: The benign transformation tendency of malignant tumor cells for intrauterine transplantation. Swiss Med Wkly; 2007 Oct 6;137(39-40):561; author reply 561-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The benign transformation tendency of malignant tumor cells for intrauterine transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fetal Diseases / surgery. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stem Cells / pathology. Uterus


13. Dilbaz B, Bayoglu Y, Oral S, Cavusoglu D, Uluoglu O, Dilbaz S: Laparoscopic resection of urinary bladder paraganglioma: a case report. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2006 Feb;16(1):58-61
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  • She was diagnosed to have an immobile solid mass on the left side neighboring the lower segment of the uterus.
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed a well-limited ovoid mass with solid and cystic areas adjacent to the urinary bladder and the uterus.
  • Tumor markers were within normal range.
  • Frozen section was performed revealing a benign cystic structure but the identification of the origin was left to definitive histopathological examination which showed paraganglioma of the bladder.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin and there was focal positiveness for neuron specific enolase although vimentin and cytokeratin were negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16552385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Rubod C, Mubiayi N, Verhulst P, Robert Y, Vinatier D: [Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis. A case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2005 Dec;33(12):991-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis. A case report].
  • Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor.
  • We report the case of a 41-year-old woman, with no history, who presented an abdominopelvic mass arising from the uterus.
  • Histological examination revealed uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis.
  • The specificity of this tumor is hormonodependency and potential vascular extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16324869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Dal Cin P: Cytogenetics of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Female Genital Tract. Surg Pathol Clin; 2009 Dec;2(4):813-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytogenetics of Mesenchymal Tumors of the Female Genital Tract.
  • A great diversity of chromosome alterations have been reported in mesenchymal tumors of the female genital tract, particularly in the uterus.
  • Some of these alterations specifically identify a certain tumor type.
  • Cytogenetic studies on benign proliferations have not only demonstrated clonal chromosome changes, but have also pointed out clustering of aberrations to specific chromosome regions.
  • For example, distinct cytogenetic subgroups have been described in uterine leiomyomas with overlapping histologic features.
  • Moreover, such data may give a clue to an understanding of the biologic basis for distinctive behavior of benign versus malignant mesenchymal proliferations.
  • No specific chromosomal abnormalities have been described in malignant mesenchymal tumors, with the exception of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.
  • This article reviews the information currently available on genetic changes in mesenchymal tumors of the female genital tract and, more specifically, those reported in the uterus, where they have been more frequently studied.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26838780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chromosomal aberrations / Complex karyotype / FISH / Fusion gene / Translocation
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16. Auguściak-Duma A, Sieroń AL: [Molecular characteristics of leiomyoma uteri based on selected compounds of the extracellular matrix]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2008 Jan 14;62:148-65
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  • Leiomyoma is a monoclonal benign tumor.
  • It is often located in the muscle layer of the uterus in women of reproductive age.
  • The modulation of mitotic activity and abnormal extracellular matrix production are key elements of tumor growth.
  • The detectable karyotype anomalies in tumor cells constitute just 40%.

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  • (PMID = 18464678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PCOLCE protein, human; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta3; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.19 / BMP1 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.19 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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17. Chuang GS, Martinez-Mir A, Geyer A, Engler DE, Glaser B, Cserhalmi-Friedman PB, Gordon D, Horev L, Lukash B, Herman E, Cid MP, Brenner S, Landau M, Sprecher E, Garcia Muret MP, Christiano AM, Zlotogorski A: Germline fumarate hydratase mutations and evidence for a founder mutation underlying multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Mar;52(3 Pt 1):410-6
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  • [Title] Germline fumarate hydratase mutations and evidence for a founder mutation underlying multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata.
  • Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata syndrome (MCL) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of concurrent benign tumors of smooth muscle origin (leiomyoma) in the skin and uterus of affected females, and in the skin of affected males.
  • Importantly, analysis of the FH gene in tumors of MCL patients revealed a second mutation inactivating the wild-type allele in some tumors.
  • Based on these findings, it has been suggested that FH may function as a tumor suppressor gene in MCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Leiomyoma / genetics. Mutation. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15761418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / K01-HG0005501; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR44535
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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18. Canis M, Farina M, Jardon K, Rabischong B, Rivoire C, Nohuz E, Botchorishvili R, Pouly JL, Mage G: [Laparoscopy and gynecologic cancer in 2005]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2006 Apr;35(2):117-35
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  • [Transliterated title] Coelioscopie et cancer en gynécologie: le point en 2005.
  • Animal studies suggested that the risk of tumor dissemination in non traumatized peritoneum is higher after a pneumoperitoneum than after a laparotomy.
  • Changing these parameters we may, in the future, be able to create a peritoneal environment adapted to oncologic patients in order to prevent or to decrease the risks of peritoneal dissemination and/or of postoperative tumor growth.
  • In patients with endometrial cancer, the laparoscopic approach should be reserved to clinical stage I disease, if the vaginal extraction is anticipated to be easy accounting for the volume of the uterus and the local conditions.
  • Laparoscopy is the gold standard for the surgical diagnosis of adnexal masses.
  • In contrast restaging of an early ovarian cancer initially managed as a benign mass, is a good indication of the laparoscopic approach.
  • The laparoscopic management of low malignant potential tumors should include a complete staging of the peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / etiology. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16575358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 190
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19. Chen XD, Shi HY, Zhang XF: [Clinicopathologic analysis of 102 cases of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of the uterus]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;42(4):219-21
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic analysis of 102 cases of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of the uterus].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and pathologic features, histological criteria and pathologic factors contributing to diagnosis of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors (mixed müllerian tumors, MMT) of the uterus.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 102 cases of MMT of the uterus (74 adenofibromas including 9 recurrent cases, 3 atypical polypoid adenomyomas, 2 carcinofibromas, 10 adenosarcomas and 13 carcinosarcomas) was undertaken.
  • Clinical signs included pelvic mass, uterine polyps, and enlarged uterus.
  • Benign MMT usually presented as exophytic polypoid masses extending into the uterine cavity or protruding through the external os, often broad-based, lobulated and papillary.
  • It was hard to distinguish low-grade malignant MMT from the benign ones by gross appearance.
  • MMT were classified according to whether these elements were benign or malignant.
  • Nine cases of adenofibroma without unique features for the diagnosis of adenosarcoma recurred at postoperative intervals of 3 to 96 months.
  • Recurrent tumors were almost always confined to the original site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Uterine MMT tumors according to WHO diagnostic criteria are not rare.
  • The differential diagnosis depends on a multifactorial analysis.
  • The recurrent adenofibromas may be a kind of borderline tumors with benign appearances and malignant behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenomyoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17631758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Guajado Martínez J, Maldonado Alvarado Jde D, Cárdenas Ochoa J, Saídivar Ornelas E, Villeda C: [Giant ovarian cyst extraction by means of minilaparotomy: hourglass technique]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2008 Dec;76(12):739-43
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  • [Transliterated title] Extracción de quiste gigante de ovario por minilaparotomía: técnica de reloj de arena.
  • Cervix of uterus was hardly seen due to its small size, without evident damage; nor uterus nor appendages can be delimited during vaginal touch.
  • When tumor tension decreases it was placed a Mayo table with sterile fields next to surgical table, and the abdomen was pulled laterally until tumor protrusion trough surgical incision, liquid weight puts tumor out of the abdomen.
  • Cyst total weight was 55 kg, and hystopathological report was benign serous giant ovarian cyst.

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  • [ErratumIn] Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2009 Jan;77(1):12
  • (PMID = 19149403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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21. Plesinac-Karapandzic V, Perisic Z, Milovanovic Z, Vukicevic D, Mileusnic D, Stevanovic J, Rakocevic Z, Saric M: Invasive inflammatory pseudotumor of the pelvis: a case report with review of the literature. J BUON; 2009 Apr-Jun;14(2):301-6
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  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare benign lesion of unknown etiology, which mimics malignant neoplasm and may arise from various organs.
  • On bimanual vaginal and rectal examination, a mass was involving the uterus, parametria and mostly left adnexa, while the cervix appeared normal.
  • Computed tomographic (CT) scan revealed a 13x10.5 cm mass in the pelvis, mostly at the place of the left adnexa, uterus and both parametria, also involving the surrounding tissues and producing bilateral hydroureteronephrosis.
  • The last follow-up CT, 20 months after laparotomy, revealed no evidence of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19650182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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22. Jakab C, Rusvai M, Biró N, Szabó Z, Gálfi P, Kulka J: Claudin-5-positive angioleiomyoma in the uterus of a degu (Octodon degus ). Acta Vet Hung; 2010 Sep;58(3):331-40
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  • [Title] Claudin-5-positive angioleiomyoma in the uterus of a degu (Octodon degus ).
  • During ovariohysterectomy a circumscribed tumoural lesion was found in the right uterine horn.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of this soft tissue mass was primary benign cavernous angioleiomyoma of the uterus.
  • During immunohistochemical analysis the neoplastic endothelial cells of this mixed mesenchymal tumour showed strong membrane positivity for the endothelial marker claudin-5 but were negative for CD31 (another endothelial marker).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / veterinary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Octodon. Rodent Diseases / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20713324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0236-6290
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta veterinaria Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Vet. Hung.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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23. Shi Y, Liu Z, Peng Z, Liu H, Yang K, Yao X: The diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Dec;48(6):596-600
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenosarcoma of the uterus is one of the rare types of gynaecological malignant tumours.
  • Poor awareness of it among clinicians makes it difficult to diagnose correctly and timely, so it is helpful to enrich and update our knowledge about the tumour with new information of patients.
  • AIM: To improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus.
  • METHODS: The medical data of nine patients with Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus who were treated from May 1995 to March 2006 in our hospital were analysed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Patients typically presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, enlargement of the uterus, a mass in the uterine cavity and/or a cervical neoplasm.
  • Microscopically, the glands were lined by benign or atypical glandular epithelium, together with sarcomatous stromal cells which showed characteristic structures of 'periglandular cuff' of increased cellularity and 'intraglandular polypoid projections'.
  • The primary diagnostic rate was 33.3% and the average interval from symptom onset to final diagnosis was 13 months and eight weeks for pre- and postmenopausal patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common symptom of adenosarcoma of the uterus is abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


24. Adachi Y, Horie Y, Kitamura Y, Nakamura H, Taniguchi Y, Miwa K, Fujioka S, Nishimura M, Hayashi K: CD1a expression in PEComas. Pathol Int; 2008 Mar;58(3):169-73
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  • According to the World Health Organization classification, neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas) are mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive PEC.
  • Recently the authors reported that benign clear cell sugar tumor of the lung, one of the PEComas, expressed CD1a.
  • Nineteen PEComas were obtained, which included angiomyolipoma of the kidney or liver, lymphangiomyomatosis of the uterus or lung and clear cell sugar tumor of the lung.
  • Eighteen tumors had alpha-SMA and HMB-45 expression and 16 had melan A expression.
  • In contrast, all 19 tumors had CD1a expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelioid Cells / metabolism. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18251780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD1a antigen
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25. Manjunath GV, Nandini NM, Sunila: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adenomatoid tumour--a case report with review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):503-4
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adenomatoid tumour--a case report with review of literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumours are neoplasms of male and female genital tract with the epididymis being the most common site.
  • They also occur in uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary.
  • These benign tumours are asymptomatic or cause mild symptoms and a palpable mass.
  • Fine needle aspiration of these tumours is very useful to differentiate malignant from benign lesions and helps to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical procedures.
  • FNAC of these benign epididymal tumours is diagnostic, rapid, reliable, conclusive and cost effective.
  • We are reporting a case of adenomatoid tumour of epididymis in a 41 year old male patient, diagnosed by FNAC and confirmed by histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Epididymis. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16366111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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26. Manjunatha HK, Ramaswamy AS, Kumar BS, Kumar SP, Krishna L: Lipoleiomyoma of uterus in a postmenopausal woman. J Midlife Health; 2010 Jul;1(2):86-8
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  • [Title] Lipoleiomyoma of uterus in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Lipoleiomyomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of uterus and are considered to be a variant of uterine myomas.
  • These tumors generally occur in asymptomatic obese perimenopausal or menopausal women.
  • We report this case of uterine lipoleiomyoma because of its rarity.

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  • [Cites] J Korean Med Sci. 2001 Apr;16(2):250-2 [11306758.001]
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  • (PMID = 21716761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mid-life health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Midlife Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3122497
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Lipoleiomyoma / menopause / smooth muscle / uterus
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27. Haberal A, Cil AP, Gunes M, Cavusoglu D: Papillary adenofibroma of the cervix: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Aug;26(2):186-7
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  • Adenofibroma is an extremely rare benign biphasic neoplasm that is classified into the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumor group.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is usually difficult.
  • This lesion appears to be clinically and histologically benign but must be differentiated from malignant lesions of the uterus, particularly from adenosarcoma, which can be suggestive of adenofibroma.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors permits appropriate counseling of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / ultrasonography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / ultrasonography


28. Vasconcelos C, Cunha TM, Félix A: Lipoleiomyoma of the peritoneum. Acta Radiol; 2007 Feb;48(1):10-2
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  • Lipoleiomyomas are rare, mixed mesenchymal tumors composed of adipose and smooth muscle cells.
  • They usually arise from the uterus, with extrauterine tumors being extremely rare.
  • The imaging and gross appearance is similar to other tumors with these constituents.
  • Recognition of this rare and benign tumor is of great importance, in order to avoid erroneous diagnosis.
  • The extrauterine location was highlighted by multiplanar MRI, and the presence of a capsule suggested a benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17325918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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29. Kajo K, Zúbor P, Krivus S, Danko J: [Angiolipoleiomyoma of the uterus. Case report and literature review]. Ceska Gynekol; 2010 Feb;75(1):54-6
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  • [Title] [Angiolipoleiomyoma of the uterus. Case report and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: The rare case presentation of angiolipoleiomyoma (ALLM) of the uterus with review of diagnostic and discriminative information for this entity.
  • CONCLUSION: The ALLM of the uterus is rare benign mixed mesenchyme tumor consisting of smooth muscle bundles, foci of mature fat tissue and abnormal vessels.
  • The presented case is describing a 53-year-old women hysterectomized for multiple uterine myoma of which two showed the histological signs of ALLM.
  • On imunohistochemical profile are these tumors negative for melanocytic features, e.g.
  • HMB-45, what distinguishes them from angiomyolipomas, which are currently categorized into so called PEComas - tumors originating from perivascular epithelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 20437838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] SLO
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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30. Djurdjevic S, Stojanovic S, Kopitovic V, Hadnadjev D, Basta-Nikolic M: Diagnostic value of endosonography scoring systems in the detection of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. J BUON; 2009 Jan-Mar;14(1):97-102
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic significance of sonographic scoring systems in the diagnosis of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 357 women with different malignant and benign diseases of the ovary and uterus were divided into 4 groups according to histopathological findings: group A: ovarian carcinoma (n=71); group B: benign ovarian tumors (n=106); group C: endometrial carcinoma (n=60); and group D: benign endometrial diseases in menopause (hyperplasia, polyps, submucosal myoma; n=120).
  • Particular morphological characteristics of ovarian carcinoma (tumor size, echo-characterization: solid-cystic, presence of septum, characteristics of tumor capsule and presence of ascites) were evaluated with points 0-2 (total score: 0-10).
  • For endometrial carcinoma we used a clinico-sonographic scoring system, which included evaluation of the endometrial thickness, isthmus-fundus diameter of uterus, number of years in menopause and the presence of risk factors, using scores 0-2 (total score: 0-8).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Endometrial Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19373954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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31. Loffroy R, Nezzal N, Mejean N, Sagot P, Krausé D: Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus: imaging features. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2008;66(2):73-5
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  • [Title] Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus: imaging features.
  • BACKGROUND: Lipoleiomyoma is an extremely rare, benign, uterine tumor that requires no treatment when asymptomatic.
  • METHODS: A uterine lipoleiomyoma in a 68-year-old asymptomatic woman exhibited highly suggestive features by ultrasound, multislice spiral computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: The ultrasound findings were non-specific.
  • CT scan showed an 8 x 7 cm well-defined fatty mass of the uterine body.
  • On T(2)-weighted MR images, fat content within the tumor was confirmed because of evident chemical shift artifact.To our knowledge, the findings provided by these three modalities used in combination have not been reported previously in the gynecologic literature.
  • CONCLUSION: The data yielded by CT and MRI on the fatty nature of the lesion are valuable in diagnosing this entity.The final pathological examination results confirmed the diagnosis of lipoleiomyoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18431071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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32. de León DC, Pérez-Montiel D, Bandera A, Villegas C, Gonzalez-Conde E, Vilchis JC: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of abdominal origin. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Jun;14(3):173-7
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of abdominal origin.
  • Perivascular epithelioid tumor is not a common disease; therefore, large series are not available in the literature, and most are case reports.
  • Histologic characteristics of these neoplasms are positivity to melanogenic (HMB-45) and muscle stains.
  • All these neoplasms have the characteristic perivascular epithelioid cell or "PEC," but the term myomelanocyte tumor has been proposed because of the immunohistochemistry expression.
  • The uterus seems to be one of the most common organs affected.
  • We report 3 cases of abdominal PEComa, 1 of them with benign clinical outcome and 2 with an aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20471562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Zhang X, Liang SX, Jia L, Chen N, Fadare O, Schwartz PE, Kong B, Zheng W: Molecular identification of "latent precancers" for endometrial serous carcinoma in benign-appearing endometrium. Am J Pathol; 2009 Jun;174(6):2000-6
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  • [Title] Molecular identification of "latent precancers" for endometrial serous carcinoma in benign-appearing endometrium.
  • We have recently identified a group of benign-looking endometria with p53 overexpression, designated "p53 signatures."
  • The p53 signatures were specifically associated with ESC, frequently found in the benign-appearing endometrium adjacent to the ESC and only rarely in either the endometrium adjacent to endometrioid carcinomas or in non-cancerous uteri.
  • In four (50%) of these cases, at least one identical p53 gene mutation was found in the signature glands, precancerous regions, and cancerous areas within the same uterus.

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  • (PMID = 19435786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684165
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34. An YS, Kim DY: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a patient with esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis. Korean J Radiol; 2009 Nov-Dec;10(6):632-4
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  • Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva.
  • Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / radiography. Esophageal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radiography. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radionuclide imaging. Leiomyomatosis / radiography. Leiomyomatosis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19885320.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2770829
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 18F-FDG PET / Esophagus / Genital tract / Leiomyomatosis
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35. Zhou M, McFarland-Mancini MM, Funk HM, Husseinzadeh N, Mounajjed T, Drew AF: Toll-like receptor expression in normal ovary and ovarian tumors. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2009 Sep;58(9):1375-85
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  • [Title] Toll-like receptor expression in normal ovary and ovarian tumors.
  • Tumor cell expression of TLRs can promote inflammation and cell survival in the tumor microenvironment.
  • Here we sought to characterize the expression of TLRs in normal human ovaries, benign and malignant ovarian tumors from patients, and in established ovarian tumor cell lines.
  • In contrast to previous studies of uterus and endocervix, we found no cyclic variation in TLR expression occurred in murine ovaries.
  • TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR5 are expressed in benign conditions, epithelial tumors, and in ovarian cancer cell lines.
  • Variable expression of TLR6 and TLR8 was seen in benign and malignant epithelium of some patients, while expression of TLR1, TLR7, and TLR9 was weak.
  • Vascular endothelial cells, macrophages, and occasional fibroblasts in tumors were positive.
  • These studies demonstrate expression of multiple TLRs in the epithelium of normal ovaries and in ovarian tumor cells, and may indicate a mechanism by which epithelial tumors manipulate inflammatory pathways to facilitate tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovary / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Estrous Cycle / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19184006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0851
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Toll-Like Receptors
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36. Wei T, Geiser AG, Qian HR, Su C, Helvering LM, Kulkarini NH, Shou J, N'Cho M, Bryant HU, Onyia JE: DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids. BMC Womens Health; 2007;7:5
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  • [Title] DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroids or leiomyoma are a common benign smooth muscle tumor.
  • The tumor growth is well known to be estrogen-dependent.
  • METHODS: Differentially expressed genes in human uterine fibroids were either retrieved from published papers or from our own statistical analysis of downloaded array data.
  • RESULTS: By integrated analysis of three recently published DNA microarray studies with human tissue, thirty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in the same direction in fibroid compared to adjacent uterine myometrium by at least two research groups.
  • Among these genes, twelve with rat orthologs were identified as estrogen-regulated from our array study investigating uterine expression in ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen.
  • Functional and pathway analyses of the twelve genes suggested multiple molecular mechanisms for estrogen-dependent cell survival and tumor growth.
  • RA has been shown to play a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids in an animal model.
  • CONCLUSION: Integrated analysis of multiple array datasets revealed twelve human and rat ortholog genes that were differentially expressed in human uterine fibroids and transcriptionally responsive to estrogen in the rat uterus.
  • Functional and pathway analysis of these genes suggest multiple potential molecular mechanisms for the poorly understood estrogen-dependent growth of uterine fibroids.
  • Fully understanding the exact molecular interactions among these gene products requires further study to validate their roles in uterine fibroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens / physiology. Gene Expression. Leiomyoma / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Databases, Genetic. Female. Humans. Myometrium / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Rats. Signal Transduction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Uterus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17407572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6874
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC women's health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Womens Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852551
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37. Dominical VM, Cavellani CL, Rocha LP, Corrêa RR, Pereira Gde A, Teixeira Vde P: Chagas disease and gynecologic neoplasias. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Oct;14(5):337-40
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  • [Title] Chagas disease and gynecologic neoplasias.
  • The objective was to determine the occurrence of gynecologic neoplasia (GN) and demographic characteristics in patients with Chagas disease (CD).
  • The most common benign neoplasm was uterine leiomyoma, and malignant, carcinoma of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Chagas Disease / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Trypanosoma cruzi. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


38. Goufman EI, Moshkovskii SA, Tikhonova OV, Lokhov PG, Zgoda VG, Serebryakova MV, Toropygin IY, Vlasova MA, Safarova MR, Makarov OV, Archakov AI: Two-dimensional electrophoretic proteome study of serum thermostable fraction from patients with various tumor conditions. Biochemistry (Mosc); 2006 Apr;71(4):354-60
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  • [Title] Two-dimensional electrophoretic proteome study of serum thermostable fraction from patients with various tumor conditions.
  • The thermostable fraction of serum samples from patients with ovarian, uterus, and breast cancers and benign ovarian tumor was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF(-TOF)-mass spectrometry.
  • Apolipoprotein A-I forms have decreased spot volumes, while haptoglobin alpha1, in contrast, is elevated in several tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Proteome / analysis. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Uterine Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16615854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2979
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry Mosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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39. Badeloe S, Frank J: Clinical and molecular genetic aspects of hereditary multiple cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Nov-Dec;19(6):545-51
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  • Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis syndrome (MCUL; OMIM 150800) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition disorder, characterized by leiomyomas of the skin and uterus.
  • Recognition of these benign skin tumors can lead to the diagnosis of MCUL or HLRCC.
  • Timely diagnosis is crucial for offering affected individuals and families potentially life-saving regular prophylactic screening examinations for renal tumors.
  • Here we provide an overview of clinical and genetic features of this complex tumor syndrome and discuss patient management and current therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Counseling. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19939761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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40. Gökaslan H, Türkeri L, Kavak ZN, Eren F, Sişmanoğlu A, Ilvan S, Durmuşoğlu F: Differential diagnosis of smooth muscle tumors utilizing p53, pTEN and Ki-67 expression with estrogen and progesterone receptors. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2005;59(1):36-40
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of smooth muscle tumors utilizing p53, pTEN and Ki-67 expression with estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the expression and value for diagnosis of the genes, p53 and pTEN, the protein, Ki-67, and the receptors, estrogen and progesterone, in differentiating smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seventeen samples of leiomyosarcoma, 2 smooth muscle tumors with uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), 9 atypical myomas and 15 leiomyomas were stained immunohistochemically.
  • RESULTS: The malignant side of the spectrum was strongly stained for Ki-67 and p53 while uniformly decreasing toward the benign tumors.
  • The staining for progesterone receptor was also statistically significant, but the tumors that were considered benign, such as leiomyoma and atypical myoma, were the ones strongly stained (p = 0.005).
  • The expression of estrogen receptor was significant in these tumors, but the p value was very close to the cut-off value (p = 0.07).
  • As the degree of differentiation of the tumor increased, the trend showed stronger staining for estrogen receptor.
  • However, no difference was detected in the staining properties of the tumors for pTEN (p = 0.2457).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Ki-67, p53 and progesterone receptors is promising in immunodifferentiation of smooth muscle tumors of the uterus with malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Smooth Muscle Tumor / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15377824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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41. Knüsel PR, Kubik-Huch RA, Komminoth R, Siragusa A, Otto RCh: [Ovarian fibrothecoma: MR imaging findings and differential diagnosis]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2006 Feb 22;95(8):283-6
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  • [Title] [Ovarian fibrothecoma: MR imaging findings and differential diagnosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibrothekom des Ovars: MR-bildgebung und Differentialdiagnose.
  • We report the preoperative MR imaging of a 70 year old woman with a large tumor of the lower abdomen.
  • The origin of this tumor was suspected to be either the left ovary or the uterus.
  • In the differential diagnosis a large subserous pedunculated leiomyoma or a low cellular, primarily benign ovarian tumor were considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thecoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ovariectomy. Ovary / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16523993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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42. Guo N, Liu H, Peng Z: A mesenteric paraganglioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1650-1
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  • It is a rare and unusual tumor, especially in non-typical sites such as the inferior mesenteric artery.
  • She was found to have an immobile solid mass on the left side of her pelvis, adjacent to the upper segment of the uterus.
  • CT scans revealed a well-defined solid and cystic ovoid mass adjacent to the sigmoid colon and the uterus.
  • Tumor markers were within the normal range.
  • An intra-operative frozen section biopsy showed a benign cystic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19767210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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43. Carinelli S, Motta F, Frontino G, Restelli E, Fedele L: Multiple extrauterine adenomyomas and uterus-like masses: case reports and review of the literature. Fertil Steril; 2009 May;91(5):1956.e9-11
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  • [Title] Multiple extrauterine adenomyomas and uterus-like masses: case reports and review of the literature.
  • PATIENT(S): Two patients without urogenital malformations diagnosed with extrauterine adenomyoma, which is a benign tumor composed of smooth muscle and endometrium, typically originating within the uterus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19254794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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44. Kiuru M, Lehtonen R, Eerola H, Aittomäki K, Blomqvist C, Nevanlinna H, Aaltonen LA, Launonen V: No germline FH mutations in familial breast cancer patients. Eur J Hum Genet; 2005 Apr;13(4):506-9
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  • Fumarate hydratase: (FH) was recently identified as the predisposing gene for a tumor predisposition syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) (MIM 605839).
  • In HLRCC, individuals with a germline heterozygous mutation in the FH gene typically develop benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus (fibroids, myomas).
  • In a subset of the families, predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and uterine leiomyosarcoma occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15523491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-4813
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of human genetics : EJHG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase
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45. Piekutowski K, Makarewicz R, Zachara BA: The antioxidative role of selenium in pathogenesis of cancer of the female reproductive system. Neoplasma; 2007;54(5):374-8
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  • Therefore, the aim of our present study was to compare the selenium status and GSH-Px activity in the plasma of 22 healthy women, 50 individuals suffering from cancer of uterine cervix, uterine corpus or ovary, and 49 women diagnosed with benign neoplasia of the uterine corpus or ovary.
  • In addition, the selenium concentration was measured in postoperative cancer tissues, benign tumors, and histopatologically healthy surgical margins of the aforementioned patients.
  • An average selenium concentration and GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of cancer patients and benign neoplasia patients was significantly lower than in the plasma of healthy women.
  • Postoperative tissues of patients revealed significantly higher selenium concentrations in cancer tissues of uterine cervix and corpus, and benign tumors of uterine corpus, as compared to corresponding healthy tissue margins.
  • Higher accumulation of selenium in these neoplastic tissues might reflect a compensatory up-regulation of antioxidant defense systems in tumors that often undergo a persistent oxidative stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / physiopathology. Selenium / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17688366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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46. Armah HB, Parwani AV: Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterus with late renal and pulmonary metastases: a case report with review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2007;2:45
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  • [Title] Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterus with late renal and pulmonary metastases: a case report with review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), other than angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor (CCST), and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), is a very rare mesenchymal tumor with an unpredictable natural history.
  • The uterus is the most prevalent reported site of involvement of PEComa-not otherwise specified (PEComa-NOS).
  • To the best of our knowledge, about 100 PEComa-NOS have been reported in the English Language medical literature, of which 38 were uterine PEComa-NOS.
  • These reported cases of uterine PEComa-NOS have usually shown clinically benign behavior, but 13 tumors, three of them associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), exhibited local aggressive behavior and four of them showed distant metastases.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who presented with renal and pulmonary lesions seven years after the initial diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the renal and pulmonary lesions, in addition to retrospective re-evaluation of the previous uterine tumor, led to the final diagnosis of malignant uterine PEComa with late renal and pulmonary metastases.
  • All three lesions had the typical histological appearance of PEComa-NOS showing a biphasic growth pattern with continuous transition between spindle cells and epithelioid cells, often arranged around vascular spaces.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of both phenotypes in all three lesions stained for melanocytic (HMB-45 and Melan-A/MART-1) and myoid (desmin, smooth muscle actin, and muscle-specific actin/all muscle actin/HHF-35) markers.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that despite the small number of reported cases, PEComas-NOS should be considered tumors of uncertain malignant potential, and metastases to other organs might become evident even several years after the primary diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Mod Pathol. 2001 Jun;14(6):563-8 [11406657.001]
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  • (PMID = 18053181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2213634
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47. Saeed AS, Hanaa B, Faisal AS, Najla AM: Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report of a benign uterine tumor with sarcomalike gross appearance and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report of a benign uterine tumor with sarcomalike gross appearance and review of literature.
  • Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma (Sternberg tumor) is a very rare variant of uterine smooth muscle tumor with an unusual and alarming gross appearance.
  • A 41-cm fungating rubbery mass with placenta-like appearance adhering to the posterior uterine surface and extending to the left broad ligament and pelvic cavity was observed.
  • An intraoperative frozen section was requested, and a diagnosis of a benign smooth muscle tumor was given.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed with removal of the pelvic tumor extension.
  • Thorough tumor sampling was performed and showed nodules of interlacing bundles of bland-looking smooth muscle cells, separated by expanded, edematous, and highly vascularized stroma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the smooth muscle nature of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adult. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Sarcoma / chemistry. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Smooth Muscle Tumor / chemistry. Smooth Muscle Tumor / diagnosis. Smooth Muscle Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16810065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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48. Jia L, Liu Y, Yi X, Miron A, Crum CP, Kong B, Zheng W: Endometrial glandular dysplasia with frequent p53 gene mutation: a genetic evidence supporting its precancer nature for endometrial serous carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Apr 15;14(8):2263-9
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The tumor suppressor p53 gene was sequenced from serial samples of benign and neoplastic endometria with serous differentiation.
  • The study group contained 15 neoplastic uteri and the control group had 12 age-matched benign uteri.
  • At least one representative section from each uterus was used for p53 immunohistochemical staining to correlate p53 overexpression with gene mutation status.
  • Correct identification of EmGD will provide us an opportunity of early diagnosis and a potentially effective therapeutic modality to control ESC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrium / pathology. Genes, p53. Mutation. Precancerous Conditions / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18369088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23074
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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49. Abu J, Ireland D, Brown L: Adenosarcoma of an endometrial polyp in a 27-year-old nulligravida: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2007 Apr;52(4):326-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial adenosarcoma is a rare tumor first described by Clement and Scully in 1974.
  • It consists of benign or atypical neoplastic glands within a sarcomatous stroma and represents approximately 8% of all uterine sarcomas.
  • On examination, tissue protruding from the external cervical os is a common finding, with a smaller number of patients having an enlarged uterus or palpable pelvic mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Fertility / physiology. Polyps / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17506376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Mills AM, Longacre TA: Smooth Muscle Tumors of the Female Genital Tract. Surg Pathol Clin; 2009 Dec;2(4):625-77
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  • [Title] Smooth Muscle Tumors of the Female Genital Tract.
  • Smooth muscle tumors are the most common among mesenchymal tumors in the female genital tract.
  • The vast majority of these neoplasms are clinically benign and easy to diagnose.
  • In contrast, leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumors that may pose considerable diagnostic problems when they display unusual (myxoid or epithelioid) morphology, ambiguous histologic features for malignancy, or an unusual anatomic distribution.
  • Diagnostic criteria for these problematic tumors vary depending on the site and type of histologic differentiation, and are based on a combination of 3 major criteria:.
  • (2) increased mitotic index; and (3) tumor cell necrosis.
  • Certain benign smooth muscle proliferations may show worrisome histologic features or unusual growth patterns, causing concern for leiomyosarcoma.
  • Furthermore, other tumors, including perivascular epithelioid tumors, may mimic leiomyosarcoma.
  • This article discusses conventional smooth muscle tumors as well as unusual subtypes, with emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and problems in differential diagnosis that arise at each site within the female genital tract.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26838774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical leiomyoma / Benign metastasizing leiomyoma / Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis / Female genital tract / Intravenous leiomyomatosis / Leiomyoma / Leiomyosarcoma / Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / Ovary / PEComa / STUMP / Uterus / Vagina / Vulva
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51. Ohmaru T, Yamakawa H, Netsu S, Nokubi M, Konno R: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):452-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with a fatal outcome.
  • PSTT limited to the uterus is in a good prognosis group, but PSTT with metastasis is a lethal disease.
  • The mitotic count of the tumor cells was quite high (23/10 high-power fields).
  • It would have been difficult to remove the tumor by surgery because of the tumor size and its invasion, so we suggested chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19856056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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52. Egberts JH, Schafmayer C, Bauerschlag DO, Jänig U, Tepel J: Benign abdominal and pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 Aug;274(5):319-22
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  • [Title] Benign abdominal and pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease in which the lung is described to be the most afflicted extrauterine organ.
  • METHODS: We report of a 42-year-old African woman with a BML in the abdomen and lung who had undergone a hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma 10 years ago.
  • She was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a huge tumor mass in the pelvis consisting of multiple nodules in the abdomen and left lung.
  • Assuming an advanced intraperitoneal malignancy was present, a 'palliative' limited tumor debulking and due to a tumor compressing the sigmoid a Hartmann's procedure was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The review of the literature supports the concept that the primary tumor of BML is located in the uterus and that leiomyomas in the uterus can metastasize leading via hematogenous spread to BML.
  • However, the origin of the tumor remains controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Leiomyoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Uterus / pathology. Uterus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16649038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Liu P, Chen CL, Zeng BL, Ma B, Zhang H, Qiu YX, Chen LT: [Study of the injury to the urinary system caused by radiological vascular interventional therapy of obstetrical and gynecological benign diseases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jan;41(1):25-9
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  • [Title] [Study of the injury to the urinary system caused by radiological vascular interventional therapy of obstetrical and gynecological benign diseases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the injuries to the urinary system caused by uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treatment of obstetrical and gynecological benign diseases, including the classification, aetiology, therapy of the injuries and precaution methods.
  • METHODS: The injuries of the urinary system were reviewed in 960 cases of obstetrical and gynecological benign diseases treated with UAE by our interventional centre.
  • The operation procedures of all five cases were bilateral uterine artery embolization, and none used microcatheter. (2) The ureter branch arising from the middle or lower part of the uterine artery supplied the middle or lower part of ureter and the length of this part of ureter is about 4 cm, the bladder branch arising from the middle or lower part of uterine artery supplied the bladder and communicated with the bladder vascular net.
  • Correlative injuries could be caused by the retroflow of embolisms into the above arteries. (3) Placement of the catheter into the upper branch of the uterine artery or the tumor vascular net, using microcatheter if necessary and notation of the retroflow in the embolization process could avoid the embolization of bladder and ureter arteries. (4) Totally 506 cases used microcatheter, the ratio was 52.7%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Injuries to the urinary system could occur in UAE for treatment of obstetrical and gynecological benign diseases, which can be prevented by carefully differentiating the vascular communicating branch and the conditions of branches, and embolization of the upper branch of uterine artery can avoid the injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / adverse effects. Genital Diseases, Female / therapy. Urinary Tract / injuries. Urologic Diseases / etiology. Uterus / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16635323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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54. Cobellis L, Pecori E, Rigatti F, Scaffa C, Rotondi M, Messalli EM: A rare case of female pelvic mass: angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(5):418-20
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  • Angioleiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of smooth muscle cells and thick-walled vessels.
  • Angioleiomyoma is a very rare tumor among the ever-expanding repertoire of growth variants described in benign uterine leiomyoma.
  • More rare is a solitary tumor of the broad ligament.
  • Thus angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament is an extremely rare benign tumor of the female pelvis.
  • The site of the benign mass was the left broad ligament of the uterus.
  • On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as angioleiomyoma.
  • We present a case of angioleiomyoma of the broad ligament because of its extreme rarity and the large size of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 17966227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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55. Nierth-Simpson EN, Martin MM, Chiang TC, Melnik LI, Rhodes LV, Muir SE, Burow ME, McLachlan JA: Human uterine smooth muscle and leiomyoma cells differ in their rapid 17beta-estradiol signaling: implications for proliferation. Endocrinology; 2009 May;150(5):2436-45
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  • [Title] Human uterine smooth muscle and leiomyoma cells differ in their rapid 17beta-estradiol signaling: implications for proliferation.
  • Uterine leiomyomas, benign uterine smooth muscle tumors that affect 30% of reproductive-aged women, are a significant health concern.
  • The initiation event for these tumors is unclear, but 17beta-estradiol (E2) is an established promoter of leiomyoma growth.
  • Western blot analysis revealed that E2 rapidly increases levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) in both immortalized uterine smooth muscle (UtSM) and leiomyoma (UtLM) cell lines, but increases levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 only in UtLM cells.
  • We therefore propose a model whereby E2's rapid activation of PKC alpha and cAMP-PKA signaling plays a central role in the maintenance of a low proliferative index in normal uterine smooth muscle via its inhibition of the MAPK cascade and these pathways are altered in leiomyomas to promote MAPK activation and proliferation.

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  • (PMID = 19179429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK059389; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK059389
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671893
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56. van den Brink-Knol H, van Esch E: Spontaneous malignant mixed Müllerian tumor in a Wistar rat: a case report including immunohistochemistry. Vet Pathol; 2010 Nov;47(6):1105-10
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  • [Title] Spontaneous malignant mixed Müllerian tumor in a Wistar rat: a case report including immunohistochemistry.
  • This report presents a rare, spontaneous, heterologous, malignant mixed Müllerian tumor observed in a 98-week-old untreated Wistar rat.
  • At necropsy, the right uterine horn was dilated and contained a mass of approximately 10 × 15 mm.
  • Histopathologically the mass consisted of 2 parts with different morphologic characteristics, a polypoid mass protruding into the uterine lumen and a more solid part that replaced the adjacent uterine wall.
  • The solid part exhibited characteristics of a highly infiltrative adenocarcinoma, whereas the composition of the polypoid mass was heterogeneous, consisting of a variety of benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis further supported the diagnosis of malignant mixed Müllerian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / veterinary. Rats, Wistar. Uterine Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Laboratory / anatomy & histology. Female. Rats. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20587687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Lin CK, Chu TW, Yu MH: Painless ovarian torsion mimicking a uterine myoma. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Dec;45(4):340-2
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  • [Title] Painless ovarian torsion mimicking a uterine myoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Uterine myoma is the most common benign solid pelvic tumor seen in women and is easily demonstrated by pelvic ultrasonography.
  • We herein present an unusual case of painless ovarian torsion similar to a subserous uterine myoma.
  • Ultrasound revealed a well-defined, heterogeneous solid mass with echogenic rim that resembled a uterine myoma, 10.9 x 9.9 x 7.3 cm in size, just upon the uterus.
  • Although there may be no specific indication, the diagnosis of ovarian torsion should be considered on finding a pelvic mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Torsion Abnormality / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17175495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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58. Poujade O, Genin AS, Dhouha M, Luton D: A benign metastasizing leiomyoma involving a nodule in the pulmonary artery: case and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(3):329-32
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  • [Title] A benign metastasizing leiomyoma involving a nodule in the pulmonary artery: case and literature review.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease defined as a primary benign uterine tumor with "metastatic" lesions preferentially occurring in the lung, pelvis and lymph nodes.
  • A 55-year-old woman complaining of abdominal discomfort, heaviness and asthenia was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a voluminous uterine mass with high vascularization and three pulmonary nodules.
  • The resection of the mass by laparotomy was complicated by uncontrolled severe hemorrhage due to vascular proliferation, requiring multiple transfusions, packing the cavity and postoperative uterine artery embolization.
  • The comparison of hysterectomy and lobectomy pieces showed a similar aspect, leading thus to the diagnosis of BML.
  • Awareness of this rare entity should potentially avoid under-diagnosis and difficulties due to hemorrhage during surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pulmonary Artery / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21077481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Solomon LA, Schimp VL, Ali-Fehmi R, Diamond MP, Munkarah AR: Clinical update of smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2005 Sep-Oct;12(5):401-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical update of smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
  • Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus represent a spectrum of diseases that range from benign leiomyoma to malignant leiomyosarcoma.
  • The leiomyoma is the most common of these neoplasms.
  • Clinically, it is important to fully understand the differences in clinical presentation, biologic behavior, and management for patients with benign leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential, and leiomyosarcoma.
  • The goal of this review is to present the most recent information about common smooth muscle tumors of the uterus including their etiology, histopathology, radiographic and clinical presentations, and available treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Smooth Muscle Tumor / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16213425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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60. Horn LC, Dallacker M, Bilek K: [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):292-301
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  • [Title] [Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) of the uterus. Morphology, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors].
  • [Transliterated title] Karzinosarkome (maligne Müller-Mischtumoren) des Uterus. Morphologie, molekulare Pathogenese und morphologische Prognosefaktoren.
  • Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT; carcinosarcomas) are rare epithelial-mesenchymal tumors.
  • Clinical, morphologic and molecular data suggest that MMMTs are really metaplastic carcinomas in which the mesenchymal part retains epithelial features.
  • The strongest prognostic factor is tumor stage followed by lymph node metastases, deep myometrial infiltration, involvement of the cervix and tumor size.
  • The main differential diagnoses include uterine sarcomas, adenosarcoma and benign metaplastic change within the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19495763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Mohr U, Ernst H, Roller M, Pott F: Pulmonary tumor types induced in Wistar rats of the so-called "19-dust study". Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2006 Aug;58(1):13-20
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  • [Title] Pulmonary tumor types induced in Wistar rats of the so-called "19-dust study".
  • The incidences of primary lung tumor types histologically diagnosed in 28 groups of Wistar rats of the so-called "19-dust study" are described, the total study having been already presented by Pott and Roller (Carcinogenicity study with nineteen granular dusts in rats.
  • Each exposed group was repeatedly instilled intratracheally with a suspension of one type and dose of 13 non-mining dusts differing in at least one of the following properties: chemical composition, density, specific surface area, and mean particle size.
  • In 579 (58%) lungs of 1002 rats which survived more than 26 weeks after the first instillation of GBP, at least one primary lung tumor type was observed, and in 306 (31%) at least two types.
  • Three benign tumor types were diagnosed in the 579 tumor-bearing rats: bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma in 46%, cystic keratinizing epithelioma in 53%, and non-keratinizing epithelioma in 2.6% of the rats.
  • Two of three malignant tumor types (bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) occurred in 46% and 31% of the tumor-bearing rats, respectively, and adenosquamous carcinoma was diagnosed in 0.9%.
  • Numerous lungs with a malignant tumor also showed one or more benign tumor types.
  • In addition, single or multiple metastases from primary tumors of other sites (mainly carcinoma of the uterus) were diagnosed in 14% of the 1002 lungs.
  • The proportionate incidences of the four predominantly diagnosed tumor types were compared with three summarized experimental groups which were exposed either to carbon black (two size classes), to titanium dioxide (two size classes), or to the total of the other nine GBP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemically induced. Air Pollutants / toxicity. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Dust. Lung Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • [CommentIn] Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Aug;58(6):407; author reply 409 [17560773.001]
  • (PMID = 16806863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Aluminum Silicates; 0 / Dust; 15FIX9V2JP / titanium dioxide; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; D1JT611TNE / Titanium; LMI26O6933 / Aluminum Oxide
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62. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • p16 is a cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor that is expressed in a limited range of normal tissues and tumors.
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Some uterine serous carcinomas are diffusely positive.
  • In the vulva, p16 is positive in HPV-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) but negative in VIN not associated with HPV.
  • Similarly, HPV-associated invasive squamous carcinomas are p16-positive, whereas the more common non-HPV-associated neoplasms are largely negative or focally positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Some ovarian serous carcinomas, similar to their uterine counterparts, are p16-positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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63. Luo X, Chegini N: The expression and potential regulatory function of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma. Semin Reprod Med; 2008 Nov;26(6):500-14
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  • Leiomyomas are benign uterine tumors considered to arise from transformation of myometrial cells.

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  • (PMID = 18951332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4564
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD037432-08; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037432; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD37432; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD037432-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 117
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS121237; NLM/ PMC2710997
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64. Danielson LS, Menendez S, Attolini CS, Guijarro MV, Bisogna M, Wei J, Socci ND, Levine DA, Michor F, Hernando E: A differentiation-based microRNA signature identifies leiomyosarcoma as a mesenchymal stem cell-related malignancy. Am J Pathol; 2010 Aug;177(2):908-17
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  • Smooth muscle (SM) is a spontaneously contractile tissue that provides physical support and function to organs such as the uterus.
  • Uterine smooth muscle-related neoplasia comprise common well-differentiated benign lesions called leiomyomas (ULM), and rare, highly aggressive and pleomorphic tumors named leiomyosarcomas (ULMS).
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in normal cellular development and tissue homeostasis that can be used to accurately subclassify different tumor types.
  • Moreover, we show that this signature, along with miRNA profiles for ULMS and ULM, are able to subclassify tumors of smooth muscle origin along SM differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 20558575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138234; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025741; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA138234
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913343
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65. Scheurig C, Islam T, Zimmermann E, Hamm B, Kroencke TJ: Uterine artery embolization in patients with symptomatic diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2008 Feb;19(2 Pt 1):279-84
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  • [Title] Uterine artery embolization in patients with symptomatic diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus.
  • Six patients with symptomatic diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis underwent technically successful uterine artery embolization.
  • After a median follow-up of 16 months, five women presented with permanent alleviation of symptoms and a normalized quality of life according to the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire.
  • Failure of therapy occurred in one patient with atypical growth of fibroid tumor tissue shortly after embolization, which was suspicious for malignancy.
  • Hysterectomy was performed and pathologic evaluation revealed benign leiomyomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Leiomyomatosis / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Uterus / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 18341962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Tomsová M, Pohnĕtalová D, Spacek J: [Rare tumours of myometrium--intravenous leiomyomatosis and benign metastatic leiomyoma]. Ceska Gynekol; 2007 Apr;72(2):136-9
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  • [Title] [Rare tumours of myometrium--intravenous leiomyomatosis and benign metastatic leiomyoma].
  • Leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms of the myometrium.
  • We present a case of intravenous leiomyomatosis in a 52-year-old woman and a case of benign metastasizing leiomyoma in a 45-year-old woman.
  • Intravenous leiomyomatosis is an uncommon condition in which morphologically benign smooth muscle is present within the lumina of the veins.
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma is a very rare phenomenon where histologically benign smooth muscle tumours are present at distant sites, particularly in the lungs, in women having histologically benign uterine leiomyoma.


67. Teppone M, Avakyan R: Extremely high-frequency therapy in oncology. J Altern Complement Med; 2010 Nov;16(11):1211-6
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  • METHOD: At the early stage of these studies, efficacy and safety of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (extremely high frequency [EHF]) was proved for various types of malignant tumors.
  • The majority of the further studies demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation in treating patients suffering from both benign and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: Developments led to treatment on skin melanoma, cancer of the ear-nose-throat, bowel and breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, lung, and stomach, solid tumors, as well as lymphoma.
  • (3) prevention of metastases, relapses, and dissemination of the tumor;.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20973733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7708
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Altern Complement Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Yeh SY, Chao TK: Leiomyoma of the external auditory canal--a case report and brief review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 May;262(5):397-9
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  • Leiomyoma usually originates from the uterus and alimentary tract, but rarely from the soft tissue of the head and neck.
  • Tumor excision was successful via a retroauricular approach.
  • The tumor occurs mainly in adult males aged around 50 and should be included in the differential diagnoses for external auditory canal tumor.
  • In case of an external auditory canal tumor, even if it is believed to be benign before surgery, precise pathologic examination is required to exclude the possibility of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Canal / surgery. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Audiometry, Pure-Tone. Diagnosis, Differential. Hearing Loss, Conductive / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Otologic Surgical Procedures. Otoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15368068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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69. Kitajima K, Murakami K, Kaji Y, Sugimura K: Spectrum of FDG PET/CT findings of uterine tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Sep;195(3):737-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of FDG PET/CT findings of uterine tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review FDG PET/CT and MRI findings in a variety of benign and malignant tumors of the uterus and to become familiar with the wide variety of FDG PET/CT findings of this entity.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign uterine tumors generally have mild FDG uptake, and leiomyoma rarely shows high uptake.
  • Uterine malignant tumors generally have intense FDG uptake, whereas malignant uterine tumors that are small or that have low cellular density often show minimal uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Neoplasms / radiography. Uterine Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Neoplasms / radiography. Endometrial Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Leiomyoma / radiography. Leiomyoma / radionuclide imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Precancerous Conditions / radiography. Precancerous Conditions / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoma / radiography. Sarcoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20729454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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70. Tahlan A, Nanda A, Mohan H: Uterine adenomyoma: a clinicopathologic review of 26 cases and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):361-5
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  • [Title] Uterine adenomyoma: a clinicopathologic review of 26 cases and a review of the literature.
  • The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of diagnosing uterine adenomyoma and help in differentiating it from other sinister lesions.
  • Adenomyoma of the uterus is a circumscribed nodular aggregate of benign endometrial glands surrounded by endometrial stroma with leiomyomatous smooth muscle bordering the endometrial stromal component.
  • A retrospective analysis of 26 consecutive cases of uterine adenomyomas diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Chandigarh from January 1994 to December 2004 was done, and their clinical and histological features were analyzed.
  • The criterion used for case identification was a circumscribed mass composed of benign endometrial glands with a stromal component consisting of endometrial type stroma surrounded by leiomyomatous smooth muscle.
  • Thirteen patients underwent panhysterectomy; 7, total hysterectomy; 1, subtotal hysterectomy; 4, polypectomy or tumor removal; and 1, curettage.
  • Five tumors showed cystic spaces filled with dark brown material.
  • On microscopic examination, the tumors were well demarcated from the surrounding structures.
  • The glands were lined by benign proliferative pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
  • This study highlights the importance of correctly identifying this fairly common entity and helps to distinguish adenomyoma from other similar appearing benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma. Uterine Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16990713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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71. Bagga R, Keepanasseril A, Srinivasan R, Dey P, Gainder S, Saha SC, Dhaliwal LK, Patel F: Adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix with heterologous elements: a case report and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):669-75
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  • [Title] Adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix with heterologous elements: a case report and review of literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adenosarcoma of the uterus is a rare tumor composed of benign epithelial and malignant stromal components, usually encountered in young women.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe a case of mullerian adenosarcoma with heterologous elements of rhabdomyosarcoma and benign cartilage presenting as a cervical polyp in a young girl.
  • CONCLUSION: Cervical adenosarcomas are rare tumors that may appear in reproductive age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosarcoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


72. Fasih N, Prasad Shanbhogue AK, Macdonald DB, Fraser-Hill MA, Papadatos D, Kielar AZ, Doherty GP, Walsh C, McInnes M, Atri M: Leiomyomas beyond the uterus: unusual locations, rare manifestations. Radiographics; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(7):1931-48
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  • [Title] Leiomyomas beyond the uterus: unusual locations, rare manifestations.
  • Uterine leiomyomas affect 20%-30% of women older than 35 years.
  • Extrauterine leiomyomas are rarer, and they present a greater diagnostic challenge: These histologically benign tumors, which originate from smooth muscle cells, usually arise in the genitourinary tract (in the vulva, ovaries, urethra, and urinary bladder) but may arise in nearly any anatomic site.
  • In addition, unusual growth patterns may be seen, including benign metastasizing leiomyoma, disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, intravenous leiomyomatosis, parasitic leiomyoma, and retroperitoneal growth.
  • In the presence of such a pattern, a synchronous uterine leiomyoma or a previous hysterectomy for removal of a primary uterine tumor may be indicative of the diagnosis.
  • The superb contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities of MR imaging make it particularly valuable for characterizing these tumors, which usually show low signal intensity similar to that of smooth muscle on T2-weighted images.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19001649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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73. Sieunarine K, Cowie AS, Bartlett JD, Lindsay I, Smith JR: A novel approach in the management of a recurrent adenomatoid tumor of the uterus utilizing a Strassman technique. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Jul-Aug;15(4):671-5
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  • [Title] A novel approach in the management of a recurrent adenomatoid tumor of the uterus utilizing a Strassman technique.
  • Adenomatoid tumors of the uterus are uncommon benign lesions derived from mesothelium, with a prevalence of 1.2% in one study of 1 000 unselected hysterectomy specimens.
  • They are usually small and near the serosal surface; however, they may be large and diffuse (giant adenomatoid tumors).
  • This transpired to be an adenomatoid tumor, and she underwent three transcervical resections of the tumor (TCRT) over a period of 12 months for tumor recurrence and failure of symptom resolution.
  • The last TCRT was performed with ultrasound guidance and laparoscopic visualization of the uterus to the resection point of blanching of the serosal surface.
  • A specialist opinion on the suitability of vascular embolization of the tumor judged that it would be ineffective for this lesion.
  • She then underwent a Strassman procedure and removal of the adenomatoid tumor.
  • This involved dissection of ureters and pelvic vasculature, selective temporary ligation of uterine arteries, hemisection of the uterus, and excision of the tumor with frozen sections to ensure clear tumor margins and resuturing of the uterine halves.
  • Temporary vascular occlusion of the uterine arteries and ovarian vessels allowed a Strassman procedure, which resulted in successful resection of a recurrent giant adenomatoid tumor of the uterus, with fertility preservation in a young nulliparous woman.
  • Two and a half years on there is no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery. Uterus / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16014122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Abike F, Temizkan O, Payasli A, Avsar F, Karahan N, Baspinar S: Postmenopausal complete hydatidiform mole: a case report. Maturitas; 2008 Jan 20;59(1):95-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a disease with a course of trophoblastic proliferation, and histologically classified as partial hydatidiform mole, complete mole, invasive and metastatic mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Ultrasound examination revealed enlargement of the uterus with endometrial thickness containing hypo/hyper echogeneous and cystic areas.
  • The resected uterus contained an endometrial, cystic, grapelike tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, our case is the fourth description in the world literature of a benign complete hydatidiform mole in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Although benign gestational trophoblastic disease generally occurs in women of reproductive age and is extremely rare in postmenopausal women, when evaluating patients who are in postmenopausal period the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole must always be considered.

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  • (PMID = 18162339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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75. Michy T, Choufi B, Le Bouëdec G, Dauplat J: [Polycythemia and fibromyoma. Case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Jul-Aug;34(7-8):622-4
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  • Leiomyoma of the uterus is a frequent benign tumor of non menopausal women.
  • The difficulty of diagnosis and the treatment are detailed.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / complications. Polycythemia / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16854610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
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76. Biermann K, Heukamp LC, Büttner R, Zhou H: Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor associated with metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):58-60
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  • [Title] Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor associated with metastasis.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCT) are very rare, usually benign uterine tumors, and are probably derived from uterine mesenchymal stem cells.
  • Four years after a diagnosis of UTROSCT of the uterine corpus, the patient developed obstructive ileus due to a large infiltrating tumor within the small bowel with the same morphology and expression pattern as the previously diagnosed UTROSCT.
  • In addition, 2 benign gastrointestinal stromal tumors were detected in the same patient.
  • This case indicates that although the majority of UTROSCT are benign tumors, some of them might undergo malignant transformation and have a metastatic potency.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Intestine, Small / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18156976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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77. Mangioni S, Viganò P, Lattuada D, Abbiati A, Vignali M, Di Blasio AM: Overexpression of the Wnt5b gene in leiomyoma cells: implications for a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the uterine benign tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5349-55
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  • [Title] Overexpression of the Wnt5b gene in leiomyoma cells: implications for a role of the Wnt signaling pathway in the uterine benign tumor.
  • CONTEXT: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors in the human female pelvis and the leading indication for pelvic surgery.
  • Treatment with 9-cis retinoic acid significantly inhibited Wnt5b expression in myometrial SMC but not in their leiomyoma counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15972578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human; 0 / WNT5B protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins
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78. Rizkalla HF, Higgins M, Kelehan P, O'Herlihy C: Pathological findings associated with the presence of a mirena intrauterine system at hysterectomy. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):74-8
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  • Thirty hysterectomy specimens contained benign leiomyomata with associated reduced reactivity in the uterine cavity and incomplete suppression of the endometrium.
  • In some cases (n = 10), the fibroids had displaced the IUS in the uterine cavity.
  • In addition to leiomyomas, 1 specimen had an atypical polypoid adenomyoma and 1 had a benign adenomatoid tumor.
  • Most women (86%) undergoing hysterectomy because of abnormal uterine bleeding with a Mirena IUS in situ had uterine abnormalities, as revealed by pathological review.
  • Although recent reports have indicated that the IUS can be used successfully in the treatment of menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids, most cases of hysterectomies in this series after failed IUS suppression of menorrhagia contained uterine fibroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Intrauterine Devices, Medicated. Levonorgestrel / therapeutic use. Menorrhagia / drug therapy. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Hyperplasia / complications. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Leiomyoma / complications. Leiomyoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


79. Zhang P, Zhang C, Hao J, Sung CJ, Quddus MR, Steinhoff MM, Lawrence WD: Use of X-chromosome inactivation pattern to determine the clonal origins of uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1350-6
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  • [Title] Use of X-chromosome inactivation pattern to determine the clonal origins of uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • Uterine leiomyomas (LMs) and leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), both of smooth muscle origin, sometimes coexist in the same uterus.
  • Of the 24 patients with LM, 21 had multiple neoplasms; all were clonal and individual LMs derived from separate clones.
  • Of the 20 patients with LMS, 6 exhibited multiple tumors in the uterus, and 4 of these individuals also harbored coexisting uterine LMs.
  • Separate tumors showed identical pattern of X inactivation in 4 patients, and in 2 other individuals, multiple LMSs developed from independent clones.
  • In 2 of the 3 patients, the tumor also exhibited a morphological transition between benign cells in LM and malignant cells in LMS, supporting the possibility of transformation from LM to LMS.
  • (iv) most LMSs are solitary lesions and are most likely de novo, but an individual LM may undergo "malignant transformation" to a LMS; and (v) some LMSs and coexisting LMs are of independent origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X. Leiomyoma / genetics. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. X Chromosome Inactivation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Androgen / genetics


80. Mesquita FS, Dyer SN, Heinrich DA, Bulun SE, Marsh EE, Nowak RA: Reactive oxygen species mediate mitogenic growth factor signaling pathways in human leiomyoma smooth muscle cells. Biol Reprod; 2010 Feb;82(2):341-51
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  • Uterine leiomyomas are benign uterine tumors characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling, increased collagen deposition, and increased smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation.
  • The necessity of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS for EGF and PDGF signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation points to another potential therapeutic target for treatment and/or prevention of uterine leiomyomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Leiomyoma / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / pharmacology. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA / biosynthesis. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Muscle, Smooth / metabolism. NADPH Oxidase / antagonists & inhibitors


81. Rakhshani N, Hormazdi M, Abolhasani M, Shahzadi M: Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus. Arch Iran Med; 2007 Jan;10(1):97-9
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  • [Title] Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus.
  • Herein, we report on a well-characterized benign metastasizing leiomyoma, presented in an unusual site.
  • Up to the knowledge of authors, so far, only 76 cases of benign metastasizing leiomyoma have been reported.
  • The tumor presented as a retroperitoneal mass three years after a hysterectomy Performed for leiomyomatosis of the uterus with extensive areas of hyalinization.
  • Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of the resected mass were similar to the uterine leiomyoma, showing moderate cellularity of bland looking smooth muscle cells with minimal atypia, inconspicuous mitosis, and no necrosis in a hyalinized background.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Laparotomy. Middle Aged. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17198463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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82. Gurbuz A, Karateke A, Kabaca C, Arik H, Bilgic R: A case of cotyledonoid leiomyoma and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1218-21
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  • We report a case of a rare, unusual benign tumor, the cotyledonoid leiomyoma or Sternberg tumor, detected incidentally in a 67-year-old woman who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of a persisting left ovarian cyst of 5 cm.
  • At laparotomy, it was detected that a deep red nodular papillary tumor had been dissecting the posterior leaf of the left broad ligament, projecting into the abdominal cavity just near the left cornu of the uterus, and extending in downward direction.
  • The remaining portion was lying between the layers of the left broad ligament and arose from the subserosa of the left side of the uterine isthmus.
  • Although the bizarre and unusual shape was in favor of malignity, the frozen-section examination revealed a benign histology.
  • Although the cotyledonoid leiomyoma is a benign entity, it may suggest a malignant disease owing to its unusual sarcomatoid appearance and its rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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83. Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW: Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1558-75
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature.
  • This family of tumors includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell sugar tumor of the lung (CCST), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and very rare tumors in other locations.
  • Because non-AML/non-LAM PEComas are extremely rare and their natural history and prognostic features undefined, we present our experience with 26 PEComas of soft tissue and the gynecologic tract, the largest series to date.
  • Sites of involvement included the omentum or mesentery (6 cases), uterus (4 cases), pelvic soft tissues (3 cases), abdominal wall (2 cases), uterine cervix (2 cases), and vagina, retroperitoneum, thigh, falciform ligament, scalp, broad ligament, forearm, shoulder, and neck (1 case each).
  • The tumors ranged from 1.6 to 29 cm in size (median, 7.8 cm).
  • Tumors were epithelioid (N = 9), spindled (N = 7), or mixed (N = 10).
  • Recurrence and/or metastasis was strongly associated tumor size > median size (8 cm), mitotic activity greater than 1/50 HPF, and necrosis.
  • We conclude that PEComas of soft tissue and gynecologic origin may be classified as "benign," "of uncertain malignant potential," or "malignant."
  • Small PEComas without any worrisome histologic features are most likely benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 16327428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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84. Varazashvili Varazi LM, Osmanova VR, Barkadze KI: [Study of serum levels of magnesium in the patients with malignant tumors]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jul;(136):35-9
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  • [Title] [Study of serum levels of magnesium in the patients with malignant tumors].
  • The main goal of the study was the evaluation of serum levels of magnesium in the practically healthy persons (control group), the patients with different malignant tumors (abdominal, pulmonary, uterus, breast, esophagus, rectum), as well as benign tumors of the breast/the uterus and the inflammatory pulmonary diseases.
  • It has been found that, in comparison with norm (23.9 mkg/ml), there is statistically significant increase in serum mean levels of Mg in the patients with malignant tumors of almost all sites investigated.
  • Abdominal/breast and lung malignant tumors are exclusive from this point of view: we have found that Mg content is near the normal mean levels in the former cases (24.7 mkg/ml and 25.3 mkg/ml, respectively) and below the average normal value in lung malignant tumors (20.5 mkg/ml).
  • It has been ascertained that there is no significant difference between the serum average levels of Mg in the control group and in the patients with pulmonary inflammatory diseases, as well as between the Mg-content in practically health persons and in those with breast benign tumors.
  • Thus, assessment of serum Mg levels seems to be useful in differential diagnosis in oncopulmonary and oncomammology clinics.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Magnesium / blood. Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16905841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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85. Coskun A, Ozdemir O, Vardar MA, Kiran G, Arikan D, Ersoz C: A case with diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2008;35(3):227-30
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  • [Title] A case with diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis and review of the literature.
  • Leiomyomas and diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis are smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
  • Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis is a benign and extremely rare condition in which the uterus is symmetrically enlarged as a result of the almost complete replacement of the myometrium by innumerable poorly defined, confluent nodules.
  • The etiology of these neoplasms is not completely understood.
  • Initial symptoms of the diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis usually are abdominal pain and abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • Similar to uterine leiomyomas, patients with leiomyomatosis present with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain, infertility, and pelvic pressure.
  • Hormonal treatment usually fails to control the symptoms, anemia, or tumor growth after treatment is stopped.
  • As a result, despite patients being in the third or fourth decades of life, hysterectomy has been the only permanent treatment option offered to patients for treatment of the symptoms related to uterine fibroids in diffuse leiomyomatosis.
  • A case of a patient with a huge uterine mass (2,650 g in weight) who underwent hysterectomy due to diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis is presented together with a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyomatosis / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18754301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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86. Toledo G, Oliva E: Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a practical approach. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Apr;132(4):595-605
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  • [Title] Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a practical approach.
  • Smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the uterus.
  • The majority of the uterine SMTs are readily classificable as benign or malignant based on their gross and microscopic appearances.
  • However, when unusual features are seen in some leiomyoma variants, the differential diagnosis with a leiomyosarcoma may become challenging.
  • Finally, non-smooth muscle tumors that originate in the uterus may show overlapping histologic and even immunohistochemical features with uterine SMTs, more commonly with the spindle and epithelioid variants, complicating their correct classification.
  • The diagnosis of malignant uterine SMTs has important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • This review provides a practical approach to the diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma based on a systematic assessment of histologic parameters as well as a systematic approach to its differential diagnosis based on histologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Pathology / education. Smooth Muscle Tumor / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Mitotic Index. Necrosis

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Nov;132(11):1714 [18976002.001]
  • (PMID = 18384211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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87. Stübinger SH, van der Horst Ch, Braun PM: [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):395-8
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  • [Title] [Pelvic tumors in the eyes of urologists].
  • [Transliterated title] Raumforderungen im kleinen Becken aus Sicht des Urologen.
  • Pelvic tumors originating from outside the urinary tract commonly invade the urogenital organs by direct extension mainly because of the close relationships between the pelvic organs.
  • Benign tumors such as endometrial myoma, ovarian cyst and adenoma of the colon might lead to the development of urogenital symptoms.
  • This is also the case with malignant tumors of the uterus, ovaries, cervix and colon where infiltration of the urogenital organs might be noted.
  • These are the symptoms that lead to the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • It has to be kept in mind that urogenital tumors with such symptoms have to be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • The possibility of eradicating the tumor is then to be discussed after relieving the obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Neoplasms. Prostatic Hyperplasia. Prostatic Neoplasms. Urethral Neoplasms. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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88. Yilmaz N, Sahin I, Kilic S, Ozgu E, Gungor T, Bilge U: Assessment of the predictivity of preoperative serum CA 125 in the differential diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma and uterine sarcoma in the Turkish female population. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(4):412-4
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  • [Title] Assessment of the predictivity of preoperative serum CA 125 in the differential diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma and uterine sarcoma in the Turkish female population.
  • AIMS: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the uterus.
  • Our aim was to study the preoperative diagnostic value of CA 125 in the differential diagnosis of leiomyoma and uterine sarcoma.
  • METHODS: The subjects of the study included a total of 2,382 patients aged between 20-71 years operated for uterine myoma between the years 2005 and 2008 at our hospital, and in the same period 26 patients diagnosed with uterine sarcoma who were assessed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Assessment of the predictivity of CA 125 values in the preoperative diagnosis of uterine sarcoma showed it was not significant according to the 95% CI related to the area below the curve.
  • The assessment of CA 125 values in the uterine sarcoma group showed that those with carcinosarcoma had higher CA 125 mean values than other sarcoma groups.
  • CONCLUSION: We concluded that in the differential diagnosis of myoma and uterine sarcoma, the preoperative serum CA 125 level did not have any predictivity.
  • Additionally, there was no association between staging and CA 125 in uterine sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult


89. Junaid I, Paz R, Salihu HM, Sharma PP, Aliyu ZY: Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 Feb;273(5):315-8
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  • [Title] Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Meig's and Pseudo-Meig's syndromes have been reported in association with several malignancies but the concomitant existence of multiple synchronous benign and malignant tumors in association with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome has not been reported in the published literature.
  • Histological examination confirmed a right ovarian carcinoid tumor embedded within a mature cystic teratoma while the left ovary, fallopian tube and the uterus contained a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case report of Pseudo-Meig's syndrome in association with ovarian carcinoid tumor and multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Meigs Syndrome / complications. Pelvic Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Asthma / complications. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / complications. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Hydrothorax / complications. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16136360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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90. Idrees MT, Deligdisch L, Altchek A: Squamous papilloma with hyperpigmentation in the skin graft of the neovagina in Rokitansky syndrome: literature review of benign and malignant lesions of the neovagina. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Oct;22(5):e148-55
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  • [Title] Squamous papilloma with hyperpigmentation in the skin graft of the neovagina in Rokitansky syndrome: literature review of benign and malignant lesions of the neovagina.
  • BACKGROUND: It is rare for a benign or malignant neoplasm to develop in a neovagina.
  • The patient had congenital absence of the vagina and uterus (Rokitansky syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome, MRKH syndrome).
  • Despite the dark color of the vaginal lesion, bleeding and rapid appearance our patient had a benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Papilloma / pathology. Skin Transplantation / pathology. Surgically-Created Structures. Uterus / abnormalities. Vagina / abnormalities. Vagina / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hyperpigmentation. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Syndrome. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19616457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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91. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Ward JM, Powell DA, Diwan BA: Urogenital carcinogenesis in female CD1 mice induced by in utero arsenic exposure is exacerbated by postnatal diethylstilbestrol treatment. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1337-45
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  • Arsenic alone induced some urogenital system tumors, including mostly benign tumors of the ovary and uterus, and adrenal adenoma.
  • Diethylstilbestrol alone induced some tumors (primarily cervical) but when given after in utero arsenic, it greatly enhanced urogenital tumor incidence, multiplicity, and progression.
  • For instance, compared with the incidence of urogenital malignancies in the control (0%), arsenic alone (9%), and diethylstilbestrol alone (21%) groups, arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol acted synergistically, inducing a 48% incidence of malignant urogenital tumors.
  • Of the urogenital tumors induced by arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol, 80% were malignant, and 55% were multiple site.
  • Arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol increased ovarian, uterine, and vaginal tumors, and urinary bladder proliferative lesions, including three transitional cell carcinomas.
  • Tamoxifen alone did not increase urogenital tumors or affect arsenic-induced neoplasia but did increase arsenic-induced uroepithelial proliferative lesions.
  • Uterine and bladder carcinoma induced by arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol greatly overexpressed estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and pS2, an estrogen-regulated gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenic / toxicity. Diethylstilbestrol / toxicity. Genital Neoplasms, Female / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Drinking / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / biosynthesis. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Female. Gene Expression / drug effects. Maternal-Fetal Exchange. Mice. Pregnancy. Tamoxifen / toxicity. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / metabolism. Uterus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16452187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01 CO 12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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92. Gurates B, Parmaksiz C, Kilic G, Celik H, Kumru S, Simsek M: Treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma with letrozole. Reprod Biomed Online; 2008 Oct;17(4):569-74
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  • [Title] Treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma with letrozole.
  • Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumours of the female genital tract, often necessitating hysterectomy.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor letrozole on uterine leiomyomas and on bone metabolism.
  • Sixteen premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas were treated with letrozole 5 mg/day orally for 3 months.
  • The main outcome measures of uterine and uterine leiomyoma sizes, serum FSH, LH, oestradiol concentrations, ovarian volumes and myoma-related symptoms were noted at baselines and once a month during treatment.
  • Letrozole significantly decreased uterine leiomyoma sizes (P < 0.01) and promptly benefited women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with leiomyomas without changing bone mineral density.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyoma / drug therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Bone Density / drug effects. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Organ Size / drug effects. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / pathology. Pilot Projects. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18854113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6491
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biomedicine online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biomed. Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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93. Kalidindi M, Odejinmi F: Laparoscopic excision of uterine adenomatoid tumour: two cases and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Feb;281(2):311-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic excision of uterine adenomatoid tumour: two cases and literature review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adenomatoid tumours are rare, benign neoplasms of the genital tract, occurring most commonly during the reproductive years.
  • In females, the uterus is the most common site.
  • These tumours can be associated with fibroids and tend to mimic them clinically and radiologically, making pre-operative diagnosis very difficult.
  • We report two cases of uterine adenomatoid tumours that were excised laparoscopically.
  • Intraoperatively, there was no clear line of demarcation between the uterus and the tumours and laparoscopic manipulation of the tumours was difficult due to their friable nature.
  • Simple excision with uterine conservation is the treatment of choice, especially in women who desire future fertility, as degeneration, recurrence, malignant transformation or metastasis has not been reported.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenomatoid tumours should always be included in the differential diagnosis along with adenomyosis and post-GnRH analogue treatment changes, when difficulty is encountered in identification of operative planes during a routine laparoscopic myomectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19434414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. Skubitz KM, Manivel JC: Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:46
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor.
  • The etiology of GCT is unknown, however the tumor cells of GCT have been reported to produce chemoattractants that can attract osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an aggressive GCT of the uterus with rapidly growing lung metastases, and its response to chemotherapy with pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and bevacizumab, along with a review of the literature.
  • CONCLUSION: Aggressive metastasizing GCT may arise in the uterus, and may respond to combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumors / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17359524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 57
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1832205
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96. Singh R, Shameema S, Vijaya K, Kumar P: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus with sarcomatous overgrowth. Clin Med Insights Case Rep; 2010;3:27-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus with sarcomatous overgrowth.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mullerian adenosarcoma is an uncommon variant of mixed mesodermal tumour of the uterus.
  • Following a preliminary histologic diagnosis of poorly differentiated sarcoma on the biopsy; the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy.
  • RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination of the polypoid mass revealed a tumour comprising of an admixture of benign endometrial glandular component with overgrowth of sarcomatous stromal component and heterologous elements.
  • This may pose a problem in diagnosis due to its rarity, and hence its distinctive morphological features merit attention as described here.
  • In view of the rarity of this tumor, it is mandatory to do extensive histologic sampling to identify areas of sarcomatous overgrowth before arriving at a diagnosis of mullerian adenosarcoma as the clinical course and management vary.

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  • (PMID = 21769251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-5476
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine insights. Case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Insights Case Rep
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3046009
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adenosarcoma / heterologous elements / uterus
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97. Koyama T, Togashi K: Functional MR imaging of the female pelvis. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Jun;25(6):1101-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cine MRI is a useful tool for evaluating uterine contractility, including sustained contraction and peristalsis, in a variety of conditions and gynecologic disorders, and for evaluating pelvic-floor weakness.
  • It also enables the quantitative evaluation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which may be useful for distinguishing malignant from benign tissues and monitoring therapeutic outcome.
  • DCE-MRI has the potential to improve tumor detection and local staging, and can also provide quantitative information about perfusion of the tumor, which may be useful for both monitoring therapeutic effects and predicting therapeutic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pelvis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Uterine Contraction / physiology. Uterus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17520731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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98. Erdem S, Iskender C, Avsar AF, Altundag OB, Ustunyurt E: Benign cystic lymphangioma presenting as a pelvic mass. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Dec;32(6):628-30
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  • [Title] Benign cystic lymphangioma presenting as a pelvic mass.
  • We report a case of a 48-year-old woman with a complaint of chronic pelvic pain with a pelvic mass not related with uterus or adnexes.
  • Preoperative ultrasonography or contrast enhanced computed tomography did not give accurate information on the origin of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangioma, Cystic / complications. Pelvic Neoplasms / complications. Pelvic Pain / etiology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17100830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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99. Deen S, Duncan TJ, Hammond RH: Malignant female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):383-6
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  • [Title] Malignant female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin.
  • Female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin are rare.
  • Although the histological features of the benign tumors are recognized, features of malignancy are not well defined in published work because these tumors are particularly rare.
  • A pelvic transvaginal ultrasound scan demonstrated a midline, highly vascular, predominantly solid pelvic mass, approximately 14 cm, posterior to the uterus.
  • Immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin.
  • There was significant and widespread nuclear pleomorphism with increased mitotic activity endorsing the diagnosis of a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17885487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Ishimori T, Patel PV, Wahl RL: Detection of unexpected additional primary malignancies with PET/CT. J Nucl Med; 2005 May;46(5):752-7
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  • This study evaluated the yield of whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of unexpected (18)F-FDG-avid additional primary malignant tumors in patients being evaluated by PET/CT for known or suspected malignances.
  • The sites of known or suspected primary tumors included lung (28.6%), colon or rectum (12.4%), head or neck (12.1%), lymph nodes (10.9%), breast (7.6%), gynecologic organs (7.1%), genitourinary organs (4.2%), esophagus (3.6%), skin (melanoma) (3.5%), pancreas (2.5%), bone or soft tissue (2.2%), and other sites (5.4%).
  • Lesions that were newly discovered on PET/CT, had not been previously detected by other modalities, and were atypical in location for metastases on the PET/CT study were interpreted as suggestive of a new primary malignant tumor.
  • These abnormalities were compared with the final diagnosis obtained from the medical records, including pathologic reports.
  • RESULTS: PET-positive lesions suggestive of new primary malignant tumors were found in 79 (4.1%) of 1,912 patients.
  • False-positive sites included thyroid (5 lesions), uterus (2 lesions), head and neck other than thyroid (2 lesions), and lung (1 lesion).
  • In 8 patients, the PET-positive lesions were considered benign after clinical follow-up of at least 8 mo.
  • In 39 patients, the follow-up record was not yet available and the final diagnosis of the detected lesion has not yet been resolved.
  • CONCLUSION: Whole-body PET/CT detected new, unexpected (18)F-FDG-avid primary malignant tumors in at least 1.2% of patients with cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data. Whole-Body Counting / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15872346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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